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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Exposing And Fixing Causes Of Inconsistency And Nondeterminism In Clustering Implementations, Xin Yin Dec 2021

Exposing And Fixing Causes Of Inconsistency And Nondeterminism In Clustering Implementations, Xin Yin

Dissertations

Cluster analysis aka Clustering is used in myriad applications, including high-stakes domains, by millions of users. Clustering users should be able to assume that clustering implementations are correct, reliable, and for a given algorithm, interchangeable. Based on observations in a wide-range of real-world clustering implementations, this dissertation challenges the aforementioned assumptions.This dissertation introduces an approach named SmokeOut that uses differential clustering to show that clustering implementations suffer from nondeterminism and inconsistency: on a given input dataset and using a given clustering algorithm, clustering outcomes and accuracy vary widely between (1) successive runs of the same toolkit, i.e., nondeterminism ...


Exploiting Bert And Roberta To Improve Performance For Aspect Based Sentiment Analysis, Gagan Reddy Narayanaswamy Jan 2021

Exploiting Bert And Roberta To Improve Performance For Aspect Based Sentiment Analysis, Gagan Reddy Narayanaswamy

Dissertations

Sentiment Analysis also known as opinion mining is a type of text research that analyses people’s opinions expressed in written language. Sentiment analysis brings together various research areas such as Natural Language Processing (NLP), Data Mining, and Text Mining, and is fast becoming of major importance to companies and organizations as it is started to incorporate online commerce data for analysis. Often the data on which sentiment analysis is performed will be reviews. The data can range from reviews of a small product to a big multinational corporation. The goal of performing sentiment analysis is to extract information from ...


Combination Of Facebook Prophet And Attention-Based Lstm With Multi- Source Data For Indian Stock Market Prediction, Pavan Nagesh Jan 2021

Combination Of Facebook Prophet And Attention-Based Lstm With Multi- Source Data For Indian Stock Market Prediction, Pavan Nagesh

Dissertations

The stock market prediction has been the subject of interest to various researchers and analysts due to its highly unpredictable nature and serves as a perfect example for time series forecasting. Over the years deep learning models such as Long-Term Short-Term Memory and statistical models such as Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average have shown promising results in predicting future stock prices. But the results from these models cannot be generalized as they fail to incorporate the dynamics of the market and influence of several external factors such as political, social, investor's emotion, etc on stock markets. Recently Facebook’s creation ...


Feature Augmentation For Improved Topic Modeling Of Youtube Lecture Videos Using Latent Dirichlet Allocation, Nakul Srikumar Jan 2021

Feature Augmentation For Improved Topic Modeling Of Youtube Lecture Videos Using Latent Dirichlet Allocation, Nakul Srikumar

Dissertations

Application of Topic Models in text mining of educational data and more specifically, the text data obtained from lecture videos, is an area of research which is largely unexplored yet holds great potential. This work seeks to find empirical evidence for an improvement in Topic Modeling by pre- extracting bigram tokens and adding them as additional features in the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) algorithm, a widely-recognized topic modeling technique. The dataset considered for analysis is a collection of transcripts of video lectures on Machine Learning scraped from YouTube. Using the cosine similarity distance measure as a metric, the experiment showed ...


Dances And Escape Of The Vortex Quartet, Brandon Behring Dec 2020

Dances And Escape Of The Vortex Quartet, Brandon Behring

Dissertations

This dissertation considers the linear stability of a one-parameter family of periodic solutions of the four-vortex problem known as 'leapfrogging' orbits. These solutions, which consist of two pairs of identical yet oppositely-signed vortices, were known to W. Gröbli (1877) and A. E. H. Love (1883) and can be parameterized by a dimensionless parameter related to the geometry of the initial configuration. Simulations by Acheson and numerical Floquet analysis by Tophøj and Aref both indicate, to many digits, that the bifurcation occurs at a value related to the inverse square of the golen ratio. Acheson observed that, after an initial period ...


