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Honors Theses

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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The Synthesis Of A Mepeg-Based Hydroxide Conducting Electrolyte And The Optimization Of The Mepeg-Tosylation Reaction, Andrew Ladner May 2020

The Synthesis Of A Mepeg-Based Hydroxide Conducting Electrolyte And The Optimization Of The Mepeg-Tosylation Reaction, Andrew Ladner

Honors Theses

As society is becoming increasingly aware of the effects of climate change and the ever-looming threat of a fuel shortage, exploring green and renewable alternative energy production, such as fuel cells, is paramount. This project investigates the synthesis of a polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether (MePEGn) based polymer as well as the optimization of the MePEG Tosylation reaction. The MePEG explored contains seven polymerized ethoxy groups (MePEG7). The MePEG7 polymer was modified by substituting a positively-charged trimethylamine group in the place of the alcohol functional group at the end of the PEG chain. The reason for this substitution ...


Isolation, Identification, And Investigation Of A Novel Bioactive Furanocoumarin From Leaves Of Amyris Elemifera, Amy K. Bracken May 2020

Isolation, Identification, And Investigation Of A Novel Bioactive Furanocoumarin From Leaves Of Amyris Elemifera, Amy K. Bracken

Honors Theses

Plants produce biologically active compounds that humans have utilized for many agricultural applications. Amyris elemifera was investigated due to the known bioactivity of its family, Rutaceae, and its use in medicines in tribes of the Bahamas. Biotage® and TLC guided fractionation of the EtOAc, hexane, and MeOH extracts of the leaves of Amyris elemifera yielded bioactive compounds. Most significantly, a novel furanocoumarin, 8-(3-methylbut-2-enyloxy)-marmesin acetate (1), and its analog 8-(3-methylbut-2-enyloxy)-marmesin (2), were isolated. The structures were identified via NMR and X-ray crystallography techniques; the X-ray crystal structure for 1 was reported for the first time, and the ...


Approaches Towards The Synthesis Of Ketamine Metabolites, Ann K. Patrick May 2020

Approaches Towards The Synthesis Of Ketamine Metabolites, Ann K. Patrick

Honors Theses

Major Depressive disorder (MDD) plagues society and stands at the forefront of research as MDD affects approximately 16% of the population. Pharmaceutical drugs, including the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), have been used for MDD treatment and remain a popular option today. However, current antidepressant treatments have proven to be ineffective in just less than half of the patients. Research continues with the goal to better understand the mechanisms of the pathology of depression and to search for other treatment options. For example, the stress-neurogenesis hypothesis investigates the role of stress and decreased neuroplasticity within MDD.

Supporting the stress-neurogenesis hypothesis ...


Detection And Characterization Of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol And Novel Synthetic Cannabinoid Metabolites Using Human Liver Microsomes, Seema Murugan May 2020

Detection And Characterization Of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol And Novel Synthetic Cannabinoid Metabolites Using Human Liver Microsomes, Seema Murugan

Honors Theses

Marijuana and synthetic cannabinoids are the most commonly used and trafficked illicit drug. ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the primary active compound in marijuana. Synthetic cannabinoids were created as a method to study the effects of cannabinoids on the endocannabinoid system, which consists of endogenous cannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors, and the synthetic and degrading enzymes responsible for the synthesis and degradation of endocannabinoids. Cannabinoids activate the same receptors as endocannabinoids. Synthetic cannabinoids gained popularity as recreational drugs due to their ability to avoid detection. Synthetic cannabinoids have been found to have a greater binding affinity to the cannabinoid CB1 receptor than ...


Heel Down And Toe-Off Time Measured With Ultrasonic Doppler System And Force Plate Sensor, Sabin Timsina May 2020

Heel Down And Toe-Off Time Measured With Ultrasonic Doppler System And Force Plate Sensor, Sabin Timsina

Honors Theses

Collie Box is a medical device that measures the gait parameters of the person walk- ing in front of it. This device uses the Ultrasonic Doppler system to extract the heel-contact and toe-off times of a person walking within the range of 2-10 meters. These times are used to determine the leg’s swing phase and double stance times. The ultrasonic transducer of 10mm diameter is driven at 40kHz. At the time of the heel-contact and toe-off, foot velocity is zero while the torso part of the human body is still in motion. The wide directivity of 10mm diameter ultrasonic ...


The Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Largazole: A Potential Chemotherapeutic Agent, Hannah Lynn Carson May 2020

The Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Largazole: A Potential Chemotherapeutic Agent, Hannah Lynn Carson

Honors Theses

Histone deacetylase enzymes are known for their inherent activity as epigenetic modifiers. Although, they have become recognized for their role in cancer progression and other diseases. But also, histone deacetylases have other non-histone targets, for example, microtubules, which play important roles in cancer metastasis, apoptosis, and replication. With histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), our research explored HDACi effects on breast cancer cell lines. The overall goal was to understand the potential of largazole, a class one histone deacetylase inhibitor on breast cancer cell lines. The research consisted of two parts: sulforhodamine B (SRB) viability assays under hypoxic and normoxic conditions. The ...


Study Of Pharmaceutical Tablets Using Raman Mapping, Kyle Joseph Pauly May 2020

Study Of Pharmaceutical Tablets Using Raman Mapping, Kyle Joseph Pauly

Honors Theses

Covalent bonds are the strongest type of bonds holding molecules together. Based on the pattern of bonding of the molecule, the atoms associated with the bond will vibrate at a specific frequency. Utilizing vibrational spectroscopy, such as Raman spectroscopy, these unique vibrational frequencies can be used to detect the presence of analytes over a selected area. Furthermore, the intensities of the vibrational modes can be tracked to comparatively quantify the concentration of analytes at various locations. This is a method of great importance due to its ability to compare pharmaceutical tablets synthesized with different techniques. Here, the presence and concentration ...


Investigatin Actin-Myosin Mechanics To Model Heart Disease Using Fluorescence Microscopy And Optical Trapping, Justin Edward Reynolds May 2020

Investigatin Actin-Myosin Mechanics To Model Heart Disease Using Fluorescence Microscopy And Optical Trapping, Justin Edward Reynolds

Honors Theses

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a hereditary disease in which the myocardium becomes hypertrophied, making it more difficult for the heart to pump blood. HCM is commonly caused by a mutation in the β-cardiac myosin II heavy chain. Myosin is a motor protein that facilitates muscle contraction by converting chemical energy from ATP hydrolysis into mechanical work and concomitantly moving along actin filaments. Optical tweezers have been used previously to analyze single myosin biophysical properties; however, myosin does not work as a single unit within the heart. Multiple myosin interacts to displace actin filaments and do not have the same properties ...


13c Nmr Substituent Effects On Para-Substituted Tolans: Using Deuteration To Assign 13c Signals In Methyltolan, Reece Crumpler May 2020

13c Nmr Substituent Effects On Para-Substituted Tolans: Using Deuteration To Assign 13c Signals In Methyltolan, Reece Crumpler

Honors Theses

Substituents are capable of affecting their molecules via induction, resonance, and field effects. Using the Hammett equation, the effect a range of substituents has on different properties of a molecule can be quantified.1 Hammett’s parameters have been correlated with the substituent effects on 1H NMR chemical shifts in different molecules, including experiments on substituted chalcones (1,3-diarylpropenones).2 The effect a substituent has on a molecule can also be observed using 13C NMR. The chemical shifts of carbons throughout the molecule may be affected by the substituent. This was shown to be true by Wilson and ...


Synthesis Of Polyethylene Glycol - Trifluoromethyl Sulfonamide And Analysis Of Its Ion-Transport Properties, Andrew Groneck May 2020

Synthesis Of Polyethylene Glycol - Trifluoromethyl Sulfonamide And Analysis Of Its Ion-Transport Properties, Andrew Groneck

Honors Theses

This project investigates the synthetic pathway to develop a polyethylene glycol – trifluoromethyl sulfonamide compound to be used as an electrolyte in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell. The inspiration to develop a trifluoromethyl sulfonamide compound tethered to a polyethylene glycol polymer was inspired by the work of David P. Siska and D. F. Shriver in their studies of polysiloxane – trifluoromethyl sulfonamide electrolytes.

