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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Juxtaposition At 45 Km Of Temperatures From Rayleigh-Scatter Lidar And Reanalysis Models, David K. Moser May 2019

Juxtaposition At 45 Km Of Temperatures From Rayleigh-Scatter Lidar And Reanalysis Models, David K. Moser

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Weather and climate forecasts are almost exclusively produced by computer models, which use atmospheric measurements as starting points. It is a well-known and joked-about fact that model predictions can be incorrect at times. One of the reasons this happens is due to gaps in our knowledge of atmospheric conditions in areas where measurements don’t often taken place, such as the mesosphere, which stretches from roughly 45-90 km altitude.

A lidar is a device that can shoot out short bursts of laser light to measure things such as atmospheric thickness at a distance. From this information one can then derive ...


Upper Bounds For The Isolation Number Of A Matrix Over Semirings, Leroy B. Beasley, Seok-Zun Song Jan 2019

Upper Bounds For The Isolation Number Of A Matrix Over Semirings, Leroy B. Beasley, Seok-Zun Song

Mathematics and Statistics Faculty Publications

Let S be an antinegative semiring. The rank of an m×n matrix B over S is the minimal integer r such that B is a product of an m×r matrix and an r×n matrix. The isolation number of B is the maximal number of nonzero entries in the matrix such that no two entries are in the same column, in the same row, and in a submatrix of B of the form [bi,j bk,j

bi,l bk,l] with nonzero entries. We know that the isolation number of B is not ...


Thermal Structure Of The Mesopause Region During The Wadis-2 Rocket Campaign, Raimund Wörl, Boris Strelnikov, Timo P. Viehl, Josef Höffner, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Michael J. Taylor, Yucheng Zhao, Franz-Josef Lübken Jan 2019

Thermal Structure Of The Mesopause Region During The Wadis-2 Rocket Campaign, Raimund Wörl, Boris Strelnikov, Timo P. Viehl, Josef Höffner, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Michael J. Taylor, Yucheng Zhao, Franz-Josef Lübken

Publications

This paper presents simultaneous temperature measurements by three independent instruments during the WADIS-2 rocket campaign in northern Norway (69 N, 14 E) on 5 March 2015. Vertical profiles were measured in situ with the CONE instrument. Continuous mobile IAP Fe lidar (Fe lidar) measurements during a period of 24 h, as well as horizontally resolved temperature maps by the Utah State University (USU) Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper (AMTM) in the mesopause region, are analysed. Vertical and horizontal temperature profiles by all three instruments are in good agreement. A harmonic analysis of the Fe lidar measurements shows the presence of waves ...


Power In Pairs: Assessing The Statistical Value Of Paired Samples In Tests For Differential Expression, John R. Stevens, Jennifer S. Herrick, Roger K. Wolff, Martha L. Slattery Dec 2018

Power In Pairs: Assessing The Statistical Value Of Paired Samples In Tests For Differential Expression, John R. Stevens, Jennifer S. Herrick, Roger K. Wolff, Martha L. Slattery

Mathematics and Statistics Faculty Publications

Background: When genomics researchers design a high-throughput study to test for differential expression, some biological systems and research questions provide opportunities to use paired samples from subjects, and researchers can plan for a certain proportion of subjects to have paired samples. We consider the effect of this paired samples proportion on the statistical power of the study, using characteristics of both count (RNA-Seq) and continuous (microarray) expression data from a colorectal cancer study.

Results: We demonstrate that a higher proportion of subjects with paired samples yields higher statistical power, for various total numbers of samples, and for various strengths of ...


