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William & Mary

2019

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Articles 1 - 30 of 116

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Multidisciplinary Observing In The World Ocean's Oxygen Minimum Zone Regions: From Climate To Fish - The Voice Initiative, V Garcon, J Karstensen, A Palacz, Et Al, Kevin C. Weng Dec 2019

Multidisciplinary Observing In The World Ocean's Oxygen Minimum Zone Regions: From Climate To Fish - The Voice Initiative, V Garcon, J Karstensen, A Palacz, Et Al, Kevin C. Weng

VIMS Articles

Multidisciplinary ocean observing activities provide critical ocean information to satisfy ever-changing socioeconomic needs and require coordinated implementation. The upper oxycline (transition between high and low oxygen waters) is fundamentally important for the ecosystem structure and can be a useful proxy for multiple observing objectives connected to eastern boundary systems (EBSs) that neighbor oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). The variability of the oxycline and its impact on the ecosystem (VOICE) initiative demonstrates how societal benefits drive the need for integration and optimization of biological, biogeochemical, and physical components of regional ocean observing related to EBS. In liaison with the Global Ocean Oxygen ...


Eventually Positive Matrices And Tree Sign Patterns, Madellyne Waugh Dec 2019

Eventually Positive Matrices And Tree Sign Patterns, Madellyne Waugh

Undergraduate Honors Theses

A n-by-n matrix A is said to be eventually positive if there is a power k such that $A^k$ is entrywise positive, and all subsequent powers are also entrywise positive. Here we provide an expression for the smallest such exponent of a 2-by-2 eventually positive matrix in terms of its entries; we also show that if the graph of an eventually positive matrix is a tree, then the positive part of that matrix must be primitive.


Defining Boat Wake Impacts On Shoreline Stability Toward Management And Policy Solutions, Donna Marie Bilkovic, Molly Mitchell, Jennifer Davis, Julie Herman, Elizabeth Andrews, Angela King, Pamela Mason, Navid Tahvildari, Jana Davis, Rachel L. Dixon Dec 2019

Defining Boat Wake Impacts On Shoreline Stability Toward Management And Policy Solutions, Donna Marie Bilkovic, Molly Mitchell, Jennifer Davis, Julie Herman, Elizabeth Andrews, Angela King, Pamela Mason, Navid Tahvildari, Jana Davis, Rachel L. Dixon

VIMS Articles

Coastal economies are often supported by activities that rely on commercial or recreational vessels to move people or goods, such as shipping, transportation, cruising, and fishing. Unintentionally, frequent or intense vessel traffic can contribute to erosion of coastlines; this can be particularly evident in sheltered systems where shoreline erosion should be minimal in the absence of boat waves. We reviewed the state of the science of known effects of boat waves on shoreline stability, examined data on erosion, turbidity, and shoreline armoring patterns for evidence of a response to boat waves in Chesapeake Bay, and reviewed existing management and policy ...


A Conservation Palaeobiological Perspective On Chesapeake Bay Oysters, Rowan Lockwood, Roger L. Mann Dec 2019

A Conservation Palaeobiological Perspective On Chesapeake Bay Oysters, Rowan Lockwood, Roger L. Mann

VIMS Articles

The eastern oyster plays a vital role in estuarine habitats, acting as an ecosystem engineer and improving water quality. Populations of Chesapeake Bay oysters have declined precipitously in recent decades. The fossil record, which preserves 500 000 years of once-thriving reefs, provides a unique opportunity to study pristine reefs to establish a possible baseline for mitigation. For this study, over 900 fossil oysters were examined from three Pleistocene localities in the Chesapeake region. Data on oyster shell lengths, lifespans and population density were assessed. Comparisons to modern Crassostrea virginica, sampled from monitoring surveys of similar environments, reveal that fossil oysters ...