Modeling Mass Transfer And Chemical Reaction In Industrial Nitrocellulose Manufacturing Processes, Francis Patrick Sullivan Dec 2020

Modeling Mass Transfer And Chemical Reaction In Industrial Nitrocellulose Manufacturing Processes, Francis Patrick Sullivan

Dissertations

A series of models are proposed to describe the production of military grade nitrocellulose from dense cellulose materials in mixtures of nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and water. This effort is conducted to provide a predictive capability for analyzing the rate and extent of reaction achieved under a range of reaction conditions used in the industrial nitrocellulose manufacturing process for sheeted cellulose materials. Because this capability does not presently exist, nitrocellulose producers have historically relied on a very narrow range of cellulose raw materials and resorted to trial and error methods to develop processing conditions for new materials. This tool enables ...


Coordination, Adaptation, And Complexity Indecision Fusion, Weiqiang Dong Dec 2020

Coordination, Adaptation, And Complexity Indecision Fusion, Weiqiang Dong

Dissertations

A parallel decentralized detection system employs a bank of local detectors (LDs) that access a commonly observed phenomenon. The system makes a binary decision about the phenomenon, accepting one of two hypotheses (H0 ("absent") or H1 ("present")). The kth LD uses a local decision rule to compress its local observations yk into a binary local decision uk; uk = 0 if the kth LD accepts H0 and uk = 1 if it accepts H1. The kth LD sends its decision uk over a noiseless dedicated channel to a Data Fusion Center (DFC). The DFC combines the local decisions it receives from n ...


Drone-Assisted Emergency Communications, Di Wu Dec 2020

Drone-Assisted Emergency Communications, Di Wu

Dissertations

Drone-mounted base stations (DBSs) have been proposed to extend coverage and improve communications between mobile users (MUs) and their corresponding macro base stations (MBSs). Different from the base stations on the ground, DBSs can flexibly fly over and close to MUs to establish a better vantage for communications. Thus, the pathloss between a DBS and an MU can be much smaller than that between the MU and MBS. In addition, by hovering in the air, the DBS can likely establish a Line-of-Sight link to the MBS. DBSs can be leveraged to recover communications in a large natural disaster struck area ...


A Deep Machine Learning Approach For Predicting Freeway Work Zone Delay Using Big Data, Abdullah Shabarek Dec 2020

A Deep Machine Learning Approach For Predicting Freeway Work Zone Delay Using Big Data, Abdullah Shabarek

Dissertations

The introduction of deep learning and big data analytics may significantly elevate the performance of traffic speed prediction. Work zones become one of the most critical factors causing congestion impact, which reduces the mobility as well as traffic safety. A comprehensive literature review on existing work zone delay prediction models (i.e., parametric, simulation and non-parametric models) is conducted in this research. The research shows the limitations of each model. Moreover, most previous modeling approaches did not consider user delay for connected freeways when predicting traffic speed under work zone conditions. This research proposes Deep Artificial Neural Network (Deep ANN ...


Small-Scale Dynamics Of Photospheric Magnetic Activities And Their Chromospheric Responses, Jiasheng Wang Dec 2020

Small-Scale Dynamics Of Photospheric Magnetic Activities And Their Chromospheric Responses, Jiasheng Wang

Dissertations

The evolution of photospheric magnetic fields is considered as the fundamental source of forming atmospheric structures and triggering most solar activities, including flares and mass ejections on various scales (CMEs, jets, etc.). With the implementation of high-resolution observational instruments, small-scale details of magnetic features are recognized that can provide important information regarding the evolution in active regions and the connection between photospheric magnetic reconnection and jet-like ejections in the quiet Sun. This research takes advantage of the exceptionally high-resolution measurements of vector magnetic field and imaging observations by the Goode Solar Telescope, and UV/EUV imaging observations from space-based instruments ...