Investigation Of An Unusual Thin Layer Descending Through The Upper Stratosphere, Houston D. Bentley Dec 2018

Investigation Of An Unusual Thin Layer Descending Through The Upper Stratosphere, Houston D. Bentley

Physics Capstone Project

Lidar observations on the night of 19-20 February 2004 at Logan, Utah (41.74 N, 111.81 W) revealed a strange thin layer which descended from roughly 55 km to 30 km over seven hours. Approximations are made for the dimensions and descent rate of the layer. Although the particle radius and density are unknown, a range can be determined from the descent rate and reference to the sizes of known particles. Several possible sources for the layer are explored, concluding that an object entering the Earth’s atmosphere was the most probable cause.


Chemical Analysis Of Aerosol Particle Surfaces, Hillary Woolf Dec 2018

Chemical Analysis Of Aerosol Particle Surfaces, Hillary Woolf

Fall Student Research Symposium 2018

Aerosol particles are thought to impact climate properties. The ability to probe aerosols to understand their chemical properties has been difficult due to a lack of appropriate analytical techniques. Here we present interface-specific SHS techniques to allow for in situ analysis of aerosol particles. Transportation of aerosols from their collection site to the laboratory disturbs their chemical and physical properties thus making it difficult to take accurate measurements of aerosol particles. We show that using a CCD detector is a more effective option for producing more sensitive results and can greatly reduce sampling time and could possibly detect measurements from ...


Assessment Of The Effects Of Climate Change On Evapotranspiration With An Improved Elasticity Method In A Nonhumid Area, Lei Tian, Jiming Jin, Pute Wu, Guo-Yue Niu Dec 2018

Assessment Of The Effects Of Climate Change On Evapotranspiration With An Improved Elasticity Method In A Nonhumid Area, Lei Tian, Jiming Jin, Pute Wu, Guo-Yue Niu

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

Climatic elasticity is a crucial metric to assess the hydrological influence of climate change. Based on the Budyko equation, this study performed an analytical derivation of the climatic elasticity of evapotranspiration (ET). With this derived elasticity, it is possible to quantitatively separate the impacts of precipitation, air temperature, net radiation, relative humidity, and wind speed on ET in a watershed. This method was applied in the Wuding River Watershed (WRW), located in the center of the Yellow River Watershed of China. The estimated rate of change in ET caused by climatic variables is −10.69 mm/decade, which is close ...


Quantifying The Impact Of Climate Change And Human Activities On Streamflow In A Semi-Arid Watershed With The Budyko Equation Incorporating Dynamic Vegetation Information, Lei Tian, Jiming Jin, Pute Wu, Guo-Yue Niu Dec 2018

Quantifying The Impact Of Climate Change And Human Activities On Streamflow In A Semi-Arid Watershed With The Budyko Equation Incorporating Dynamic Vegetation Information, Lei Tian, Jiming Jin, Pute Wu, Guo-Yue Niu

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

Understanding hydrological responses to climate change and land use and land cover change (LULCC) is important for water resource planning and management, especially for water-limited areas. The annual streamflow of the Wuding River Watershed (WRW), the largest sediment source of the Yellow River in China, has decreased significantly over the past 50 years at a rate of 5.2 mm/decade. Using the Budyko equation, this study investigated this decrease with the contributions from climate change and LULCC caused by human activities, which have intensified since 1999 due to China’s Grain for Green Project (GFGP). The Budyko parameter that ...


Rfviz: An Interactive Visualization Package For Random Forests In R, Christopher Beckett Dec 2018

Rfviz: An Interactive Visualization Package For Random Forests In R, Christopher Beckett

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Random forests are very popular tools for predictive analysis and data science. They work for both classification (where there is a categorical response variable) and regression (where the response is continuous). Random forests provide proximities, and both local and global measures of variable importance. However, these quantities require special tools to be effectively used to interpret the forest. Rfviz is a sophisticated interactive visualization package and toolkit in R, specially designed for interpreting the results of a random forest in a user-friendly way. Rfviz uses a recently developed R package (loon) from the Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN) to create ...


The Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper: Remote Sensing Of The Nighttime Oh Layer During The Deepwave Campaign, Pattilyn Mclaughlin Dec 2018

The Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper: Remote Sensing Of The Nighttime Oh Layer During The Deepwave Campaign, Pattilyn Mclaughlin

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

The Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper [AMTM] is a remote sensing instrument developed at Utah State University to map temperature structures in the hydroxyl airglow emission at ~87 km. These maps can then be used to quantify wave field characteristics and to observe general climatology trends. Two recent campaigns that it has been involved with are the DEEPWAVE campaign in Lauder, New Zealand and the Super Soaker campaign in Fairbanks, Alaska.

The Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment, “DEEPWAVE” was an international measurement and modeling program intended to characterize the generation and propagation of a broad range of atmospheric gravity waves with ...


Calculating The Cohomology Of A Lie Algebra Using Maple And The Serre Hochschild Spectral Sequence, Jacob Kullberg Dec 2018

Calculating The Cohomology Of A Lie Algebra Using Maple And The Serre Hochschild Spectral Sequence, Jacob Kullberg

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Lie algebra cohomology is an important tool in many branches of mathematics. It is used in the Topology of homogeneous spaces, Deformation theory, and Extension theory. There exists extensive theory for calculating the cohomology of semi simple Lie algebras, but more tools are needed for calculating the cohomology of general Lie algebras. To calculate the cohomology of general Lie algebras, I used the symbolic software program called Maple. I wrote software to calculate the cohomology in several different ways. I wrote several programs to calculate the cohomology directly. This proved to be computationally expensive as the number of differential forms ...


Impact Of Bubble Baths On Stainless Steel Sphere Water Entry, Wesley Robinson Dec 2018

Impact Of Bubble Baths On Stainless Steel Sphere Water Entry, Wesley Robinson

Physics Capstone Project

Soap Bubbles on the water surface would seem to be an intuitive means for splash suppression, but their presence appears to be a double edged sword. We present on the water entry of hydrophilic spheres where the liquid surface is augmented by the presence of a bubble layer, similar to a bubble bath. While the presence of a bubble layer can diminish splashing upon impact at low Weber numbers, it also induces cavity formation at speeds below the critical velocity. The formation of a cavity generally results in larger Worthington jets and thus, larger amounts of ejected liquid. Bubble layers ...


Mathematica Program To Compute Klein Gordon Equation For Generic Black Holes, Brant Smith Dec 2018

Mathematica Program To Compute Klein Gordon Equation For Generic Black Holes, Brant Smith

Physics Capstone Project

The goal of this project is to develop a program that will compute the Klein Gordon equation for generic Black Holes through the program Mathematica. This program will be available on Utah State websites for public usage. This project focuses on an understanding of General Relativity and more concretely on theoretical aspects of Black Holes. Developing the program begins with computing the Laplace equation in flat space to understand what it means to have empty space without a Black Hole. The Klein Gordon equation for a Schwarzschild Black Hole is then solved to show what happens once a static, non-rotating ...


Multi-Resolution Analysis Using Wavelet Basis Conditioned On Homogenization, Abibat Adebisi Lasisi Dec 2018

Multi-Resolution Analysis Using Wavelet Basis Conditioned On Homogenization, Abibat Adebisi Lasisi

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation considers an approximation strategy using a wavelet reconstruction scheme for solving elliptic problems. The foci of the work are on (1) the approximate solution of differential equations using multiresolution analysis based on wavelet transforms and (2) the homogenization process for solving one and two-dimensional problems, to understand the solutions of second order elliptic problems. We employed homogenization to compute the average formula for permeability in a porous medium. The structure of the associated multiresolution analysis allows for the reconstruction of the approximate solution of the primary variable in the elliptic equation. Using a one-dimensional wavelet reconstruction algorithm proposed ...


