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Honors Theses

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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Initial Investigation Of Wildflower Honey Using Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction Coupled With Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry For Geographical Information, Tyra Countiss May 2021

Initial Investigation Of Wildflower Honey Using Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction Coupled With Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry For Geographical Information, Tyra Countiss

Honors Theses

Honey has been used as a food, sugar substitute, and flavor enhancer forever. The uses for honey are extremely varied from food to medicine. It is widely touted that you can address seasonal allergies, especially those following a move, by eating local honey. For this to be true the composition of the local honey, including trapped pollen, would allow allergy symptoms to be eliminated. In this project, the volatile and semi-volatile aroma compounds in wild flower honey from several different locations were analyzed. Headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to help develop the ...


One-Pot Synthesis Of Disubstituted Primary Amines From Nitriles Via Grignard Addition And Metal-Alcohol Reduction, Joshua Peltan May 2021

One-Pot Synthesis Of Disubstituted Primary Amines From Nitriles Via Grignard Addition And Metal-Alcohol Reduction, Joshua Peltan

Honors Theses

The process of developing a working base case procedure for a novel one-pot-two-step synthesis of primary amines from Grignard reagents, nitriles, sodium metal or alkali metal loaded silica gel, and alcohol is described. Initial steps towards applying the process broadly are detailed. The process has the potential to be an affordable, convenient, safer, greener, and more accessible alternative to exiting methods of accomplishing the same transformation. The reaction scheme has been proven to provide yields and purity comparable to existing methods for certain pairs of substrates; however, its utility as a general-purpose method for transforming arbitrary pairs of Grignard reagent ...


Assessing Sustainability At Ccu, Savannah Billings May 2021

Assessing Sustainability At Ccu, Savannah Billings

Honors Theses

An assessment of sustainability initiatives and culture at Coastal Carolina University, recommending stronger institutional support for sustainability.


Effects Of Crowding Agents On I-Motif Dna, Hayden Brines May 2021

Effects Of Crowding Agents On I-Motif Dna, Hayden Brines

Honors Theses

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a well-known double stranded, helical, biological molecule. In addition to its more commonly known structure, DNA can also form more complicated structures like G-quadruplexes and i-motifs (iM). The iMs are formed by cytosine rich DNA and are a four stranded structure that is typically looped around itself. The iM formation is typically pH-dependent and is favored in more acidic conditions; the pKa value is approximately 6.5. This pKa value allows for potential in vivo formation, since the cells have a pH of approximately 7.3. Due to this, iMs are thought to be powerful, innovative ...


Determination Of Metals And Microplastics In Sediment From Oyster Reefs In The Mississippi Sound, Shelby Goza May 2021

Determination Of Metals And Microplastics In Sediment From Oyster Reefs In The Mississippi Sound, Shelby Goza

Honors Theses

This research centers on the determination of metals (Cd, Pb, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu) and microplastics (MPs) in marine sediment from oyster reefs in the Mississippi Sound Estuary. Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) are a vital part of the Gulf Coast economy, but their population has dramatically declined in recent years due to multiple stressors, including oil spills and fluctuations in salinity from flooding. Increasingly frequent flooding events also introduce high loads of MPs and sediments containing heavy metals from the Mississippi River. These pollutants can have deleterious effects on oyster biology; however, they have not been adequately studied ...


Computational Investigation Of Stellar Cooling, Noble Gas Nucleation, And Organic Molecular Spectra, Jax Dallas May 2021

Computational Investigation Of Stellar Cooling, Noble Gas Nucleation, And Organic Molecular Spectra, Jax Dallas

Honors Theses

Since the advent and optimization of the Hartree-Fock method, quantum chemistry has been utilized to investigate systems operating on timeframes and environments traditionally unavailable to bench-top chemistry. As computational methods have grown more robust and less time consuming, quantum chemistry has been utilized to investigate a range of fields, including the steadily growing discipline of computational astrochemistry. Through the lens of computational astrochemistry, chemistry that occurred billions of years ago can be explored with equal clarity to that which is currently happening in the cosmos. The work presented throughout this thesis is a series of investigations into different timeframes of ...


Effects Of Halogen Bonding On 13c Nmr Shifts Of Various Tolan Species, Anthony Lybrand May 2021

Effects Of Halogen Bonding On 13c Nmr Shifts Of Various Tolan Species, Anthony Lybrand

Honors Theses

Halogen bonding is slowly becoming a more and more useful part of the world of chemistry and is beginning to be incorporated into various aspects of the chemical industry. This study’s purpose is to determine whether or not halogen bonding can cause any effect in the 13C NMR shifts. The specific purpose of this study is to determine whether these chemical shifts change when a Lewis Base is added to the dissolved sample. In order to do this, the tolan species (4-iodotolan and 4-chlorotolan) had to be synthesized. Once synthesized, the tolan species were analyzed via NMR. NMR data ...