Molecular Mechanism Of Cyanobacteria Circadian Clock Oscillator And Effect Of Co Factors On Its Oscillation, Manpreet Kaur Dec 2020

Molecular Mechanism Of Cyanobacteria Circadian Clock Oscillator And Effect Of Co Factors On Its Oscillation, Manpreet Kaur

Dissertations

The circadian rhythms arise as an adaptation to the environmental 24-hour day and night cycle due to Earth's rotation. These rhythms prepare organisms to align their internal biological activities and day to day behavior or events with the environmental change of the 24-hour day and night cycle. Circadian rhythms are found widely in all living kingdoms of life on Earth. Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes which first used to study these circadian rhythms. Among cyanobacterial species, Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 (henceforth, S. Elongatus) is the simplest organism with a durable and sturdy circadian clock and is study as a model ...


Supporting User Interaction And Social Relationship Formation In A Collaborative Online Shopping Context, Yu Xu Dec 2020

Supporting User Interaction And Social Relationship Formation In A Collaborative Online Shopping Context, Yu Xu

Dissertations

The combination of online shopping and social media allow people with similar shopping interests and experiences to share, comment, and discuss about shopping from anywhere and at any time, which also leads to the emergence of online shopping communities. Today, more people turn to online platforms to share their opinions about products, solicit various opinions from their friends, family members, and other customers, and have fun through interactions with others with similar interests. This dissertation explores how collaborative online shopping presents itself as a context and platform for users' interpersonal interactions and social relationship formation through a series of studies ...


Response Of Deep Aquifers To Climate Variability, Karem Fathy Abdelgaber Abdelmohsen Dec 2020

Response Of Deep Aquifers To Climate Variability, Karem Fathy Abdelgaber Abdelmohsen

Dissertations

Our recent analysis of Temporal Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) solutions over the largest aquifer system in Africa (the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System: NSAS) revealed that while the response of deep aquifers to climatic variations remains a relatively slow process that takes thousands to tens of thousands of years, there is a much faster response in aquifers that are characterized by dense networks of faults, fractures and karst as is the case with the NSAS. This rapid groundwater flow, when it occurs, is detected as an increase in GRACETWS over areas downgradient and distant (hundreds of km) from ...


On The Local Theory Of Profinite Groups, Mohammad Shatnawi Dec 2020

On The Local Theory Of Profinite Groups, Mohammad Shatnawi

Dissertations

Let G be a finite group, and H be a subgroup of G. The transfer homomorphism emerges from the natural action of G on the cosets of H. The transfer was first introduced by Schur in 1902 [22] as a construction in group theory, which produce a homomorphism from a finite group G into H/H' an abelian group where H is a subgroup of G and H' is the derived group of H. One important first application is Burnside’s normal p-complement theorem [5] in 1911, although he did not use the transfer homomorphism explicitly to prove it ...


A Spectroscopic And Photometric Survey Of The W4 Hii Region And Its Young Stellar Population, Matt Wentzel-Long Nov 2020

A Spectroscopic And Photometric Survey Of The W4 Hii Region And Its Young Stellar Population, Matt Wentzel-Long

Dissertations

The W4 HII region is home to a large number of O and B-type stars as well as the young open cluster IC 1805. OB-type produce intense photoionizing radiation and stellar winds that can induce star formation in surrounding molecular clouds and sometimes carve out large regions of decreased particle density called superbubbles. During the star formation process, young stellar objects (YSOs) are initially surrounded by circumstellar disks made of gas and dust which naturally dissipate after several million years. The dissipation of the disk is thought to occur for a variety of reasons, including photoevaporation by the encompassed protostar ...