Surviving A Civil War: Expanding The Scope Of Survival Analysis In Political Science, Andrew B. Whetten Dec 2018

Surviving A Civil War: Expanding The Scope Of Survival Analysis In Political Science, Andrew B. Whetten

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Survival Analysis in the context of Political Science is frequently used to study the duration of agreements, political party influence, wars, senator term lengths, etc. This paper surveys a collection of methods implemented on a modified version of the Power-Sharing Event Dataset (which documents civil war peace agreement durations in the Post-Cold War era) in order to identify the research questions that are optimally addressed by each method. A primary comparison will be made between a Cox Proportional Hazards Model using some advanced capabilities in the glmnet package, a Survival Random Forest Model, and a Survival SVM. En route to ...


Running The Cañons Of The Rio Grande: Part 2 Boquillas Canyon, Texas And Coahuila, Todd L. Blythe Dec 2018

Running The Cañons Of The Rio Grande: Part 2 Boquillas Canyon, Texas And Coahuila, Todd L. Blythe

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In 1899, Robert T. Hill led the first scientific exploration of the remote segment of the Rio Grande known as the Big Bend. Hill’s observations from this expedition were published in an article titled “Running the Cañons of the Rio Grande.” At the time of Hill’s expedition, the stream flow of the Rio Grande was largely depleted by water development in the upstream portions of the basin. The continued overallocation of the Rio Grande has led to the degradation of aquatic ecosystems in the Big Bend, one of North America’s largest transboundary protected areas, such that management ...


New Ca-Id-Tims Detrital Zircon Constraints On Middle Neoproterozoic Sedimentary Successions, Southwestern United States, Abigail R. Bullard Dec 2018

New Ca-Id-Tims Detrital Zircon Constraints On Middle Neoproterozoic Sedimentary Successions, Southwestern United States, Abigail R. Bullard

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Three related sedimentary successions located in Arizona, Utah, and California were deposited in basins on proto-North America during the early rifting of Rodinia (~780 Mya). Previous detrital zircon U-Pb maximum ages for the units are inexact, making it difficult to piece together what happened at this point in Earth history.

We report better maximum age constraints on these units obtained by subjecting detrital zircons to high-precision CA-ID-TIMS analysis, which provide more exact 206 Pb/238U ages. These new data significantly improve the precision for the base of the ChUMP units, with an average age of 775. 63 ± 0.27 Ma ...


Climate Change Perceptions And Adaptation Among Small-Scale Farmers In Uganda: A Community-Based Participatory Approach, Thomas Derr Dec 2018

Climate Change Perceptions And Adaptation Among Small-Scale Farmers In Uganda: A Community-Based Participatory Approach, Thomas Derr

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Climate change in the East African country of Uganda is causing severe variations in the once predictable seasonal weather patterns that farmers had come to depend on. This, in combination with social and economic challenges, has significantly increased the vulnerability of farmers who make up the majority of Uganda’s population. Previous knowledge and observations suggest that Ugandan farmers may be reluctant or slow to change their practices in response to the changing climate. Strategies are therefore needed to identify challenges and sustainable solutions. This research used qualitative data collection methods known as participatory rural appraisal (PRA) and participatory action ...


Mesospheric Gravity Wave Climatology And Variances Over The Andes Mountains, Jonathan Rich Pugmire Dec 2018

Mesospheric Gravity Wave Climatology And Variances Over The Andes Mountains, Jonathan Rich Pugmire

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Look up! Travelling over your head in the air are waves. They are present all the time in the atmosphere all over the Earth. Now imagine throwing a small rock in a pond and watching the ripples spread out around it. The same thing happens in the atmosphere except the rock is a thunderstorm, the wind blowing over a mountain, or another disturbance. As the wave (known as a gravity wave) travels upwards the thinning air allows the wave to grow larger and larger. Eventually the gravity wave gets too large – and like waves on the beach – it crashes causing ...