Long-Term Annual Aerial Surveys Of Submersed Aquatic Vegetation (Sav) Support Science, Management, And Restoration, Robert J. Orth, William C. Dennison, Cassie Gurbisz, Michael Hannam, Jeni Keisman, J. Brooke Landry, Jonathan S. Lefcheck, Kenneth A. Moore, Rebecca R. Murphy, Christopher J. Patrick, Jeremy Testa, Donald E. Weller, David J. Wilcox, Richard A. Batiuk Nov 2019

Long-Term Annual Aerial Surveys Of Submersed Aquatic Vegetation (Sav) Support Science, Management, And Restoration, Robert J. Orth, William C. Dennison, Cassie Gurbisz, Michael Hannam, Jeni Keisman, J. Brooke Landry, Jonathan S. Lefcheck, Kenneth A. Moore, Rebecca R. Murphy, Christopher J. Patrick, Jeremy Testa, Donald E. Weller, David J. Wilcox, Richard A. Batiuk

VIMS Articles

Aerial surveys of coastal habitats can uniquely inform the science and management of shallow, coastal zones, and when repeated annually,theyrevealchangesthatareotherwisedifficulttoassess fromground-basedsurveys.Thispaperreviewstheutilityofalongterm(1984–present)annualaerialmonitoringprogramforsubmersedaquaticvegetation(SAV)inChesapeakeBay,itstidaltributaries, and nearby Atlantic coastal bays, USA. We present a series of applications that highlight the program’s importance in assessing anthropogenic impacts, gauging water quality status and trends, establishing and evaluating restoration goals, and understanding the impactofcommercialfishingpracticesonbenthichabitats.Theseexamplesdemonstratehowperiodicallyquantifyingcoverageofthis important foundational habitat answers basic research questions locally, as well as globally, and provides essential information to resource managers. New technologies are enabling more frequent and accurate aerial surveys at greater spatial resolution ...


Expanding The Use Of Natural And Nature-Based Infrastructure To Enhance Coastal Resiliency, Marcia Berman, Pamela Mason, Tamia Rudnicky Nov 2019

Expanding The Use Of Natural And Nature-Based Infrastructure To Enhance Coastal Resiliency, Marcia Berman, Pamela Mason, Tamia Rudnicky

Reports

The vulnerability of coastal communities and the growing risks to coastal infrastructure continue largely due to past and ongoing patterns of development in high risk areas. This project is focused on increasing the use of natural and nature-based features (NNBFs) to increase resilience of coastal communities to flooding caused by extreme weather events. This project has proposed two efforts to increase understanding of NNBFS; 1) describe the current status, and 2) quantify role of NNBF creation/ restoration for water quality benefits in support of coastal resilience. The products of the 3-year project are intended to support informed coastal management decision-making ...


Tidal Erosion And Upstream Sediment Trapping Modulate Records Of Land-Use Change In A Formerly Glaciated New England Estuary, Justin L. Shawler, Christopher J. Hein, Elizabeth A. Canuel, Et Al Nov 2019

Tidal Erosion And Upstream Sediment Trapping Modulate Records Of Land-Use Change In A Formerly Glaciated New England Estuary, Justin L. Shawler, Christopher J. Hein, Elizabeth A. Canuel, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Land clearing, river impoundments, and other human modifications to theupland landscape and within estuarine systems can drive coastal change at local to regionalscales. However, as compared with mid-latitude coasts, the impacts of human modificationsalong sediment-starved formerly glaciated coastal landscapes are relatively understudied.To address this gap, we present a late-Holocene record of changing sediment accumulationrates and sediment sources from sediment cores collected across a tidal flat in theMerrimack River estuary (Mass., USA). We pairsedimentology, geochronology, bulk- andstable-isotope organic geochemistry, and hydrodynamic simulations with historical datato evaluate human and natural impacts on coastal sediment fluxes. During the 17th to19th centuries, accumulation ...


The Importance Of Antarctic Krill In Biogeochemical Cycles, El Cavan, A Belcher, Sl Hill, S Kawaguchi, S Mccormack, B Meyer, S Nicol, K Schmidt, Deborah K. Steinberg, Ga Tarling, Pw Boyd Oct 2019

The Importance Of Antarctic Krill In Biogeochemical Cycles, El Cavan, A Belcher, Sl Hill, S Kawaguchi, S Mccormack, B Meyer, S Nicol, K Schmidt, Deborah K. Steinberg, Ga Tarling, Pw Boyd

VIMS Articles

Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) are swarming, oceanic crustaceans, up to two inches long, and best known as prey for whales and penguins – but they have another important role. With their large size, high biomass and daily vertical migrations they transport and transform essential nutrients, stimulate primary productivity and influence the carbon sink. Antarctic krill are also fished by the Southern Ocean’s largest fishery. Yet how krill fishing impacts nutrient fertilisation and the carbon sink in the Southern Ocean is poorly understood. Our synthesis shows fishery management should consider the influential biogeochemical role of both adult and larval Antarctic krill.