A Management Strategy Evaluation Of The Impacts Of Interspecific Competition And Recreational Fishery Dynamics On Vermilion Snapper (Rhomboplites Aurorubens) In The Gulf Of Mexico, Megumi C. Oshima Sep 2020

A Management Strategy Evaluation Of The Impacts Of Interspecific Competition And Recreational Fishery Dynamics On Vermilion Snapper (Rhomboplites Aurorubens) In The Gulf Of Mexico, Megumi C. Oshima

Dissertations

In the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Vermilion Snapper (Rhomboplites auroruben), are believed to compete with Red Snapper directly for prey and habitat. The two species share similar diets and have significant spatial overlap in the Gulf. Red Snapper are thought to be the dominate competitor, forcing Vermilion Snapper to feed on less nutritious prey when local resources are depleted. In addition to ecological pressures, GOM Vermilion Snapper support substantial commercial and recreational fisheries. Over the past decade, recreational landings have steadily increased, reaching a historical high in 2018. One cause may be stricter regulations for similar target species such as ...


Cost-Effective Gnss Hardware For High-Accuracy Surveys And Its Prospects For Post-Processed Kinematic (Ppk) And Precise Point Positioning (Ppp) Strategies, Johnson Oguntuase Sep 2020

Cost-Effective Gnss Hardware For High-Accuracy Surveys And Its Prospects For Post-Processed Kinematic (Ppk) And Precise Point Positioning (Ppp) Strategies, Johnson Oguntuase

Dissertations

This dissertation determines for the first time the vertical accuracy achievable with low-cost mass-market multi-frequency, multi-GNSS (LM3GNSS) receivers, and antennas in the context of Ellipsoid Reference Survey (ERS), usually employed in bathymetric operations aboard survey platforms. LM3GNSS receivers are relatively new in the market, and their emergence is driven by the automobile industry and several mass-market applications requiring location-based solutions at high accuracies. It is foreseeable that emerging hydrographic survey platforms such as autonomous surface vehicles, small unmanned aircraft, crowd-sourced bathymetric platforms, and offshore GNSS buoy will find LM3GNSS receivers attractive since they are power- and cost-effective (often less than ...


Machine Learning For Scientific Data Mining And Solar Eruption Prediction, Hao Liu Aug 2020

Machine Learning For Scientific Data Mining And Solar Eruption Prediction, Hao Liu

Dissertations

This dissertation explores new machine learning techniques and adapts them to mine scientific data, specifically data from solar physics and space weather studies. The dissertation tackles three important problems in heliophysics: solar flare prediction, coronal mass ejection (CME) prediction and Stokes inversion.

First, the dissertation presents a long short-term memory (LSTM) network for predicting whether an active region (AR) would produce a certain class of solar flare within the next 24 hours. The essence of this approach is to model data samples in an AR as time series and use LSTMs to capture temporal information of the data samples. The ...


Changing The Focus: Worker-Centric Optimization In Human-In-The-Loop Computations, Mohammadreza Esfandiari Aug 2020

Changing The Focus: Worker-Centric Optimization In Human-In-The-Loop Computations, Mohammadreza Esfandiari

Dissertations

A myriad of emerging applications from simple to complex ones involve human cognizance in the computation loop. Using the wisdom of human workers, researchers have solved a variety of problems, termed as “micro-tasks” such as, captcha recognition, sentiment analysis, image categorization, query processing, as well as “complex tasks” that are often collaborative, such as, classifying craters on planetary surfaces, discovering new galaxies (Galaxyzoo), performing text translation. The current view of “humans-in-the-loop” tends to see humans as machines, robots, or low-level agents used or exploited in the service of broader computation goals. This dissertation is developed to shift the focus back ...


1,4-Dioxane Biodegradation In Propanotrophs: Molecular Foundations And Implications For Environmental Remediation, Li Fei Aug 2020

1,4-Dioxane Biodegradation In Propanotrophs: Molecular Foundations And Implications For Environmental Remediation, Li Fei

Dissertations

1,4-Dioxane (dioxane) has emerged with an escalating concern given its human carcinogenicity and widespread occurrence in groundwater. Bioremediation is promising as an effective and cost-efficient treatment alternative for in situ or ex situ cleanup of dioxane and co-existing pollutants in the field. Soluble di-iron monooxygenases (SDIMOs) are reputed for their essential roles in initiating the cleavage of dioxane and other pollutants. In this doctoral dissertation, molecular foundations for SDIMOs-mediated dioxane biodegradation are untangled to promote the development and implication of site-specific bioremediation and natural attenuation strategies. This dissertation focused on propanotrophic bacteria given their pivotal roles in dioxane metabolism ...