An Examination Of What Motivates Utah Residents To Adopt The Practice Of Rainwater Harvesting, D. Wayne Honaker Dec 2018

An Examination Of What Motivates Utah Residents To Adopt The Practice Of Rainwater Harvesting, D. Wayne Honaker

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Although most of the earth is covered in water, a very limited amount of that water is fresh water, which is essential to our survival. Therefore, it is imperative that we do all that is possible to conserve and protect our extremely limited water resources, especially in arid regions such as the American West. While there are many ways and means to protecting and preserving our water resources, this thesis focuses on the strategy of rainwater harvesting (RWH) as it is done throughout the state of Utah. RWH is defined as taking the precipitation that falls on our built structures ...


Quantum Mechanical Studies Of N-H···N Hydrogen Bonding In Acetamide Derivatives And Amino Acids, Sandra J. Lundell Dec 2018

Quantum Mechanical Studies Of N-H···N Hydrogen Bonding In Acetamide Derivatives And Amino Acids, Sandra J. Lundell

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Proteins are made of vast chains of amino acids that twist and fold into intricate designs. These structures are held in place by networks of noncovalent interactions. One of these, the hydrogen bond, forms bridges between adjacent pieces of the protein chain and is one of the most important contributors to the shape and stability of proteins. Hydrogen bonds come in all shapes and sizes and a full understanding of these not only aids in our understanding of proteins in general but can bridge the gap to finding cures to many protein-related diseases, such as sickle-cell anemia. The primary aim ...


Improving Accuracy Of The Edgebox Approach, Kamna Yadav Dec 2018

Improving Accuracy Of The Edgebox Approach, Kamna Yadav

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Object region detection plays a vital role in many domains ranging from self-driving cars to lane detection, which heavily involves the task of object detection. Improving the performance of object region detection approaches is of great importance and therefore is an active ongoing research in Computer Vision. Traditional sliding window paradigm has been widely used to identify hundreds of thousands of windows (covering different scales, angles, and aspect ratios for objects) before the classification step. However, it is not only computationally expensive but also produces relatively low accuracy in terms of the classifier output by providing many negative samples. Object ...


The Influence Of Mechanical Stratigraphy On Thrust-Ramp Nucleation And Propagation Of Thrust Faults, Sarah S. Wigginton Dec 2018

The Influence Of Mechanical Stratigraphy On Thrust-Ramp Nucleation And Propagation Of Thrust Faults, Sarah S. Wigginton

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Our current understanding of thrust fault kinematics predicts that thrust faults nucleate on low angle, weak surfaces before they propagate upward and forms a higher angle ramp. While this classic kinematic and geometric model serves well in some settings, it does not fully consider the observations of footwall deformation beneath some thrust faults. We examine an alternative end-member model of thrust fault formation called “ramp-first” fault formation. This model hypothesizes that in mechanically layered rocks, thrust ramps nucleate in the structurally strong units, and that faults can propagate both upward and downward into weaker units forming folds at both fault ...


Historical Channel Change Caused By A Century Of Flow Alteration On Sixth Water Creek And Diamond Fork River, Ut, Jabari C. Jones Dec 2018

Historical Channel Change Caused By A Century Of Flow Alteration On Sixth Water Creek And Diamond Fork River, Ut, Jabari C. Jones

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Changes in the amount of water and sediment that enter a river can change its shape and size. The way that rivers change is affected by a variety of factors, including the size of the sediment in the river, and past changes to the river. The Diamond Fork River in central Utah has been altered by water deliveredfromthe Colorado River system for over a century. Beginning in 1915, water used for irrigation was delivered through a tributary, Sixth Water Creek, with daily summer flows that were much larger than natural flows. This caused drastic change to the rivers, as they ...


Sheaf Theory As A Foundation For Heterogeneous Data Fusion, Seyed M-H Mansourbeigi Dec 2018

Sheaf Theory As A Foundation For Heterogeneous Data Fusion, Seyed M-H Mansourbeigi

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A major impediment to scientific progress in many fields is the inability to make sense of the huge amounts of data that have been collected via experiment or computer simulation. This dissertation provides tools to visualize, represent, and analyze the collection of sensors and data all at once in a single combinatorial geometric object. Encoding and translating heterogeneous data into common language are modeled by supporting objects. In this methodology, the behavior of the system based on the detection of noise in the system, possible failure in data exchange and recognition of the redundant or complimentary sensors are studied via ...