Applications Of Sodium Azide In The Synthesis Of Tetrazines And Hydrolysis Reactions, My Le May 2021

Applications Of Sodium Azide In The Synthesis Of Tetrazines And Hydrolysis Reactions, My Le

Honors Theses

The inverse electron demand Diels−Alder cycloadditions of heterocyclic azadienes have provided a robust methodology for synthesizing highly substituted and functionalized heterocycles. It is widely used in organic synthesis and the pharmaceutical industry in the divergent construction of screening libraries and bioorthogonal conjugation. Each heterocyclic azadiene was found to possess a unique reactivity toward different classes of dienophiles, display predictable modes of cycloaddition, and exhibit substantial substituent electronic effects impacting their intrinsic reactivity and cycloaddition regioselectivity. Synthesis of 1,2,4,5-tetrazine has been reported in the literature since the late 19th century, showing scientists' tremendous interest in its application ...


The Effect Of The Apolipoprotein A1 (Apoa1): The Stability And Folding In Potassium Chloride Environment, Alexandra Paladian May 2021

The Effect Of The Apolipoprotein A1 (Apoa1): The Stability And Folding In Potassium Chloride Environment, Alexandra Paladian

Honors Theses

Healthy levels of potassium chloride (KCl) can significantly affect the workings of the cholesterol level of the human body and how they pertain to an individual person. The search for a better salt additive for the human diet can provide a better option for people who experience high cholesterol levels and heart disease. The study focuses on the experimental design of the Molecular Dynamic (MD) simulation of the Apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1) in the potassium ion solution environment to determine the stability and folding of the protein. The study also compares its data to the previous experimental design of chloride ions ...


Security Fatigue And Its Effects On Perceived Password Strength Among University Students, Chase Carroll May 2021

Security Fatigue And Its Effects On Perceived Password Strength Among University Students, Chase Carroll

Honors Theses

This study was performed with the goal of observing the effect, if any, that security fatigue has on students’ perceived strength of passwords. In doing so, it was hoped to find some correlation between the two that would help in establishing a measurable effect of the phenomenon in students. This could potentially aid organizational decision-makers, such as security policy writers and system admins, to make more informed decisions about implementing security measures. To achieve the goal of observing this fatigue and attempting to measure it, a survey was distributed to numerous students on the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga campus ...


Molecular Dynamic Simulation Of The Complex Folding Patterns Of Apolipoprotein A1 In Various Concentrations Of Potassium Chloride, Hannah Holmberg May 2021

Molecular Dynamic Simulation Of The Complex Folding Patterns Of Apolipoprotein A1 In Various Concentrations Of Potassium Chloride, Hannah Holmberg

Honors Theses

Apopliprotein or ApoA-1 is a complex lipoprotein that functions in the removal of cholesterol from the blood, removing cholesterol from the area around white blood cells and promoting the excretion of lipids through the lymphatic system. Previous research has found that ApoA-1 shows both folded and unfolded conformations depending on the concentration of NaCl in solution in the water around it. The protein was studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Once this state of equilibrium was reached, various structural properties of the protein were measured including the radius of gyration and the radial distribution function. The goal of the project was ...


Synthesis, Characterization, And Reactivity Of Organometallic Complexes For Catalytic Carbon-Hydrogen Bond Activation, Sophia Neglia May 2021

Synthesis, Characterization, And Reactivity Of Organometallic Complexes For Catalytic Carbon-Hydrogen Bond Activation, Sophia Neglia

Honors Theses

Styrene can be produced directly from benzene and ethylene through an atom economical oxidative hydroarylation process. In this process, an electrophilic homogeneous transition metal catalyst activates the C-H bond in benzene. I propose to explore this reaction in two fronts: 1) the synthesis of electron-poor trans-spanning bidentate pyridine ligands and 2) the computational study of pyridine-functionalized bidentate diimines. The trans-spanning ligand will utilize either a Ru(II) or Co(III) metallohinge with cis-coordinated 2-ethynylpyridine ligands. The complex [(p-cym)Ru(PMe3)(C2-2-py)2] (1) where (p-cym = para-cymene and C2-2-py = 2-ethynylpyridine) can be prepared from (p-cym)Ru(PMe3)(Cl)2 and HC2-2-py ...