In this thesis, I have developed the synthesis of MePEG7-Trifluoromethyl sulfonamide (MePEG7-NHSO2CF3) from monomethylpolyethylene glycol (MePEG7OH). Unfortunately, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, I was unable to complete the depronation and ion-exchange to the Li+ and H+ forms of ...


Comparison Of The Vibrational Modes Of Thiolated Gold Nanoparticles Undergoing Core-Conversions Via Raman Spectroscopy, William Gregory Cannella Jr. May 2020

Comparison Of The Vibrational Modes Of Thiolated Gold Nanoparticles Undergoing Core-Conversions Via Raman Spectroscopy, William Gregory Cannella Jr.

Honors Theses

In this project, the vibrational characteristics/vibrational modes are explored via Raman Spectroscopy for thiolated-gold nanoparticles. This class of compounds is also known as gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). They remain of great interest in research areas such as catalysis, gold dependent nanoelectronics, drug delivery, and sensing, due to their unique size-dependent optical, chiroptical, and electronic properties. Vibrational spectroscopy of thiolated gold nanoparticles are oftentimes considered nontrivial as the compounds strongly absorb light in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum, are generally considered weak scatterers, and give off large amounts of fluorescence. This combined with their black appearance, susceptibility to localized ...


Investigation Of The History Of Fingerprinting, Advancements In The Field, And Development Of Potential Methods That Could Improve The Detection Of Endogenous And Exogenous Drugs In Latent Prints, Kristen Malloy May 2020

Investigation Of The History Of Fingerprinting, Advancements In The Field, And Development Of Potential Methods That Could Improve The Detection Of Endogenous And Exogenous Drugs In Latent Prints, Kristen Malloy

Honors Theses

When someone thinks of fingerprinting, they are most likely going to picture how a latent print is matched to the fingerprint of a suspect based on ridge pattern analysis. However, there is much more information that can be obtained from a latent print. The work performed in this thesis focuses the detection of exogenous and endogenous drugs in latent prints. The experiments performed analyzed fingerprints from volunteers that were contaminated with one of three common painkillers: acetaminophen, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), and ibuprofen. Three different instruments were tested for this purpose: MALDI-MS, ATR-FTIR, and LC-MS. Based on the results gathered, it ...


Silver-Catalyzed Synthesis Of Disubstituted Fluorinated Isoxazoles, Micah Stewart May 2020

Silver-Catalyzed Synthesis Of Disubstituted Fluorinated Isoxazoles, Micah Stewart

Honors Theses

The presence of fluorine can provide organic compounds with useful biological properties, such as increased metabolic stability and drug uptake. Because of these advantages, fluorinated compounds make up about 30% of the drug industry. However, fluorination of complex molecules is difficult due to fluorine’s high electronegativity.

Fluorinated isoxazoles are of particular interest in the pharmaceutical industry. Isoxazoles are five-membered heterocycles with oxygen and nitrogen in the 1, 2 positions that are able to engage in interactions unavailable to other ring structures, conferring advantageous biological properties upon compounds containing them. However, there are limited synthetic routes for fluorinated isoxazoles, and ...


Intrinsic Buffer Hydroxyl Radical Dosimetry For Hydroxyl Radical Protein Footprinting, Addison Roush May 2020

Intrinsic Buffer Hydroxyl Radical Dosimetry For Hydroxyl Radical Protein Footprinting, Addison Roush

Honors Theses

Hydroxyl radical protein footprinting (HRPF) coupled to mass spectrometry is a powerful technique for the analysis of protein topography as it generates covalent mass labels that can survive downstream sample handling, and it is sensitive to the solvent accessibility of amino acid sidechains. Of the multiple platforms for HRPF, fast photochemical oxidation of proteins (FPOP) utilizes a pulsed 248 nm KrF excimer laser to label proteins by photolyzing hydrogen peroxide. FPOP is the most widely used HRPF platform because it labels proteins faster than unfolding can occur. Variations in FPOP sample conditions make it difficult to compare results between experiments ...