The Development Of Hydrodynamic And Kinetic Models For The Plasmasphere Refilling Problem Following A Geomagnetic Storm, Kausik Chatterjee Dec 2018

The Development Of Hydrodynamic And Kinetic Models For The Plasmasphere Refilling Problem Following A Geomagnetic Storm, Kausik Chatterjee

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this dissertation is the development of computer simulation-based models for the modeling of upper ionosphere, starting from the first principles. The models were validated by exact analytical benchmarks and are seen to be consistent with experimentally obtained results. This area of research has significant implications in the area of global communication. In addition, these models would lead to a better understanding of the physical processes taking place in the upper ionosphere.


Sensitivity Of The Opal Instrument For Gravity Wave Detection, Kenneth I. Zia Dec 2018

Sensitivity Of The Opal Instrument For Gravity Wave Detection, Kenneth I. Zia

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Knowing what goes on in the upper atmosphere (∼80-140 km) is very important to the space science community. There are several competing forces that influence the temperature and densities of neutral molecules in that region. OPAL (Optical Profiling of the Atmospheric Limb) is funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) to measure the temperature there using light from oxygen molecules (∼760 nm). To accomplish this,OPAL is built into a CubeSat (a satellite the size of a loaf of bread) to be launched from the International Space Station (ISS) at an altitude of about 400 km. This vantage point is ...


Energy And Risk: Discourse, Framing, And Content, Temis Gardner Taylor Dec 2018

Energy And Risk: Discourse, Framing, And Content, Temis Gardner Taylor

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This research examined how people communicate and create knowledge about energy-related risks. Analysis of the discourse, frames, and content surrounding unconventional energy policy and development in the Western United States was conducted using three case studies. The results contribute to an understanding of energy-related risk perceptions in social and historical contexts.

Discourses contained in newspapers and public comments to the Bureau of Land Management presented arguments on the basis of risks to the environment; climate; human health and safety; jobs and economic prosperity; property rights; and local governments. Governments were seen as risks when they were perceived to allow misuse ...


Comparing Performance Of Gene Set Test Methods Using Biologically Relevant Simulated Data, Richard M. Lambert Dec 2018

Comparing Performance Of Gene Set Test Methods Using Biologically Relevant Simulated Data, Richard M. Lambert

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Today we know that there are many genetically driven diseases and health conditions.These problems often manifest only when a set of genes are either active or inactive. Recent technology allows us to measure the activity level of genes in cells, which we call gene expression. It is of great interest to society to be able to statistically compare the gene expression of a large number of genes between two or more groups. For example, we may want to compare the gene expression of a group of cancer patients with a group of non-cancer patients to better understand the genetic ...


“I Really Don’T Look For Certifications, It All Has To Do With Personal Relationships”: The Construction Of A Meat Philosophy And Innovation Adoption By Culinary Professionals In The Rocky Mountain Region, Kailie B. Leggett Dec 2018

“I Really Don’T Look For Certifications, It All Has To Do With Personal Relationships”: The Construction Of A Meat Philosophy And Innovation Adoption By Culinary Professionals In The Rocky Mountain Region, Kailie B. Leggett

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Demand for new methods of beef production is rising due to concern over potential impacts on human health, animal welfare, and the environment. Researchers at Utah State University have developed a method of beef production from cattle finished on tannin-containing legume forages in the Rocky Mountain Region in order to address those concerns. To ensure success of this product, the demand and marketability needed to be assessed. Food values addressed through new production standards and certifications are communicated through labeling by culinary professionals in the kitchen and behind service counters. This research study utilized qualitative methods to understand how culinary ...