Understanding Shear Thinning Using Brownian Dynamics Simulation, Mackenzie Nicole Wall May 2021

Understanding Shear Thinning Using Brownian Dynamics Simulation, Mackenzie Nicole Wall

Honors Theses

In this work, we study the changes in structure during the shear thinning regime using Brownian Dynamics with a simple steady-state shear flow of binary charged colloidal suspension. Previous research has analyzed the viscosity, radial distribution, elasticity and plasticity of materials with rheo-SANS experimentation; however, less research has been conducted to replicate the experiment through computer simulations. With Brownian Dynamic Simulation, this study was able to reproduce the results obtained in a recent rheo-SANS experiment and it also explored the viscosity, radial distribution, elastic and plastic behavior of a system under different parameters. The comparison of simulated data with experimental ...


Simplifying The Creation Of Virtual Topologies Using Mpi Sessions, Tom Herschberg May 2021

Simplifying The Creation Of Virtual Topologies Using Mpi Sessions, Tom Herschberg

Honors Theses

As supercomputers have approached exascale performance, several scalability issues have emerged within MPI. These issues arise because MPI includes all processes in the World model, which consumes unacceptable amounts of time and resources at large scale. The Sessions model was developed to combat these issues by removing the requirement of MPI_COMM_WORLD, which provides a more scalable method of creating communication groups in large jobs. Additionally, the Sessions model enables the creation of virtual topologies directly from sets of processes allocated to the execution of a parallel application rather than building virtual topologies from an existing communication group such as MPI_COMM_WORLD ...


Isolated Point Discharges Into Coastal Swashes As Nutrient Sources To Coastal Waters, Mary E. Olsen May 2021

Isolated Point Discharges Into Coastal Swashes As Nutrient Sources To Coastal Waters, Mary E. Olsen

Honors Theses

Coastal water quality in the Grand Strand of South Carolina is directly influenced by human activities. Nutrient-rich runoff, stemming from numerous anthropogenic sources, finds its way into coastal waters through freshwater inputs often through tidal creeks, termed swashes. In order to better describe the amount of nutrient inputs into Singleton Swash and White Point Swash, we examine anthropogenic runoff from isolated identifiable point discharges and their nutrient concentrations. We report concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN, as the sum of nitrate, nitrite and ammonium) and phosphate in discharge and creek water. We hypothesize that nutrient concentrations of isolated, minor point ...


Organic Matter Spatial And Temporal Patterns In Coastal Sands Of Long Bay, South Carolina, Kayla B. Christofferson May 2021

Organic Matter Spatial And Temporal Patterns In Coastal Sands Of Long Bay, South Carolina, Kayla B. Christofferson

Honors Theses

Sandy coastlines serve crucial functions to coastal economies and coastal ecology alike. In the past, organic-poor sands were considered of lower importance than organic-rich muds. Recent studies showed that sands’ low organic matter concentrations are due to high biogeochemical cycling rates, driven by rapid physical exchange, but remain infrequently studied. I present time-series of sand mass-loss-on-ignition (LOI, an organic matter proxy) profiles from February 2017 onwards at multiple sites along Long Bay, South Carolina. LOI profiles exhibit subsurface maximum values, unlike the typical decrease with depth in muddy sediments. I hypothesize that organic matter distribution with depth is affected by ...


Curved Spacetime In The Causal Set Approach To Quantum Gravity, Ayush Dhital May 2021

Curved Spacetime In The Causal Set Approach To Quantum Gravity, Ayush Dhital

Honors Theses

Causal Set theory is an approach to quantum gravity. In this approach, the spacetime continuum is assumed to be discrete rather than continuous. The discrete points in a causal set can be seen as a continuum spacetime if they can be embedded in a manifold such that the causal structure is preserved. In this regard, a manifold can be constructed by embedding a causal set preserving causal information between the neighboring points. In this thesis, some of the fundamental properties of causal sets are discussed and the curvature and dimension information of Minkowski, de Sitter, and Anti-de Sitter spaces is ...


Use Of Linear Discriminant Analysis In Song Classification: Modeling Based On Wilco Albums, Caroline Pollard May 2021

Use Of Linear Discriminant Analysis In Song Classification: Modeling Based On Wilco Albums, Caroline Pollard

Honors Theses

The study of music recommender algorithms is a relatively new area of study. Although these algorithms serve a variety of functions, they primarily help advertise and suggest music to users on music streaming services. This thesis explores the use of linear discriminant analysis in music categorization for the purpose of serving as a cheaper and simpler content-based recommender algorithm. The use of linear discriminant analysis was tested by creating lineardiscriminant functions that classify Wilco’s songs into their respective albums, specifically A.M., Yankee Hotel Foxtrot, and Sky Blue Sky. 4 sample songs were chosen from each album, and song ...