Lattice Paths In Diagonals And Dimensions, Freya Bennett May 2020

Lattice Paths In Diagonals And Dimensions, Freya Bennett

Honors Theses

The Lattice Paths of Combinatorics have been used in many applications, normally under the guise of a different name, due to its versatility in surface variety and specificity of answer. The Lattice Path’s of game development, in finding paths around barriers in mazes, is called Path Finder with the A∗ algorithms as its method of solving.


Using Foraminifera To Identify Overwash Deposits In St Vincent Island, Florida In The Wake Of Hurricane Michael, Kayla Washington May 2020

Using Foraminifera To Identify Overwash Deposits In St Vincent Island, Florida In The Wake Of Hurricane Michael, Kayla Washington

Honors Theses

Major hurricanes have geomorphic and stratigraphic impacts in coast environments that can be used to identify and characterize the storms. One of the approaches to identify storm impact is by studying assemblage of foraminifera, small organisms that live primarily in marine environments with some species living in marshes, in coastal marshes or ponds, with the assumption that storm-induced overwash flooding brings marine species ashore. Hurricane Michael made landfall ~40 km northwest of St Vincent Island (SVI), Florida, on October 10, 2018, as a Category 5 storm. The storm surge of Michael inundated a large part of SVI, which offers a ...


Singular Value Decomposition, Krystal Bonaccorso, Andrew Incognito May 2020

Singular Value Decomposition, Krystal Bonaccorso, Andrew Incognito

Honors Theses

A well-known theorem is Diagonalization, where one of the factors is a diagonal matrix. In this paper we will be describing a similar way to factor/decompose a non-square matrix. The key to both of these ways to factor is eigenvalues and eigenvectors.


Raman Spectroscopy Study Of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol And Cannabidiol And Their Hydrogen-Bonding Activities, Kalee Sigworth May 2020

Raman Spectroscopy Study Of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol And Cannabidiol And Their Hydrogen-Bonding Activities, Kalee Sigworth

Honors Theses

Cannabis and products containing its cannabinoids have grown rapidly in acceptance and use in recent years with legalization of cannabis in many countries and US states. Cannabidiol and Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol are two primary cannabinoids in Cannabis that have been shown to produce analgesic effects along with many other positive side effects for the user. These two cannabinoids interact with receptors in the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems. No spectroscopic study to our knowledge has been performed to analyze the hydrogen bonding effects of interactions between these two cannabinoids and solvents. Here, we employ theoretical Raman spectra through computational methods to study ...


Molecular Dynamics Simulations Of Apolipoprotein A1 In Ionic Liquids, Benjamin Smith May 2020

Molecular Dynamics Simulations Of Apolipoprotein A1 In Ionic Liquids, Benjamin Smith

Honors Theses

High-density lipoprotein function is essential for the healthy processing of fats in the blood. The function of these proteins is determined by their conformational structure of chains of amino acids. Certain ionic liquids have been shown to interact with individual amino acids to affect the tertiary shape of the protein. These interactions can disrupt the native hydrogen bonds between amino acids which can either promote folding or denaturing of the protein. Our work focused on apoA-1, a high-density lipoprotein that binds to cholesterol for efflux from the body. We studied this protein in different ion-based liquids with sodium, chloride, and ...


Hplc Detection Of Organic Gunshot Residues With Silicone Wristbands, Yelyzaveta Zuy May 2020

Hplc Detection Of Organic Gunshot Residues With Silicone Wristbands, Yelyzaveta Zuy

Honors Theses

The analysis of gunshot residue (GSR) is frequently used to aid in investigating firearm-related crimes. Typically, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) is applied for inorganic analysis of elements such as lead, barium, and antimony to study GSR. However, heavy metal-free ammunition creates the need for a different type of approach. This research focuses on studying the potential of detecting organic gunshot residue (OGSR) collected with silicone wristbands through passive sampling. This study has been directed towards the development of an optimal High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) procedure for the detection and separation of five selected compounds typically found in OGSR. The ...