Mathematical Models And Tools To Understand Coupled Circadian Oscillations And Limit Cycling Systems, Guangyuan Liao Aug 2020

Mathematical Models And Tools To Understand Coupled Circadian Oscillations And Limit Cycling Systems, Guangyuan Liao

Dissertations

The circadian rhythm refers to an internal body process that regulates many body processes including the sleep-wake cycle, digestion and hormone release. The ability of a circadian system to entrain to the 24-hour light-dark cycle is one of the most important properties. There are several scenarios in which circadian oscillators do not directly receive light-dark forcing. Instead they are part of hierarchical systems in which, as \peripheral" oscillators, they are periodically forced by other \central" circadian oscillators that do directly receive light input. Such dynamics are modeled as hierarchical coupled limit cycle systems. Those models usually have a large population ...


Resonant Triad Interactions In One And Two-Layer Systems, Malik Chabane Aug 2020

Resonant Triad Interactions In One And Two-Layer Systems, Malik Chabane

Dissertations

This dissertation is a study of the weakly nonlinear resonant interactions of a triad of gravity-capillary waves in systems of one and two fluid layers of arbitrary depth, in one and two-dimentions. For one-layer systems, resonant triad interactions of gravity-capillary waves are considered and a region where resonant triads can be always found is identified, in the two-dimensional wavevector angles-space. Then a description of the variations of resonant wavenumbers and wave frequencies over the resonance region is given. The amplitude equations correct to second order in wave slope are used to investigate special resonant triads that, providing their initial amplitude ...


Flare Emission Observed In High Resolution And Comparison With Numerical Modeling, Nengyi Huang Aug 2020

Flare Emission Observed In High Resolution And Comparison With Numerical Modeling, Nengyi Huang

Dissertations

As one of the most intense activities on the solar surface, flares have been extensively observed and studied ever since the first report. The standard model of solar flares has been established and commonly accepted. However, many limitations from the researching tools have left some of the problems unsolved or controversial. For example, the density of electrons in the corona is lower than it is required to activate the observed emission in HXR, and the mechanism that these electron beams can penetrate down to lower chromosphere is unclear. Many theoretical scenarios were suggested, and more observations had been in need ...


Global Optimization Algorithms For Image Registration And Clustering, Cuicui Zheng Aug 2020

Global Optimization Algorithms For Image Registration And Clustering, Cuicui Zheng

Dissertations

Global optimization is a classical problem of finding the minimum or maximum value of an objective function. It has applications in many areas, such as biological image analysis, chemistry, mechanical engineering, financial analysis, deep learning and image processing. For practical applications, it is important to understand the efficiency of global optimization algorithms. This dissertation develops and analyzes some new global optimization algorithms and applies them to practical problems, mainly for image registration and data clustering.

First, the dissertation presents a new global optimization algorithm which approximates the optimum using only function values. The basic idea is to use the points ...


Efficient Time-Stepping Approaches For The Dispersive Shallow Water Equations, Linwan Feng Aug 2020

Efficient Time-Stepping Approaches For The Dispersive Shallow Water Equations, Linwan Feng

Dissertations

This dissertation focuses on developing efficient and stable (high order) time-stepping strategies for the dispersive shallow water equations (DSWE) with variable bathymetry. The DSWE extends the regular shallow water equations to include dispersive effects. Dispersion is physically important and can maintain the shape of a wave that would otherwise form a shock in the shallow water system.

In some cases, the DSWE may be simplified when the bathymetry length scales are small (or large) in relation to other length scales in the shallow water system. These simplified DSWE models, which are related to the full DSWEs, are also considered in ...