Lc-Ms/Ms Method Development And Analysis Of Tricyclic Antidepressants In Human Plasma, Shahbaz Gul May 2021

Lc-Ms/Ms Method Development And Analysis Of Tricyclic Antidepressants In Human Plasma, Shahbaz Gul

Honors Theses

Depression has become one of the most prominent problems in society, disrupting both personal and social lives. Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) were first developed in the 1950’s and became some of the leading anti-depressant medications on the market later that decade. Today, newer anti-depressants have risen to the forefront, being safer and having a lower side-effect probability. Nonetheless, TCAs continue to be prescribed for severe depression, especially in cases where the newer anti-depressants have failed. However, TCAs are still highly potent, the toxicity associated with these compounds cannot be ignored. They have considerable cardiovascular and neurological toxicity, and in the ...


Spectroscopic Analysis Of Potential Astromolecules Via Quantum Chemical Quartic Force Fields, Mason Gardner May 2021

Spectroscopic Analysis Of Potential Astromolecules Via Quantum Chemical Quartic Force Fields, Mason Gardner

Honors Theses

Astrochemistry has been substantially aided by computational techniques, particularly through the use of Quartic Force Field (QFF) analysis. Several methods have proven useful at correlating computed spectroscopic data with experimental observations. The F12-TZ QFF correlated well with experimental data for silicon oxide compounds, particularly those potentially involved in development from rocky bodies to planetary masses [27]. Compared to argon matrix experimental data, the vibrational frequencies for the molecules SiO2, SiO3, Si2O3, and Si2O4 become less accurate as the complexity of the molecules increases but should still be predictive of infrared characteristics of silicon oxides as they form clusters in space ...


Determination Of Metals In Whey And Vegan Protein Supplements Using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, Megan Lofaso May 2021

Determination Of Metals In Whey And Vegan Protein Supplements Using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, Megan Lofaso

Honors Theses

Driven by a demand for health and wellness products worldwide, the dietary supplement industry continues to expand with an economic impact >$100 billion in the USA alone. However, the industry is plagued by a lack of regulation and incidents of contamination, including with toxic heavy metals that can put consumers at potential risk. In this study, eight trace elements (Cd, Pb, Fe, Co, Mn, V, Cu, and Cr), including heavy metals (Cd and Pb), were determined in whey and vegan protein powder by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after microwave-assisted digestion using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. Samples were ...


A Weighted Version Of Erdős-Kac Theorem, Unique Subedi May 2021

A Weighted Version Of Erdős-Kac Theorem, Unique Subedi

Honors Theses

Let $\omega(n)$ denote the number of distinct prime factors of a natural number $n$. A celebrated result of Erd{\H o}s and Kac states that $\omega(n)$ as a Gaussian distribution. In this thesis, we establish a weighted version of Erd{\H o}s-Kac Theorem. Specifically, we show that the Gaussian limiting distribution is preserved, but shifted, when $\omega(n)$ is weighted by the $k-$fold divisor function $\tau_k(n)$. We establish this result by computing all positive integral moments of $\omega(n)$ weighted by $\tau_k(n)$.

We also provide a proof of the classical identity of $\zeta ...


Soil Inhomogeneity Effects On Seismic Wind Noise, Bipin Koirala May 2021

Soil Inhomogeneity Effects On Seismic Wind Noise, Bipin Koirala

Honors Theses

Wind causes local pressure fluctuations over the ground. The pressure waves couples with the ground and transmits into the ground as seismic waves. The seismic wave, in turn, causes ground motion. Naderyan et al. [9] developed a prediction of the ground displacements spectra from the measured ground properties and predicted pressure and shear stress at the ground surface. Naderyan modeled the ground as a linearly elastic half space bounded by an infinite plane on one side. The quasi-static model for predicting displacement components in the ground is effective for the vertical component of the displacement response, but the model significantly ...


Parametric Design Of Flywheel For An Electric Punch Press, Prashant Dhakal Apr 2021

Parametric Design Of Flywheel For An Electric Punch Press, Prashant Dhakal

Honors Theses

Almost all designs start with a design requirement. These may be weight, volume, clearance, and even custom calculations. Finding a solution that meets these requirements often involves tedious and time-consuming iterations. Once the solution has been found, the design must be optimized to find the best possible solution. Finding the ‘best possible design’ requires substantial time and effort dedicated to iterating and analyzing the potential model solutions. This is where Parametric design comes into play. The Parametric design aids in specifying the key parameters of the design and makes changes interactively, with the model updating automatically. The purpose of this ...