Asynchronous Nitrogen Supply And Demand Produce Nonlinear Plant Allocation Responses To Warming And Elevated Co2, Genevieve L. Noyce, Matthew L. Kirwan, Roy L. Rich, J. Patrick Megonigal Oct 2019

Asynchronous Nitrogen Supply And Demand Produce Nonlinear Plant Allocation Responses To Warming And Elevated Co2, Genevieve L. Noyce, Matthew L. Kirwan, Roy L. Rich, J. Patrick Megonigal

VIMS Articles

Terrestrial ecosystem responses to climate change are mediated by complex plant–soil feedbacks that are poorly understood, but often driven by the balance of nutrient supply and demand. We actively increased aboveground plant-surface temperature, belowground soil temperature, and atmospheric CO2 in a brackish marsh and found nonlinear and nonadditive feedbacks in plant responses. Changes in root-to-shoot allocation by sedges were nonlinear, with peak belowground allocation occurring at +1.7 °C in both years. Above 1.7 °C, allocation to root versus shoot production decreased with increasing warming such that there were no differences in root biomass between ambient and ...


James River Water Quality Model Refinement And Scenario Simulations, Jian Shen, Qubin Qin Oct 2019

James River Water Quality Model Refinement And Scenario Simulations, Jian Shen, Qubin Qin

Reports

This project was part of the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality’s (DEQ) study to evaluate the protectiveness of chlorophyll criteria and consider potential criteria revisions, along with implications for the James River portion of the Chesapeake Bay TMDL.


Scientific Considerations For Acidification Monitoring In The Us Mid-Atlantic Region, Ka Goldsmith, S Lau, Et Al, Eh Shadwick, Et Al Sep 2019

Scientific Considerations For Acidification Monitoring In The Us Mid-Atlantic Region, Ka Goldsmith, S Lau, Et Al, Eh Shadwick, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Coastal and ocean acidification has the potential to cause significant environmental and societal impacts. Monitoring carbonate chemistry parameters over spatial and temporal scales is challenging, especially with limited resources. A lack of monitoring data can lead to a limited understanding of real-world conditions. Without such data, robust experimental and model design is challenging, and the identification and understanding of episodic acidification events is nearly impossible. We present considerations for resource managers, academia, and industry professionals who are currently developing acidification monitoring programs in the Mid-Atlantic region. We highlight the following considerations for deliberation: 1) leverage existing infrastructure to include multiple ...


The Floodwater Depth Estimation Tool (Fwdet V2.0) For Improved Remote Sensing Analysis Of Coastal Flooding, S Cohen, A Raney, D Munasinghe, Jon Derek Loftis, Et Al Sep 2019

The Floodwater Depth Estimation Tool (Fwdet V2.0) For Improved Remote Sensing Analysis Of Coastal Flooding, S Cohen, A Raney, D Munasinghe, Jon Derek Loftis, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Remote sensing analysis is routinely used to map flooding extent either retrospectively or in near-real time. For flood emergency response, remote-sensing-based flood mapping is highly valuable as it can offer continued observational information about the flood extent over large geographical domains. Information about the floodwater depth across the inundated domain is important for damage assessment, rescue, and prioritizing of relief resource allocation, but cannot be readily estimated from remote sensing analysis. The Floodwater Depth Estimation Tool (FwDET) was developed to augment remote sensing analysis by calculating water depth based solely on an inundation map with an associated digital elevation model ...


Tidal Variation In Cohesive Sediment Distribution And Sensitivity To Flocculation And Bed Consolidation In An Idealized, Partially Mixed Estuary, Danielle R.N. Tarpley, Courtney K. Harris, Carl Friedrichs, Christopher T. Sherwood Sep 2019

Tidal Variation In Cohesive Sediment Distribution And Sensitivity To Flocculation And Bed Consolidation In An Idealized, Partially Mixed Estuary, Danielle R.N. Tarpley, Courtney K. Harris, Carl Friedrichs, Christopher T. Sherwood

VIMS Articles

Particle settling velocity and erodibility are key factors that govern the transport of sediment through coastal environments including estuaries. These are difficult to parameterize in models that represent mud, whose properties can change in response to many factors, including tidally varying suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and shear stress. Using the COAWST (Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport) model framework, we implemented bed consolidation, sediment-induced stratification, and flocculation formulations within an idealized two-dimensional domain that represented the longitudinal dimension of a micro-tidal, muddy, partially mixed estuary. Within the Estuarine Turbidity Maximum (ETM), SSC and median floc diameter varied by a factor of four over ...