Predictive Modeling Of Iphone 7 Charge Rates Using Least Squares Curve Fitting, Grace Cahill May 2020

Predictive Modeling Of Iphone 7 Charge Rates Using Least Squares Curve Fitting, Grace Cahill

Honors Theses

In a time where individuals depend on their cell phones, the need for a long lasting and quick charging battery life is imperative. As information regarding how long a battery can remained charged is highly advertised, there is no information regarding how long it would take for a dead phone battery to completely charge. This study determined the amount of time it will take an iPhone 7 to charge from 0% to 100% using the standard charging cable under four different charging conditions. The charge percentage was recorded every two minutes until it was fully charged with this process being ...


Meta-Analysis Of Biological Research Literature, Evan Suggs May 2020

Meta-Analysis Of Biological Research Literature, Evan Suggs

Honors Theses

Comparative studies have been powerful tools in generating a broad understanding about the evolution of animal social systems but they currently rely on the slow, manual process of reading thousands of abstracts and papers from research databases. A web application was created for researchers conducting a comparative survey, in order to speed up their research. This web application automates the retrieval of research papers and their selection process. Using previously obtained data sets on the orders Artiodacytla and Lagomorph, a machine learning application was created to classify the papers. These techniques and tools should greatly increase the speed at which ...


Boundary, Costs And Trade-Offs In Reserve Design Systems, Justus Hurd May 2020

Boundary, Costs And Trade-Offs In Reserve Design Systems, Justus Hurd

Honors Theses

Due to limitations in funding and natural resources, it is infeasible to construct perfect reserve systems for large populations of critical species. For this project, our objective is to formulate a reserve design model that minimizes the distance between reserve sites meeting a threshold of biodiversity features subject to a species coverage constraints. Coupled with other spatial characteristics including reserve size and configuration, the boundary of a reserve system is of key importance. While positive area effects are gained when selecting additional sites, negative boundary length effects are also experienced. For example, it is costly to implement and maintain boundary ...


Analytic Exoplanet Transit Analysis, And Investigation Into Wasp, Kepler, And Qatar Systems, Colan Gulla May 2020

Analytic Exoplanet Transit Analysis, And Investigation Into Wasp, Kepler, And Qatar Systems, Colan Gulla

Honors Theses

In this paper we analyze exoplanet transit data. First, we discuss an analytical method of assessing the data similar to the one derived in Agol & Mandel, 20021. The time series photometric data for transits used in this paper was downloaded from the NASA Exoplanet Archive. Similar data was also extracted from the Exoplanet Transit Database for analysis. We use a formula for relative flux from Agol & Mandel, 20021 to study the specific transit systems of WASP 1b, WASP 12b, Kepler 1, Qatar 1b and TRES-1b. The formula for relative flux is fit to a set of photometric data ...


Raman Spectroscopic And Quantum Chemical Investigation Of The Effects Of Tri-Methylamine N-Oxide (Tmao) On Hydrated Urea, Hydrated Guanidinium, And Hydrogen Bonded Networks, Genevieve Verville May 2020

Raman Spectroscopic And Quantum Chemical Investigation Of The Effects Of Tri-Methylamine N-Oxide (Tmao) On Hydrated Urea, Hydrated Guanidinium, And Hydrogen Bonded Networks, Genevieve Verville

Honors Theses

Trimethylamine N-Oxide (TMAO), guanidinium, and urea are three important

osmolytes with their main significance to the biophysical field being in how they

uniquely interact with proteins. TMAO is known to stabilize and counteract the

destabilizing effects of both urea and guanidinium. The exact mechanisms by which

TMAO stabilizes and both guanidinium and urea destabilize folded proteins continue

to be debated in the literature. Some studies suggest that solvent interactions do not

play a large role in TMAO’s stabilizing effects and therefore advocate direct

stabilization, whereas others suggest that TMAO counteracts denaturation primarily

through an indirect effect of strong solvent ...