Synthesis And Conductivity Analysis Of A Methyl (Polyethylene Glycol) Comb Polymer, Olivia Fox Apr 2021

Synthesis And Conductivity Analysis Of A Methyl (Polyethylene Glycol) Comb Polymer, Olivia Fox

Honors Theses

The overall goal of work in this field is to improve materials for use in a variety of applications in fuel cell and battery production. This thesis specifically investigates the synthesis of two variations of a methyl (polyethylene glycol) comb polymer electrolyte (MePEGnwhere n=7) to understand how the molecular structure of an ion-conducting polymer affects its electrochemical properties. The MePEG used in this synthesis contains seven ethylene glycol groups and was added to a poly (methylhydrosiloxane) comb polymer backbone. In the first sample, the polymer contained only the MePEG sidechain, and in the second sample, the polymer ...


Synthesis Of Halogenated Glyoximes, Nickie Tiwari Apr 2021

Synthesis Of Halogenated Glyoximes, Nickie Tiwari

Honors Theses

Dr. Huang is a chemical engineering professor at the University of Alabama. He is interested in using alpha-Halogenated glyoximes to better understand impurity incorporation of organic additives. Various alpha-Halogenated glyoximes are being synthesized for his study. In this project, bromodimethylglyoxime is being synthesized. This is a two-step reaction. The first reaction converts diacetlymonoxime to bromodimethylglyoxalmonoxime through bromination. The product is then reacted with hydroxylammonium chloride to form bromodimethylglyoxime. Ultimately, there has been success in forming bromodimethylglyoxalmonoxime. For this reaction, solvent ratios of methanol must be proportional to literature values. However, there have been difficulties in converting bromomonoxime to bromodimethylglyoxime. There ...


The Interconnectivity Of Parkinson's Disease And Type Two Diabetes Mellitus, Erica Olfson Apr 2021

The Interconnectivity Of Parkinson's Disease And Type Two Diabetes Mellitus, Erica Olfson

Honors Theses

This thesis is about the biochemical connection between Parkinson's disease and Type II Diabetes Mellitus.


Exploring Manifoldlike Causal Sets And Their Dimensions, Santosh Bhandari Apr 2021

Exploring Manifoldlike Causal Sets And Their Dimensions, Santosh Bhandari

Honors Theses

Causal Set Theory is an approach to quantum gravity that tries to replace the continuum spacetime structure of general relativity with the spacetime that has the property of discreteness and causality. From the standpoint of causal set theory, our spacetime is made up of discrete points that are causally related to one another. A causal set is said to be manifoldlike if it can be faithfully embedded in a Lorentzian manifold. In this thesis, some of the fundamental properties of causal sets are discussed. The first chapter is devoted to the historical background of quantum gravity with a discussion of ...


Preparation Of Perylene Bisimide Acceptors With Ethylcarboxyl And Pyrenylcyclohexyl Imide Groups, Michael Cashen Stark Apr 2021

Preparation Of Perylene Bisimide Acceptors With Ethylcarboxyl And Pyrenylcyclohexyl Imide Groups, Michael Cashen Stark

Honors Theses

Multiple attempts were made to deprotect TBDMS-protected (tert-butyldimethylsilyl protected) serinol and swallowtailed PBI (Compound 2), synthesized by past researcher Tarrah Frederick, to generate Compound 1. The theoretical Compound 1 product is intended for use in molecular rectification of electricity because the perylene core acts as a good acceptor with high electron affinity, and it does not require an electron donor group. Many rectification molecules are amphiphilic Donor-σ-Acceptor compounds, which allow for electron transfer through localized molecular orbitals when placed between electrodes (Langmuir-Blodgett Method). However, PBIs can transfer electrons from one electrode, through the LUMO of perylene, and to the other ...


A Spectroscopic And Computational Study Of Diacetyl And Water Clusters, Margaret Baldwin Apr 2021

A Spectroscopic And Computational Study Of Diacetyl And Water Clusters, Margaret Baldwin

Honors Theses

Diacetyl, otherwise known as 1,2-butadione or biacetyl, is a flavor additive used in microwave popcorn, and more importantly as of late, e-cigarettes. The compound is known to cause lung disease for those who have been exposed to a large quantity of the buttery smelling molecule. As such, the characterization of diacetyl’s vibrational modes when it interacts with water are pivotal to understanding the effects it has on human lung tissue. In this research, the intermolecular interactions between water and diacetyl and the effects they have on one another’s vibrational modes are explored. While some experimental data is ...