Global Change Effects On Plant Communities Are Magnified By Time And The Number Of Global Change Factors Imposed, Kj Komatsu, Ml Avolio, Et Al, David S. Johnson, Et Al Sep 2019

Global Change Effects On Plant Communities Are Magnified By Time And The Number Of Global Change Factors Imposed, Kj Komatsu, Ml Avolio, Et Al, David S. Johnson, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Global change drivers (GCDs) are expected to alter community structure and consequently, the services that ecosystems provide. Yet, few experimental investigations have examined effects of GCDs on plant community structure across multiple ecosystem types, and those that do exist present conflicting patterns. In an unprecedented global synthesis of over 100 experiments that manipulated factors linked to GCDs, we show that herbaceous plant community responses depend on experimental manipulation length and number of factors manipulated. We found that plant communities are fairly resistant to experimentally manipulated GCDs in the short term (< 10 y). In contrast, long-term (>= 10 y) experiments show increasing community divergence of treatments from ...


Pamunkey Indian Reservation Shoreline Management Plan, Donna A. Milligan, C. Scott Hardaway Jr., Christine A. Wilcox Sep 2019

Pamunkey Indian Reservation Shoreline Management Plan, Donna A. Milligan, C. Scott Hardaway Jr., Christine A. Wilcox

Reports

In 2015, the federal government officially recognized the Pamunkey Indian tribe. The tribe has a reservation located on the Pamunkey River in King William County (Figure 1-1) and is one of the nation's oldest, dating back to 1646 (Encyclopedia Virginia, 2015). The Reservation has about 13 miles of shoreline encompassing about 1,100 acres. According to the National Wetlands Inventory (US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2016), the Reservation has about 80 acres of freshwater emergent wetland and 530 acres of freshwater forested/shrub wetland. Approximately 90 people live on the Reservation and up to 600 people visit in a ...


Virginia Stormwater Act, Tiered Approach For Rural Tidewater Localities: Generation Of Watershed Impervious Maps, Christine Tombleson Aug 2019

Virginia Stormwater Act, Tiered Approach For Rural Tidewater Localities: Generation Of Watershed Impervious Maps, Christine Tombleson

Reports

An amendment to Virginia's Stormwater Management Act was adopted to implement a tiered approach to stormwater management for rural Tidewater localities. To participate a locality is required to have a map showing the boundaries of the locality, with each watershed located partially or wholly within the locality, and the percentage of impervious cover (cover that impedes the natural infiltration of water into the soil) within each watershed. Center staff created maps indicating the initial percent of existing impervious cover present in each watershed for the Middle Peninsula Planning District (MPPDC) localities; Gloucester, Essex, King and Queen, King William, Mathews ...


It’S About Time: A Synthesis Of Changing Phenology In The Gulf Of Maine Ecosystem, Md Staudinger, Ke Mills, Et Al, Ds Johnson, Et Al Aug 2019

It’S About Time: A Synthesis Of Changing Phenology In The Gulf Of Maine Ecosystem, Md Staudinger, Ke Mills, Et Al, Ds Johnson, Et Al

VIMS Articles

The timing of recurring biological and seasonal environmental events is changing on a global scale relative to temperature and other climate drivers. This study considers the Gulf of Maine ecosystem, a region of high social and ecological importance in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean and synthesizes current knowledge of (a) key seasonal processes, patterns, and events; (b) direct evidence for shifts in timing; (c) implications of phenological responses for linked ecological-human systems; and (d) potential phenology-focused adaptation strategies and actions. Twenty studies demonstrated shifts in timing of regional marine organisms and seasonal environmental events. The most common response was earlier timing ...


Validating An Operational Flood Forecast Model Using Citizen Science In Hampton Roads, Va, Usa, Jon Derek Loftis, Molly Mitchell, Daniel Schatt, David R. Forrest, Harry V. Wang, David Mayfield, William A. Stiles Jul 2019

Validating An Operational Flood Forecast Model Using Citizen Science In Hampton Roads, Va, Usa, Jon Derek Loftis, Molly Mitchell, Daniel Schatt, David R. Forrest, Harry V. Wang, David Mayfield, William A. Stiles

VIMS Articles

Changes in the eustatic sea level have enhanced the impact of inundation events in the coastal zone, ranging in significance from tropical storm surges to pervasive nuisance flooding events. The increased frequency of these inundation events has stimulated the production of interactive web-map tracking tools to cope with changes in our changing coastal environment. Tidewatch Maps, developed by the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS), is an effective example of an emerging street-level inundation mapping tool. Leveraging the Semi-implicit Cross-scale Hydro-science Integrated System Model (SCHISM) as the engine, Tidewatch operationally disseminates 36-h inundation forecast maps with a 12-h update frequency ...


A Hydrodynamic Model For Galveston Bay And The Shelf In The Northern Gulf Of Mexico, Jiabi Du, Kyeong Park, Jian Shen, Yinglong J. Zhang, Xin Yu, Fei Ye, Zhengui Wang, Nancy N. Rabalais Jul 2019

A Hydrodynamic Model For Galveston Bay And The Shelf In The Northern Gulf Of Mexico, Jiabi Du, Kyeong Park, Jian Shen, Yinglong J. Zhang, Xin Yu, Fei Ye, Zhengui Wang, Nancy N. Rabalais

VIMS Articles

A 3-D unstructured-grid hydrodynamic model for the northern Gulf of Mexico was developed, with a hybrid sz vertical grid and high-resolution horizontal grid for the main estuarine systems along the Texas–Louisiana coast. This model, based on the Semi-implicit Cross-scale Hydroscience Integrated System Model (SCHISM), is driven by the observed river discharge, reanalysis atmospheric forcing, and open boundary conditions from global HYCOM output. The model reproduces the temporal and spatial variation of observed water level, salinity, temperature, and current velocity in Galveston Bay and on the shelf. The validated model was applied to examine the remote influence of neighboring ...


Collaborative Science To Enhance Coastal Resilience And Adaptation, C. Reid Nichols, Lynn Wright, Arthur Cosby, Alain Henaff, Jon Derek Loftis, Et Al Jul 2019

Collaborative Science To Enhance Coastal Resilience And Adaptation, C. Reid Nichols, Lynn Wright, Arthur Cosby, Alain Henaff, Jon Derek Loftis, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Impacts from natural and anthropogenic coastal hazards are substantial and increasing significantly with climate change. Coasts and coastal communities are increasingly at risk. In addition to short-term events, long-term changes, including rising sea levels, increasing storm intensity, and consequent severe compound flooding events are degrading coastal ecosystems and threatening coastal dwellers. Consequently, people living near the coast require environmental intelligence in the form of reliable short-term and long-term predictions in order to anticipate, prepare for, adapt to, resist, and recover from hazards. Risk-informed decision making is crucial, but for the resulting information to be actionable, it must be effectively and ...


Toward A Coordinated Global Observing System For Seagrasses And Marine Macroalgae, J. Emmett Duffy, L. Benedetti-Cecchi, Et Al, Robert J. Orth, Et Al Jul 2019

Toward A Coordinated Global Observing System For Seagrasses And Marine Macroalgae, J. Emmett Duffy, L. Benedetti-Cecchi, Et Al, Robert J. Orth, Et Al

VIMS Articles

In coastal waters around the world, the dominant primary producers are benthic macrophytes, including seagrasses and macroalgae, that provide habitat structure and food for diverse and abundant biological communities and drive ecosystem processes. Seagrass meadows and macroalgal forests play key roles for coastal societies, contributing to fishery yields, storm protection, biogeochemical cycling and storage, and important cultural values. These socio-economically valuable services are threatened worldwide by human activities, with substantial areas of seagrass and macroalgal forests lost over the last half-century. Tracking the status and trends in marine macrophyte cover and quality is an emerging priority for ocean and coastal ...


Mechanisms Involving Sensory Pathway Steps Inform Impacts Of Global Climate Change On Ecological Processes, Emily B. Rivest, Brittany Jellison, Gabriel Ng, Et Al Jul 2019

Mechanisms Involving Sensory Pathway Steps Inform Impacts Of Global Climate Change On Ecological Processes, Emily B. Rivest, Brittany Jellison, Gabriel Ng, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Human-caused environmental change will have significant non-lethal and indirect impacts on organisms due to altered sensory pathways, with consequences for ecological interactions. While a growing body of work addresses how global ocean change can impair the way organisms obtain and use information to direct their behavior, these efforts have typically focused on one step of the pathway (e.g., reception of a cue/signal), one sensory modality (e.g., visual), or one environmental factor (e.g., temperature). An integrated view of how aspects of environmental change will impact multiple sensory pathways and related ecological processes is needed to better anticipate ...


Assessment Of Spray Polyurethane Foam Worker Exposure To Organophosphate Flame Retardants Through Measures In Air, Hand Wipes, And Urine, Cf Estill, J Slone, Et Al, M. J. La Guardia, Et Al Jul 2019

Assessment Of Spray Polyurethane Foam Worker Exposure To Organophosphate Flame Retardants Through Measures In Air, Hand Wipes, And Urine, Cf Estill, J Slone, Et Al, M. J. La Guardia, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP, also referenced as TCIPP), a flame retardant used in spray polyurethane foam insulation, increases cell toxicity and affects fetal development. Spray polyurethane foam workers have the potential to be exposed to TCPP during application. In this study, we determined exposure to TCPP and concentrations of the urinary biomarker bis(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BCPP) among 29 spray polyurethane foam workers over 2 work days. Work was conducted at residential or commercial facilities using both open-cell (low density) and closed-cell (high density) foam. Study participants provided two personal air samples (Day 1 and Day 2), two hand wipe samples ...


Seasonal And Spatial Variation In The Location And Reactivity Of A Nitrate‐Contaminated Groundwater Discharge Zone In A Lakebed, Rl Smith, Da Repert, Dl Stoliker, Db Kent, Bk Song, Et Al Jul 2019

Seasonal And Spatial Variation In The Location And Reactivity Of A Nitrate‐Contaminated Groundwater Discharge Zone In A Lakebed, Rl Smith, Da Repert, Dl Stoliker, Db Kent, Bk Song, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Groundwater discharge delivering anthropogenic N from surrounding watersheds can impact lake nutrient budgets. However, upgradient groundwater processes and changing dynamics in N biogeochemistry at the groundwater‐lake interface are complex. In this study, seasonal water‐level variations in a groundwater flow‐through lake altered discharge patterns of a wastewater‐derived groundwater contaminant plume, thereby affecting biogeochemical processes controlling N transport. Pore water collected 15 cm under the lakebed along transects perpendicular to shore varied from oxic to anoxic with increasing nitrate concentrations (10–75 μM) and corresponding gradients in nitrite and nitrous oxide. Pore water depth profiles of nitrate concentrations ...


A Systematic Review Of How Multiple Stressors From An Extreme Event Drove Ecosystem-Wide Loss Of Resilience In An Iconic Seagrass Community, Ga Kendrick, Rj Nowicki, Et Al, Rj Orth Jun 2019

A Systematic Review Of How Multiple Stressors From An Extreme Event Drove Ecosystem-Wide Loss Of Resilience In An Iconic Seagrass Community, Ga Kendrick, Rj Nowicki, Et Al, Rj Orth

VIMS Articles

A central question in contemporary ecology is how climate change will alter ecosystem structure and function across scales of space and time. Climate change has been shown to alter ecological patterns from individuals to ecosystems, often with negative implications for ecosystem functions and services. Furthermore, as climate change fuels more frequent and severe extreme climate events (ECEs) like marine heatwaves (MHWs), such acute events become increasingly important drivers of rapid ecosystem change. However, our understanding of ECE impacts is hampered by limited collection of broad scale in situ data where such events occur. In 2011, a MHW known as the ...


Treading Water: Tools To Help Us Coastal Communities Plan For Sea Level Rise Impacts, E A. Smith, W Sweet, Molly Mitchell, R Domingues, C P. Weaver, M Baringer, G Goni, J Haines, Jon Derek Loftis, John D. Boon, David M. Malmquist Jun 2019

Treading Water: Tools To Help Us Coastal Communities Plan For Sea Level Rise Impacts, E A. Smith, W Sweet, Molly Mitchell, R Domingues, C P. Weaver, M Baringer, G Goni, J Haines, Jon Derek Loftis, John D. Boon, David M. Malmquist

VIMS Articles

As communities grapple with rising seas and more frequent flooding events, they need improved projections of future rising and flooding over multiple time horizons, to assist in a multitude of planning efforts. There are currently a few different tools available that communities can use to plan, including the Sea Level Report Card and products generated by a United States. Federal interagency task force on sea level rise. These tools are a start, but it is recognized that they are not necessarily enough at present to provide communities with the type of information needed to support decisions that range from seasonal ...


Estuarine Dissolved Organic Carbon Flux From Space: With Application To Chesapeake And Delaware Bays, Sr Signorini, A Mannino, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Pierre St-Laurent, Et Al, F Da, Et Al Jun 2019

Estuarine Dissolved Organic Carbon Flux From Space: With Application To Chesapeake And Delaware Bays, Sr Signorini, A Mannino, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Pierre St-Laurent, Et Al, F Da, Et Al

VIMS Articles

This study uses a neural network model trained with in situ data, combined with satellite data and hydrodynamic model products, to compute the daily estuarine export of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) at the mouths of Chesapeake Bay (CB) and Delaware Bay (DB) from 2007 to 2011. Both bays show large flux variability with highest fluxes in spring and lowest in fall as well as interannual flux variability (0.18 and 0.27 Tg C/year in 2008 and 2010 for CB; 0.04 and 0.09 Tg C/year in 2008 and 2011 for DB). Based on previous estimates of ...


Advocating For Science: Amici Curiae Brief Of Wetland And Water Scientists In Support Of The Clean Water Rule, Rc Gardner, E Okuno, Et Al, Je Perry, Et Al Jun 2019

Advocating For Science: Amici Curiae Brief Of Wetland And Water Scientists In Support Of The Clean Water Rule, Rc Gardner, E Okuno, Et Al, Je Perry, Et Al

VIMS Articles

The Trump administration has proposed replacing the Clean Water Rule, a 2015 regulation that defined the statutory term Bwaters of the United States^ to clarify the geographic jurisdiction of the Clean Water Act. Since its promulgation, the Clean Water Rule has been subjected to numerous judicial challenges. We submitted an amici curiae brief to the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit, explaining why the Clean Water Rule, and its definition of Bwaters of the United States,^ is scientifically sound. The definition of Bwaters of the United States^ is a legal determination informed by science. The best available ...


Sea-Level Driven Land Conversion And The Formation Of Ghost Forests, Matthew L. Kirwan, Keryn B. Gedan May 2019

Sea-Level Driven Land Conversion And The Formation Of Ghost Forests, Matthew L. Kirwan, Keryn B. Gedan

VIMS Articles

Ghost forests created by the submergence of low-lying land are one of the most striking indicators of climate change along the Atlantic coast of North America. Although dead trees at the margin of estuaries were described as early as 1910, recent research has led to new recognition that the submergence of terrestrial land is geographically widespread, ecologically and economically important, and globally relevant to the survival of coastal wetlands in the face of rapid sea level rise. This emerging understanding has in turn generated widespread interest in the physical and ecological mechanisms influencing the extent and pace of upland to ...


Shoreline Dynamics Along A Developed River Mouth Barrier Island: Multi-Decadal Cycles Of Erosion And Event-Driven Mitigation, Christopher J. Hein, Andrrew R. Fallon, Peter Rosen, Et Al May 2019

Shoreline Dynamics Along A Developed River Mouth Barrier Island: Multi-Decadal Cycles Of Erosion And Event-Driven Mitigation, Christopher J. Hein, Andrrew R. Fallon, Peter Rosen, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Human modifications in response to erosion have altered the natural transport of sediment to and across the coastal zone, thereby potentially exacerbating the impacts of future erosive events. Using a combination of historical shoreline-change mapping, sediment sampling, three-dimensional beach surveys, and hydrodynamic modeling of nearshore and inlet processes, this study explored the feedbacks between periodic coastal erosion patterns and associated mitigation responses, focusing on the open-ocean and inner-inlet beaches of Plum Island and the Merrimack River Inlet, Massachusetts, United States. Installation of river-mouth jetties in the early 20th century stabilized the inlet, allowing residential development in northern Plum Island, but ...