An Automated Feedback System To Support Student Learning Of Conceptual Knowledge In Writing-To-Learn Activities, Ye Xiong Aug 2020

An Automated Feedback System To Support Student Learning Of Conceptual Knowledge In Writing-To-Learn Activities, Ye Xiong

Dissertations

As a pedagogical strategy, Writing-to-Learn (WTL) intends to use writing to improve students’ understanding of course content. However, most of the existing feedback systems for writing are mainly focused on improving students’ writing skills rather than their conceptual development. In this dissertation, an automatic approach is proposed to generate timely, actionable, and individualized feedback based on comparing knowledge representations extracted from lecture slides and individual students’ writing assignments. The novelty of the proposed approach lies in the feedback generation: to help students assimilate new knowledge into their existing knowledge better, their current knowledge is modeled as a set of matching ...


Crowdsourcing Atop Blockchains, Yuan Lu Aug 2020

Crowdsourcing Atop Blockchains, Yuan Lu

Dissertations

Traditional crowdsourcing systems, such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk), though once acquiring great economic successes, have to fully rely on third-party platforms to serve between the requesters and the workers for basic utilities. These third-parties have to be fully trusted to assist payments, resolve disputes, protect data privacy, manage user authentications, maintain service online, etc. Nevertheless, tremendous real-world incidents indicate how elusive it is to completely trust these platforms in reality, and the reduction of such over-reliance becomes desirable.

In contrast to the arguably vulnerable centralized approaches, a public blockchain is a distributed and transparent global "consensus computer" that ...


Efficient Approximations For Stationary Single-Channel Calcium Nanodomains, Yinbo Chen Aug 2020

Efficient Approximations For Stationary Single-Channel Calcium Nanodomains, Yinbo Chen

Dissertations

Mathematical and computational modeling plays an important role in the study of local Ca2+ signals underlying many fundamental physiological processes such as synaptic neurotransmitter release and myocyte contraction. Closed-form approximations describing steady-state distribution of Ca2+ in the vicinity of an open Ca2+ channel have proved particularly useful for the qualitative modeling of local Ca2+ signals. This dissertation presents several simple and efficient approximants for the equilibrium Ca2+ concentration near a point source in the presence of a mobile Ca2+ buffer, which achieve great accuracy over a wide range of model parameters. Such approximations provide an efficient method for estimating Ca2 ...


Hybrid Deep Neural Networks For Mining Heterogeneous Data, Xiurui Hou Aug 2020

Hybrid Deep Neural Networks For Mining Heterogeneous Data, Xiurui Hou

Dissertations

In the era of big data, the rapidly growing flood of data represents an immense opportunity. New computational methods are desired to fully leverage the potential that exists within massive structured and unstructured data. However, decision-makers are often confronted with multiple diverse heterogeneous data sources. The heterogeneity includes different data types, different granularities, and different dimensions, posing a fundamental challenge in many applications. This dissertation focuses on designing hybrid deep neural networks for modeling various kinds of data heterogeneity.

The first part of this dissertation concerns modeling diverse data types, the first kind of data heterogeneity. Specifically, image data and ...


Enrichment Of Ontologies Using Machine Learning And Summarization, Hao Liu Aug 2020

Enrichment Of Ontologies Using Machine Learning And Summarization, Hao Liu

Dissertations

Biomedical ontologies are structured knowledge systems in biomedicine. They play a major role in enabling precise communications in support of healthcare applications, e.g., Electronic Healthcare Records (EHR) systems. Biomedical ontologies are used in many different contexts to facilitate information and knowledge management. The most widely used clinical ontology is the SNOMED CT. Placing a new concept into its proper position in an ontology is a fundamental task in its lifecycle of curation and enrichment.

A large biomedical ontology, which typically consists of many tens of thousands of concepts and relationships, can be viewed as a complex network with concepts ...