Spectroscopic And Computational Studies Of The Agricultural Active Ingredient Dicamba, James Johnson Apr 2020

Spectroscopic And Computational Studies Of The Agricultural Active Ingredient Dicamba, James Johnson

Honors Theses

3,6-dichloro-2-methoxy benzoic acid, more commonly known as Dicamba, is the active ingredient in an array of pesticides used on farmlands across the globe. Dicamba’s mode of action works by mimicking the plant hormone auxin, which is synonymous to growth hormones in mammals. The mimicking of auxin results in excessive elongation and growing, which is eventually fatal for plants when the rate of growth can no longer be sustained. Dicamba has risen in prominence in recent years due to drift damage as a result of Dicamba’s high volatility. Having the ability to identify Dicamba is crucial for the ...


Inductive Constructions In Logic And Graph Theory, Davis Deaton Apr 2020

Inductive Constructions In Logic And Graph Theory, Davis Deaton

Honors Theses

Just as much as mathematics is about results, mathematics is about methods. This thesis focuses on one method: induction. Induction, in short, allows building complex mathemati- cal objects from simple ones. These mathematical objects include the foundational, like logical statements, and the abstract, like cell complexes. Non-mathematicians struggle to find a common thread throughout all of mathematics, but I present induction as such a common thread here. In particular, this thesis discusses everything from the very foundations of mathematics all the way to combina- torial manifolds. I intend to be casual and opinionated while still providing all necessary formal rigor ...


The Perceived Effect Of Transformer Core Metal On Musical Sounds, Addie Lopshire-Bratt Apr 2020

The Perceived Effect Of Transformer Core Metal On Musical Sounds, Addie Lopshire-Bratt

Honors Theses

Transformers are an electronic component used to change the voltage from one part of a circuit to the next. They appear in most audio equipment from the earlier eras but left a sonic signature on the sound waves passed through them. Most research conducted on the “sound” of transformers has focused on their effect on simple sine waves passed through the component, not complex–musical–waves. This thesis seeks to organize the research available about transformers and simple sine waves and compare it with the gamut of opinions that audio professionals hold about their sound.


An Analysis Of The Debate Over Creation, Evolution, And The Timeline Of The Universe At An Ecumenical Christian University, Mason Pohlman Apr 2020

An Analysis Of The Debate Over Creation, Evolution, And The Timeline Of The Universe At An Ecumenical Christian University, Mason Pohlman

Honors Theses

Throughout a significant portion of history and within modern culture, the fields of science and religion appear to be competing for the same holds in a person’s belief system. Universities are where academics and the sciences are the prevailing held truth, while in churches, the Bible reigns as supreme authority. However, in a Christian academic setting, the predominate school of thought in belief systems might turn into a little more of a melting pot. By analyzing gathered personal data (via surveys and interviews), one can begin to piece together the predominate thoughts on the apparent conflict between religion and ...


Developing A New Water-Soluble Porphyrin As A Potential Photodynamic Cancer Therapy Agent, Catherine Shirley Apr 2020

Developing A New Water-Soluble Porphyrin As A Potential Photodynamic Cancer Therapy Agent, Catherine Shirley

Honors Theses

Photodynamic cancer therapy (PDT) is a type of treatment involving the use of light in conjunction with a photosensitive agent- a chemical or series of chemicals designed for activation when exposed to light. This research project investigated the synthesis and identification of the novel photosensitive agent, H2TPP-Pro-OH. To create the water-soluble porphyrin, (S)-(+)-prolinol was reacted with the tetra-carboxyl porphyrin, H2TPPC, to form the final H2TPP-Pro-OH product. This compound was then purified using syringe filtration and column chromatography, and subsequently characterized using infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopies, as well as High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC ...