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Articles 1 - 30 of 1923

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

On Statistical Significance Of Discriminant Function Coefficients, Tolulope T. Sajobi, Gordon H. Fick, Lisa M. Lix May 2020

On Statistical Significance Of Discriminant Function Coefficients, Tolulope T. Sajobi, Gordon H. Fick, Lisa M. Lix

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

Discriminant function coefficients are useful for describing group differences and identifying variables that distinguish between groups. Test procedures were compared based on asymptotically approximations, empirical, and exact distributions for testing hypotheses about discriminant function coefficients. These tests are useful for assessing variable importance in multivariate group designs.


Support Vector Machine-Based Modified Sp Statistic For Subset Selection With Non-Normal Error Terms, Shivaji Shripati Desai, D N. Kashid May 2020

Support Vector Machine-Based Modified Sp Statistic For Subset Selection With Non-Normal Error Terms, Shivaji Shripati Desai, D N. Kashid

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

Support vector machine (SVM) is used for estimation of regression parameters to modify the sum of cross products (Sp). It works well for some nonnormal error distributions. The performance of existing robust methods and the modified Sp is evaluated through simulated and real data. The results show the performance of the modified Sp is good.


Recurrence Relations For Marginal And Joint Moment Generating Functions Of Topp-Leone Generated Exponential Distribution Based On Record Values And Its Characterization, Zaki Anwar, Neetu Gupta, Mohd Akram Raza Khan, Qazi Azhad Jamal May 2020

Recurrence Relations For Marginal And Joint Moment Generating Functions Of Topp-Leone Generated Exponential Distribution Based On Record Values And Its Characterization, Zaki Anwar, Neetu Gupta, Mohd Akram Raza Khan, Qazi Azhad Jamal

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

The exact expressions and some recurrence relations are derived for marginal and joint moment generating functions of kth lower record values from Topp-Leone Generated (TLG) Exponential distribution. This distribution is characterized by using the recurrence relation of the marginal moment generating function of kth lower record values.


An Improved Two Independent-Samples Randomization Test For Single-Case Ab-Type Intervention Designs: A 20-Year Journey, Joel R. Levin, John M. Ferron, Boris S. Gafurov May 2020

An Improved Two Independent-Samples Randomization Test For Single-Case Ab-Type Intervention Designs: A 20-Year Journey, Joel R. Levin, John M. Ferron, Boris S. Gafurov

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

Detailed is a 20-year arduous journey to develop a statistically viable two-phase (AB) single-case two independent-samples randomization test procedure. The test is designed to compare the effectiveness of two different interventions that are randomly assigned to cases. In contrast to the unsatisfactory simulation results produced by an earlier proposed randomization test, the present test consistently exhibited acceptable Type I error control under various design and effect-type configurations, while at the same time possessing adequate power to detect moderately sized intervention-difference effects. Selected issues, applications, and a multiple-baseline extension of the two-sample test are discussed.


A New Exponential Approach For Reducing The Mean Squared Errors Of The Estimators Of Population Mean Using Conventional And Non-Conventional Location Parameters, Housila P. Singh, Anita Yadav May 2020

A New Exponential Approach For Reducing The Mean Squared Errors Of The Estimators Of Population Mean Using Conventional And Non-Conventional Location Parameters, Housila P. Singh, Anita Yadav

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

Classes of ratio-type estimators t (say) and ratio-type exponential estimators te (say) of the population mean are proposed, and their biases and mean squared errors under large sample approximation are presented. It is the class of ratio-type exponential estimators te provides estimators more efficient than the ratio-type estimators.


A Simulation Study On Increasing Capture Periods In Bayesian Closed Population Capture-Recapture Models With Heterogeneity, Ross M. Gosky, Joel Sanqui Apr 2020

A Simulation Study On Increasing Capture Periods In Bayesian Closed Population Capture-Recapture Models With Heterogeneity, Ross M. Gosky, Joel Sanqui

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

Capture-Recapture models are useful in estimating unknown population sizes. A common modeling challenge for closed population models involves modeling unequal animal catchability in each capture period, referred to as animal heterogeneity. Inference about population size N is dependent on the assumed distribution of animal capture probabilities in the population, and that different models can fit a data set equally well but provide contradictory inferences about N. Three common Bayesian Capture-Recapture heterogeneity models are studied with simulated data to study the prevalence of contradictory inferences is in different population sizes with relatively low capture probabilities, specifically at different numbers of capture ...


Logistic Growth Modeling With Markov Chain Monte Carlo Estimation, Jaehwa Choi, Jinsong Chen, Jeffrey R. Harring Apr 2020

Logistic Growth Modeling With Markov Chain Monte Carlo Estimation, Jaehwa Choi, Jinsong Chen, Jeffrey R. Harring

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

A new growth modeling approach is proposed to can fit inherently nonlinear (i.e., logistic) function without constraint nor reparameterization. A simulation study is employed to investigate the feasibility and performance of a Markov chain Monte Carlo method within Bayesian estimation framework to estimate a fully random version of a logistic growth curve model under manipulated conditions such as the number and timing of measurement occasions and sample sizes.


An Exploration Of Link Functions Used In Ordinal Regression, Thomas J. Smith, David A. Walker, Cornelius M. Mckenna Apr 2020

An Exploration Of Link Functions Used In Ordinal Regression, Thomas J. Smith, David A. Walker, Cornelius M. Mckenna

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

The purpose of this study is to examine issues involved with choice of a link function in generalized linear models with ordinal outcomes, including distributional appropriateness, link specificity, and palindromic invariance are discussed and an exemplar analysis provided using the Pew Research Center 25th anniversary of the Web Omnibus Survey data. Simulated data are used to compare the relative palindromic invariance of four distinct indices of determination/discrimination, including a newly proposed index by Smith et al. (2017).


Investigating The Performance Of Propensity Score Approaches For Differential Item Functioning Analysis, Yan Liu, Chanmin Kim, Amrey D. Wu, Paul Gustafson, Edward Kroc, Bruno D. Zumbo Apr 2020

Investigating The Performance Of Propensity Score Approaches For Differential Item Functioning Analysis, Yan Liu, Chanmin Kim, Amrey D. Wu, Paul Gustafson, Edward Kroc, Bruno D. Zumbo

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

To evaluate the performance of propensity score approaches for differential item functioning analysis, this simulation study was conducted to assess bias, mean square error, Type I error, and power under different levels of effect size and a variety of model misspecification conditions, including different types and missing patterns of covariates.


Quasi-Likelihood Ratio Tests For Homoscedasticity In Linear Regression, Lili Yu, Varadan Sevilimedu, Robert Vogel, Hani Samawi Apr 2020

Quasi-Likelihood Ratio Tests For Homoscedasticity In Linear Regression, Lili Yu, Varadan Sevilimedu, Robert Vogel, Hani Samawi

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

Two quasi-likelihood ratio tests are proposed for the homoscedasticity assumption in the linear regression models. They require few assumptions than the existing tests. The properties of the tests are investigated through simulation studies. An example is provided to illustrate the usefulness of the new proposed tests.


A Glossary On Building Longitudinal, Population-Based Data Linkages To Explore Children’S Developmental Trajectories, Jennifer E. V. Lloyd, Jacqui Boonstra, Lisa Chen, Barry Forer, Ruth Hershler, Constance Milbrath, Brenda T. Poon, Neda Razaz, Pippa Rowcliffe, Kimberly Schonert-Reichl Apr 2020

A Glossary On Building Longitudinal, Population-Based Data Linkages To Explore Children’S Developmental Trajectories, Jennifer E. V. Lloyd, Jacqui Boonstra, Lisa Chen, Barry Forer, Ruth Hershler, Constance Milbrath, Brenda T. Poon, Neda Razaz, Pippa Rowcliffe, Kimberly Schonert-Reichl

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

Population-based, person-specific, longitudinal child and youth health and developmental data linkages involve connecting combinations of specially-collected data and administrative data for longitudinal population research purposes. This glossary provides definitions of key terms and concepts related to their theoretical basis, research infrastructure, research methodology, statistical analysis, and knowledge translation.


Using Spss To Analyze Complex Survey Data: A Primer, Danjie Zou, Jennifer E. V. Lloyd, Jennifer L. Baumbusch Apr 2020

Using Spss To Analyze Complex Survey Data: A Primer, Danjie Zou, Jennifer E. V. Lloyd, Jennifer L. Baumbusch

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

An introduction to using SPSS to analyze complex survey data is given. Key features of complex survey design are described briefly, including stratification, clustering, multiple stages, and weights. Then, annotated SPSS syntax for complex survey data analysis is presented to demonstrate the step-by-step process using real complex samples data.


Robust Confidence Intervals For The Population Mean Alternatives To The Student-T Confidence Interval, Moustafa Omar Ahmed Abu-Shawiesh, Aamir Saghir Apr 2020

Robust Confidence Intervals For The Population Mean Alternatives To The Student-T Confidence Interval, Moustafa Omar Ahmed Abu-Shawiesh, Aamir Saghir

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

In this paper, three robust confidence intervals are proposed as alternatives to the Student‑t confidence interval. The performance of these intervals was compared through a simulation study shows that Qn-t confidence interval performs the best and it is as good as Student’s‑t confidence interval. Real-life data was used for illustration and performing a comparison that support the findings obtained from the simulation study.


On The Authentic Notion, Relevance, And Solution Of The Jeffreys-Lindley Paradox In The Zettabyte Era, Miodrag M. Lovric Apr 2020

On The Authentic Notion, Relevance, And Solution Of The Jeffreys-Lindley Paradox In The Zettabyte Era, Miodrag M. Lovric

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

The Jeffreys-Lindley paradox is the most quoted divergence between the frequentist and Bayesian approaches to statistical inference. It is embedded in the very foundations of statistics and divides frequentist and Bayesian inference in an irreconcilable way. This paradox is the Gordian Knot of statistical inference and Data Science in the Zettabyte Era. If statistical science is ready for revolution confronted by the challenges of massive data sets analysis, the first step is to finally solve this anomaly. For more than sixty years, the Jeffreys-Lindley paradox has been under active discussion and debate. Many solutions have been proposed, none entirely satisfactory ...


Conflicts In Bayesian Statistics Between Inference Based On Credible Intervals And Bayes Factors, Miodrag M. Lovric Apr 2020

Conflicts In Bayesian Statistics Between Inference Based On Credible Intervals And Bayes Factors, Miodrag M. Lovric

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

In frequentist statistics, point-null hypothesis testing based on significance tests and confidence intervals are harmonious procedures and lead to the same conclusion. This is not the case in the domain of the Bayesian framework. An inference made about the point-null hypothesis using Bayes factor may lead to an opposite conclusion if it is based on the Bayesian credible interval. Bayesian suggestions to test point-nulls using credible intervals are misleading and should be dismissed. A null hypothesized value may be outside a credible interval but supported by Bayes factor (a Type I conflict), or contrariwise, the null value may be inside ...


Sampling The Porridge: A Comparison Of Ordered Variable Regression With F And R2 And Multiple Linear Regression With Corrected F And R2 In The Presence Of Multicollinearity, Grayson L. Baird, Stephen L. Bieber Mar 2020

Sampling The Porridge: A Comparison Of Ordered Variable Regression With F And R2 And Multiple Linear Regression With Corrected F And R2 In The Presence Of Multicollinearity, Grayson L. Baird, Stephen L. Bieber

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

Differences between the multiple linear regression model with Corrected R2 and Corrected F and the ordered variable regression model with R2 and F when intercorrelation is present are illustrated with simulated and real-world data.


A New Liu Type Of Estimator For The Restricted Sur Estimator, Kristofer Månsson, B. M. Golam Kibria, Ghazi Shukur Mar 2020

A New Liu Type Of Estimator For The Restricted Sur Estimator, Kristofer Månsson, B. M. Golam Kibria, Ghazi Shukur

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

A new Liu type of estimator for the seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) models is proposed that may be used when estimating the parameters vector in the presence of multicollinearity if the it is suspected to belong to a linear subspace. The dispersion matrices and the mean squared error (MSE) are derived. The new estimator may have a lower MSE than the traditional estimators. It was shown using simulation techniques the new shrinkage estimator outperforms the commonly used estimators in the presence of multicollinearity.


Parametric And Non-Parametric Tests For The Comparison Of Two Samples Which Both Include Paired And Unpaired Observations, Ben Derrick, Paul White, Deirdre Toher Mar 2020

Parametric And Non-Parametric Tests For The Comparison Of Two Samples Which Both Include Paired And Unpaired Observations, Ben Derrick, Paul White, Deirdre Toher

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

Samples that include both independent and paired observations cause a dilemma for researchers that covers the full breadth of empirical research. Parametric approaches for the comparison of two samples using all available observations are considered, under normality and non-normality. These approaches are compared to naive and newly proposed non-parametric alternatives.


A Study Verifying The Dimensioning Of A Multivariate Dichotomized Sample In Exploratory Factor Analysis, Rosilei S. Novak, Jair M. Marques Mar 2020

A Study Verifying The Dimensioning Of A Multivariate Dichotomized Sample In Exploratory Factor Analysis, Rosilei S. Novak, Jair M. Marques

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

The sample size dichotomized was related to the measure of sampling adequacy, considering the explanations provided by factors and commonalities. Monte Carlo simulation generated multivariate normal samples and varying the number of observations, the factor analysis was applied in each sample dichotomized. Results were modeled by polynomial regression based on the sample sizing.


Small Area Estimation On Zero-Inflated Data Using Frequentist And Bayesian Approach, Kusman Sadik, Rahma Anisa, Euis Aqmaliyah Feb 2020

Small Area Estimation On Zero-Inflated Data Using Frequentist And Bayesian Approach, Kusman Sadik, Rahma Anisa, Euis Aqmaliyah

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

The most commonly used method of small area estimation (SAE) is the empirical best linear unbiased prediction method based on a linear mixed model. However, it is not appropriate in the case of the zero-inflated target variable with a mixture of zeros and continuously distributed positive values. Therefore, various model-based SAE methods for zero-inflated data are developed, such as the Frequentist approach and the Bayesian approach. Both approaches are compared with the survey regression (SR) method which ignores the presence of zero-inflation in the data. The results show that the two SAE approaches for zero-inflated data are capable to yield ...


Dynamic Conditional Correlation Garch: A Multivariate Time Series Novel Using A Bayesian Approach, Diego Nascimento, Cleber Xavier, Israel Felipe, Francisco Louzada Neto Feb 2020

Dynamic Conditional Correlation Garch: A Multivariate Time Series Novel Using A Bayesian Approach, Diego Nascimento, Cleber Xavier, Israel Felipe, Francisco Louzada Neto

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

The Dynamic Conditional Correlation GARCH (DCC-GARCH) mutation model is considered using a Monte Carlo approach via Markov chains in the estimation of parameters, time-dependence variation is visually demonstrated. Fifteen indices were analyzed from the main financial markets of developed and developing countries from different continents. The performances of indices are similar, with a joint evolution. Most index returns, especially SPX and NDX, evolve over time with a higher positive correlation.


The Importance Of Type I Error Rates When Studying Bias In Monte Carlo Studies In Statistics, Michael Harwell Feb 2020

The Importance Of Type I Error Rates When Studying Bias In Monte Carlo Studies In Statistics, Michael Harwell

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

Two common outcomes of Monte Carlo studies in statistics are bias and Type I error rate. Several versions of bias statistics exist but all employ arbitrary cutoffs for deciding when bias is ignorable or non-ignorable. This article argues Type I error rates should be used when assessing bias.


Regression When There Are Two Covariates: Some Practical Reasons For Considering Quantile Grids, Rand Wilcox Feb 2020

Regression When There Are Two Covariates: Some Practical Reasons For Considering Quantile Grids, Rand Wilcox

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

When dealing with the association between some random variable and two covariates, extensive experience with smoothers indicates that often a linear model poorly reflects the nature of the association. A simple approach via quantile grids that reflects the nature of the association is given. The two main goals are to illustrate this approach can make a practical difference, and to describe R functions for applying it. Included are comments on dealing with more than two covariates.


Bivariate Analogs Of The Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney Test And The Patel–Hoel Method For Interactions, Rand Wilcox Feb 2020

Bivariate Analogs Of The Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney Test And The Patel–Hoel Method For Interactions, Rand Wilcox

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

A fundamental way of characterizing how two independent compares compare is in terms of the probability that a randomly sampled observation from the first group is less than a randomly sampled observation from the second group. The paper suggests a bivariate analog and investigates methods for computing confidence intervals. An interaction for a two-by-two design is investigated as well.


Analytical Closed-Form Solution For General Factor With Many Variables, Stan Lipovetsky, Vladimir Manewitsch Feb 2020

Analytical Closed-Form Solution For General Factor With Many Variables, Stan Lipovetsky, Vladimir Manewitsch

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

The factor analytic triad method of one-factor solution gives the explicit analytical form for a common latent factor built by three variables. The current work considers analytical presentation of a general latent factor constructed in a closed-form solution for multivariate case. The results can be supportive to theoretical description and practical application of latent variable modeling, especially for big data because the analytical closed-form solution is not prone to data dimensionality.


Assessing The Accuracy Of Approximate Confidence Intervals Proposed For The Mean Of Poisson Distribution, Alireza Shirvani, Malek Fathizadeh Feb 2020

Assessing The Accuracy Of Approximate Confidence Intervals Proposed For The Mean Of Poisson Distribution, Alireza Shirvani, Malek Fathizadeh

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

The Poisson distribution is applied as an appropriate standard model to analyze count data. Because this distribution is known as a discrete distribution, representation of accurate confidence intervals for its distribution mean is extremely difficult. Approximate confidence intervals were presented for the Poisson distribution mean. The purpose of this study is to simultaneously compare several confidence intervals presented, according to the average coverage probability and accurate confidence coefficient and the average confidence interval length criteria.


Regression Modeling And Prediction By Individual Observations Versus Frequency, Stan Lipovetsky Feb 2020

Regression Modeling And Prediction By Individual Observations Versus Frequency, Stan Lipovetsky

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

A regression model built by a dataset could sometimes demonstrate a low quality of fit and poor predictions of individual observations. However, using the frequencies of possible combinations of the predictors and the outcome, the same models with the same parameters may yield a high quality of fit and precise predictions for the frequencies of the outcome occurrence. Linear and logistical regressions are used to make an explicit exposition of the results of regression modeling and prediction.


Relaxation And Linear Programs On A Hybrid Control Model, Héctor Jasso-Fuentes, Jose-Luis Menaldi Sep 2019

Relaxation And Linear Programs On A Hybrid Control Model, Héctor Jasso-Fuentes, Jose-Luis Menaldi

Mathematics Faculty Research Publications

Some optimality results for hybrid control problems are presented. The hybrid model under study consists of two subdynamics, one of a standard type governed by an ordinary differential equation, and the other of a special type having a discrete evolution. We focus on the case when the interaction between the subdynamics takes place only when the state of the system reaches a given fixed region of the state space. The controller is able to apply two controls, each applied to one of the two subdynamics, whereas the state follows a composite evolution, of continuous type and discrete type. By the ...


The Estimation Of Missing Values In Rectangular Lattice Designs, Emmanuel Ogochukwu Ossai, Abimibola Victoria Oladugba Sep 2019

The Estimation Of Missing Values In Rectangular Lattice Designs, Emmanuel Ogochukwu Ossai, Abimibola Victoria Oladugba

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

Algebraic expressions for estimating missing data when one or more observation(s) are missing in Rectangular lattice designs with repetition were derived using the method of minimizing the residual sum of squares. Results showed that the estimated value(s) were significantly approximate to that of the actual value(s).


The Analysis Of Trifluoromethylbenzimidazole (Tfmbi) Crystals Using Physical Chemistry Techniques To Explain Ferroelectric And Anti-Ferroelectric Properties Of The Compound, Kanwar Bhullar Aug 2019

The Analysis Of Trifluoromethylbenzimidazole (Tfmbi) Crystals Using Physical Chemistry Techniques To Explain Ferroelectric And Anti-Ferroelectric Properties Of The Compound, Kanwar Bhullar

Honors College Theses

Ferroelectrics are a group of materials possessing the unique chemical property of being able to switch their electrical polarity when exposed to an electric field. This property makes ferroelectrics a promising field of study with the potential to impact various future technologies in information and energy storage, as well as quantum mechanics. Understanding molecular structures of ferroelectric (and opposite anti-ferroelectric) materials, and how they relate to the compound’s properties is essential to harnessing the potential these materials carry. The report discusses analysis of anti-ferroelectric material trifluoromethylbenzimidazole (TFMBI), by subjecting the compound to various physical and computational chemistry techniques at ...