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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Boron In The Pariette Wetlands, Uinta Basin, Ut, Palak Vasudeva Aug 2020

Boron In The Pariette Wetlands, Uinta Basin, Ut, Palak Vasudeva

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Boron is a naturally occurring mineral in shale and coal beds formed in marine environments, as found in the Uinta Basin. Mining activity and the application of excess irrigation water on agricultural lands in the Pariette watershed lead to mobilization of B via surface run off. Water quality monitoring records from 2006- 2009 reported violations of Utah B standard for irrigation water 43-100% of the time, for water flowing through the Pariette Wetlands. This study aims to determine B distribution in abiotic (water, sediments) and biotic samples (macroinvertebrates, aquatic vegetation, fish, bird eggs), and to establish correlations between B concentrations ...


Numerical Approximations Of Phase Field Equations With Physics Informed Neural Networks, Colby Wight Aug 2020

Numerical Approximations Of Phase Field Equations With Physics Informed Neural Networks, Colby Wight

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Designing numerical algorithms for solving partial differential equations (PDEs) is one of the major research branches in applied and computational mathematics. Recently there has been some seminal work on solving PDEs using the deep neural networks. In particular, the Physics Informed Neural Network (PINN) has been shown to be effective in solving some classical partial differential equations. However, we find that this method is not sufficient in solving all types of equations and falls short in solving phase-field equations. In this thesis, we propose various techniques that add to the power of these networks. Mainly, we propose to embrace the ...


Soil Health Assessment On Arid Rangeland Soils Impacted By Oil And Gas Exploration, Development, And Extraction, Justin Allred Aug 2020

Soil Health Assessment On Arid Rangeland Soils Impacted By Oil And Gas Exploration, Development, And Extraction, Justin Allred

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Oil and gas well pad reclamation in arid environments such as in the Uinta Basin of Utah, presents unique challenges, including remote locations, limited water, and elevated soil salinity and sodicity. Successfully reclaimed Plugged and Abandoned (P&A) well pads should resemble the surrounding rangeland once fully reclaimed. Revegetation of native species is the primary indicator of successful reclamation, but the lack of water makes it challenging to re-seed native plants, while trying to prevent the encroachment of invasive plant species such as Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass), Salsola tragus (Russian thistle), and Halogeton glomeratus (halogeton). Could successful reclamation be reflective of ...


Visual Saliency Estimation And Its Applications, Fei Xu Aug 2020

Visual Saliency Estimation And Its Applications, Fei Xu

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The human visual system can automatically emphasize some parts of the image and ignore the other parts when seeing an image or a scene. Visual Saliency Estimation (VSE) aims to imitate this functionality of the human visual system to estimate the degree of human attention attracted by different image regions and locate the salient object. The study of VSE will help us explore the way human visual systems extract objects from an image. It has wide applications, such as robot navigation, video surveillance, object tracking, self-driving, etc.

The current VSE approaches on natural images models generic visual stimuli based on ...


Some Examples Of The Liouville Integrability Of The Banded Toda Flows, Zachary Youmans Aug 2020

Some Examples Of The Liouville Integrability Of The Banded Toda Flows, Zachary Youmans

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Toda lattice is a famous integrable system studied by Toda in the 1960s. One can study the Toda lattice using a matrix representation of the system. Previous results have shown that this matrix of dimension n with 1 band and n−1 bands is Liouville integrable. In this paper, we lay the foundation for proving the general case of the Toda lattice, where we consider the matrix representation with dimension n and a partially filled lower triangular part. We call this the banded Toda flow. The main theorem is that the banded Toda flow up to dimension 10 is ...


Effect Of Plant Derived Tannins On Nitrogen And Carbon Cycling In Pasture Soils, Kathryn A. Slebodnik Aug 2020

Effect Of Plant Derived Tannins On Nitrogen And Carbon Cycling In Pasture Soils, Kathryn A. Slebodnik

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Pasture-finished beef has become increasingly popular, but nitrogen losses from these pastures are of concern. Legumes containing condensed tannins such as birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) may serve as environmentally and economically viable alternative forages in pasture finishing systems while reducing soil nitrogen loss. The goal of this project was to understand how tannin type and concentration affects soil nitrogen cycling both in the lab and the field. This thesis: 1) compared the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of soil samples obtained from grazed grass and tannin and non-tannin containing legume pastures, 2) assessed how feces from ...


Modelling Eurasian Beaver Foraging Habitat And Dam Suitability, For Predicting The Location And Number Of Dams Throughout Catchments In Great Britain, Hugh A. Graham, Alan Puttock, William W. Macfarlane, Joseph M. Wheaton, Jordan T. Gilbert, Róisín Campbell-Palmer, Mark Elliott, Martin J. Gaywood, Karen Anderson, Richard E. Brazier May 2020

Modelling Eurasian Beaver Foraging Habitat And Dam Suitability, For Predicting The Location And Number Of Dams Throughout Catchments In Great Britain, Hugh A. Graham, Alan Puttock, William W. Macfarlane, Joseph M. Wheaton, Jordan T. Gilbert, Róisín Campbell-Palmer, Mark Elliott, Martin J. Gaywood, Karen Anderson, Richard E. Brazier

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) populations are expanding across Europe. Depending on location, beaver dams bring multiple benefits and/or require management. Using nationally available data, we developed: a Beaver Forage Index (BFI), identifying beaver foraging habitat, and a Beaver Dam Capacity (BDC) model, classifying suitability of river reaches for dam construction, to estimate location and number of dams at catchment scales. Models were executed across three catchments, in Great Britain (GB), containing beaver. An area of 6747 km2 was analysed for BFI and 16,739 km of stream for BDC. Field surveys identified 258 km of channel containing beaver ...


Fabrication Of Suspended Microbolometers On Soi Wafers, Isaac Maxfield May 2020

Fabrication Of Suspended Microbolometers On Soi Wafers, Isaac Maxfield

Physics Capstone Projects

A bolometer is a device to measure radiation energy by converting photon energy into heat on an isolated absorber. We plan to use carbon-nanotube (CNT) based absorber to enhance the photon absorption. The absorber is a few microns in size and is suspended with micron-sized bridges which also support metal lines for electrical measurements.


Synthesis Of Graphene By Liquid Precursors At Lower Temperatures, Clayton Hansen May 2020

Synthesis Of Graphene By Liquid Precursors At Lower Temperatures, Clayton Hansen

Physics Capstone Projects

Benzene, toluene, and xylene can be liquid precursors for graphene and carbon nanotube synthesis. However, the growth mechanisms can have greater variances for different carbon allotropes. In the case of graphene, Cu can be the catalyst for dehydrogenation and provides a weakly-coupled substrate for 2-dimensional graphene nucleation and growth. In the case of carbon nanotubes, Fe nanoparticles are essential to catalyze the C-C bonds breaking and dissolve carbon before the precipitation of a graphene cap over the catalyst particle where a tube forms. Controlling the precursor feed rate is crucial for a successful synthesis. In this research, we developed a ...


Waves Over Mcmurdo Station, Robert Johnson May 2020

Waves Over Mcmurdo Station, Robert Johnson

Physics Capstone Projects

Atmospheric gravity waves (GWs) are generated by gravity acting on weather systems effectively causing them to oscillate. These waves can then propagate upwards into the upper atmosphere, where they are observed as they pass through glowing layers of gas, called airglow, in the upper atmosphere at approximately 87 kilometers altitude. Using Physics and a little bit of chemistry we can observe the properties of these waves with special infrared cameras. Combining the data between images taken at the same time but with different filters, we can determine the temperature amplitudes of the waves, important for improving our understanding of their ...


Material Outgassing Kinetics: The Development Of A Testing Capability, Alex Kirkman May 2020

Material Outgassing Kinetics: The Development Of A Testing Capability, Alex Kirkman

Physics Capstone Projects

Contamination due to outgassing of materials can cause the degradation of critical hardware of a spacecraft. Using outgassing rates, kinetic expressions can be developed and used in models to predict the evolution of molecules and migration of contaminants for specific materials. These models could be used in the selection process of materials to help mitigate the amount of contamination of mission critical hardware for the expected life of the spacecraft. By using the ASTM E1559 test standard this can be achieved. This standard uses the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) collection approach. A temperature-controlled effusion cell, containing the sample material, impinges ...


Accuracy Of The Generic Equation To Convert Cci To Chlorophyll Concentration In The Apogee Model Mc-100 Chlorophyll Concentration Meter, Shuyang Zhen, Paul Kusuma May 2020

Accuracy Of The Generic Equation To Convert Cci To Chlorophyll Concentration In The Apogee Model Mc-100 Chlorophyll Concentration Meter, Shuyang Zhen, Paul Kusuma

Techniques and Instruments

Chlorophyll strongly absorbs photons below 700 nm and transmits above 700 nm. Because of this property, chlorophyll concentration can be estimated by measuring the ratio of transmitted photons though a leaf at specific wavelengths. Chlorophyll concentration is then calculated using empirical relationships.


Semisimple Subalgebras Of Semisimple Lie Algebras, Mychelle Parker May 2020

Semisimple Subalgebras Of Semisimple Lie Algebras, Mychelle Parker

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Let g be a Lie algebra. The subalgebra classification problem is to create a list of all subalgebras of g up to equivalence. The purpose of this thesis is to provide a software toolkit within the Differential Geometry package of Maple for classifying subalgebras of In particular the thesis will focus on classifying those subalgebras which are isomorphic to the Lie algebra sl(2) and those subalgebras of which have a basis aligned with the root space decomposition (regular subalgebras).


Predicting The Impact Of Weather On Rural Travel Times Using Now-Cast Weather Forecast Data, Manish Meshram May 2020

Predicting The Impact Of Weather On Rural Travel Times Using Now-Cast Weather Forecast Data, Manish Meshram

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In the states which record extreme weather conditions and high snow in winters, the travel time to drive between cities can get highly affected due to these bad weather conditions. The present solutions to tackle this problem are largely flow or time related and do not take weather conditions into account while making the predictions about travel time. Also these solutions can mostly be used for real time travel and not the future travel. In addition to that, the studies that have been done in this space are mostly for urban travel times but most parts of the interstate highways ...


Materials Design For High-Performance Organic Redox Flow Batteries And Electrocatalytic Carbon Dioxide And Nitrogen Reduction, Bo Hu May 2020

Materials Design For High-Performance Organic Redox Flow Batteries And Electrocatalytic Carbon Dioxide And Nitrogen Reduction, Bo Hu

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Nowadays, the utilization of renewable energy resources such as solar and wind energy has been realized to be a sustainable and environmentally benign strategy to alleviate the world’s severe dependency on traditional fossil fuels, and thus enables the environmental recovery and sustainable development of the economy. The massive commercialization of solar and wind energy raises the demands for advanced energy storage technologies, among which the redox flow battery has been recognized as a promising solution due to it is low cost, safe, environmentally benign, and easy to be scaled up. All vanadium redox flow battery stands for the most ...


Using Imagery To Improve Program Quality In Computer Programming, Joseph S. Ditton May 2020

Using Imagery To Improve Program Quality In Computer Programming, Joseph S. Ditton

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A common practice in sports is to review film footage of a game. This is done in the hope that individuals on the team or the a team as a whole might learning something about technique, form, process, or strategy that they either did well on or need to improve on. We believe that the benefits of doing this could extend to computer science, and more specifically, the process of writing a computer program. This has never been done in the past, as such this research is exploratory in nature. A new tool called Phanon can record someone writing a ...


Determining The Phase Of The Diurnal, Solar Thermal Tidal Wave In The Upper Atmosphere Using Nighttime Na Lidar Measurements, Trevor Harshman May 2020

Determining The Phase Of The Diurnal, Solar Thermal Tidal Wave In The Upper Atmosphere Using Nighttime Na Lidar Measurements, Trevor Harshman

Physics Capstone Projects

Solar thermal tidal waves play a critical role in the dynamics of the mesosphere and thermosphere. Obtaining measurements of the diurnal tidal wave above 100 km is difficult. This could be solved using a physics-based empirical model. To derive this model requires knowing the phase at different points along the tidal wave. In this study, I determine the phase at multiple points along the thermal diurnal tidal wave using measurements taken by a fluorescence lidar in the range of 80 to 100 km. A simple calculation of the phase based on the zeroes and extrema of the wave is demonstrated.


Nanotextural And Nanochemical Constraints On The Role Of Heat In The Development Of Crystalline-Hosted, Silica-Rich Fault Mirrors In The Wasatch Fault Damage Zone, Utah, Usa, Leah M. Houser May 2020

Nanotextural And Nanochemical Constraints On The Role Of Heat In The Development Of Crystalline-Hosted, Silica-Rich Fault Mirrors In The Wasatch Fault Damage Zone, Utah, Usa, Leah M. Houser

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Earthquakes occur on faults, or rock that has experienced displacement at depth. Experimental work on a range of rock types reveals that >90% of earthquake energy on fault surfaces is given off as heat. Heat weakens rock and promotes earthquake rupture propagation. Thin (<0.5mm), high-gloss, “polished”, light-reflective exposed fault surfaces are called fault mirrors (FMs). Fault mirrors may record rapid thermal, textural, and chemical changes that occur during an earthquake event.

The Wasatch Mountains are a N-S trending mountain range in Northern Utah that are the backdrop for Salt Lake City, Provo, Ogden, and Brigham City. This mountain range is currently built by the active Wasatch fault, and includes the exposed Wasatch fault damage zone. Many segments of the Wasatch fault are overdue for a potentially catastrophic earthquake ...


Teaching Distributed Application Design Using Drones, Cameron Frandsen May 2020

Teaching Distributed Application Design Using Drones, Cameron Frandsen

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis provides a new platform that instructors can use to create a learning environment for students to learn how to design and implement distributed applications. One possible way to use the platform uses milestones to test the student’s understanding of different concepts. Milestones contain pretests that students can use to test their code. Each milestone focuses on a different concept, including interprocess communication, reliability, and security. A monitor process can be created by the students to provide away for the instructor to see how well the students are learning the concepts by using a monitor process. The platform ...


Retention Of Women In Computer Science: Why Women Persist In Their Computer Science Majors, Katarina Pantic May 2020

Retention Of Women In Computer Science: Why Women Persist In Their Computer Science Majors, Katarina Pantic

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Retention of women through graduation in Computer Science (CS) majors is one of the biggest challenges for CS education. Most research in this area focuses on factors influencing attrition rather than why and how women remain committed. The goal of this research study is to understand retention from the perspective of women who persisted in their CS major. Using the theoretical lens of legitimate peripheral participation in communities of practice, I designed and conducted a study that involved focus groups, interviews, journey maps, and experience sampling methods. I found that retention of women in this study was influenced by four ...


Applications Of Machine Learning In High-Frequency Trade Direction Classification, Jared E. Hansen May 2020

Applications Of Machine Learning In High-Frequency Trade Direction Classification, Jared E. Hansen

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The correct assignment of trades as buyer-initiated or seller-initiated is paramount in many quantitative finance studies. Simple decision rule methods have been used for signing trades since many data sets available to researchers do not include the sign of each trade executed. By utilizing these decision rule methods, as well as engineering new variables from available data, we have demonstrated that machine learning models outperform prior methods for accurately signing trades as buys and sells, achieving state-of-the-art results. The best model developed was 4.5 percentage points more accurate than older methods when predicting onto unseen data. Since finance and ...


'Lmshapemaker': Utilizing The 'Rmapshaper' R Package To Modify Shapefiles For Use In Linked Micromap Plots, Braden D. Probst May 2020

'Lmshapemaker': Utilizing The 'Rmapshaper' R Package To Modify Shapefiles For Use In Linked Micromap Plots, Braden D. Probst

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In order to effectively create map-based visualizations, some map modifications need to be conducted to ensure the map is readable and interpretable. There are several issues that need to be addressed to achieve this. The boundaries of a country may be overly complex which is particularly true with coastal areas of countries. Regions may be small and not seen in the final plot, as is the case with many capital cities in the world’s countries such as Washington D.C. and the Federal District of Mexico City. In other countries, regions may geographically lie far away from the rest ...


The Marshmallow Lab: A Project-Based Approach To Understanding Functional Responses, Melissa Pulley May 2020

The Marshmallow Lab: A Project-Based Approach To Understanding Functional Responses, Melissa Pulley

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This paper presents a three-part lesson plan to improve student’s understanding of Holling’s type II functional response model. This model describes the interaction between a predator and how much it is able to consume given a constant number of prey. According to the model, while increased availability of prey allows predators to consume portionately more prey for low values, after some number of prey, predators will only be able to capture a limited number of prey even as the prey continues to increase. This phenomenon is known as saturation. Holling first develop this important ecological theory through his ...


Model-Based Properties Of Earth's Protective Shield: Relating Ut-Based Dependencies Of The Open/Closed Boundary, Cutoff Latitude, And L-Shell Parameter With Polar Cap Absorption Events, David A. Smith May 2020

Model-Based Properties Of Earth's Protective Shield: Relating Ut-Based Dependencies Of The Open/Closed Boundary, Cutoff Latitude, And L-Shell Parameter With Polar Cap Absorption Events, David A. Smith

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

High frequency radio continues to be an important communications medium. For example, commercial airlines use high frequency radios as their primary communications mode during transpolar crossings. It has been estimated that over 7000 transpolar flights occur each year. Unfortunately, during geomagnetic storms high frequency communications can become unreliable, especially near Earth's Polar Regions.

Space weather forecasters are burdened with the responsibility of predicting how radio signals might be affected during geomagnetic storms and passing that important information on to commercial airlines, allowing them to adjust flight plans accordingly. Such adjustments can be costly, but are necessary to ensure safety ...


Private Land, Public Trust: Strategic Conservation Planning For Public Wildlife On Private Lands Through The Usfws Partners For Fish And Wildlife Program, Clint Wirick May 2020

Private Land, Public Trust: Strategic Conservation Planning For Public Wildlife On Private Lands Through The Usfws Partners For Fish And Wildlife Program, Clint Wirick

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Law requires federal agencies to develop long-term strategic plans. Strategic plans define goals, objectives, and performance measures defining how the agencies and programs will reach their stated goals. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Partners for Fish and Wildlife (PFW) develops strategic plans every five years. Each individual state develops a plan for their respective state. Those state plans are compiled for the region and become part of Regional Comprehensive Strategic Plan. The current strategic plan expires in 2021. States will begin the strategic planning process in 2020. In Utah, PFW staff will also begin developing a strategic plan ...


Clustering And Classifying Geophysical Rock Properties Of The San Andreas Fault, Jared Bryan Apr 2020

Clustering And Classifying Geophysical Rock Properties Of The San Andreas Fault, Jared Bryan

Physics Capstone Projects

Borehole geophysical data provide important in situ observations for identifying and characterizing geologic and structural features in the subsurface. We perform an unsupervised classification of geophysical logs from the Sand Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) borehole in order to define intervals of distinct geophysical properties. We focus on borehole geophysical data collected during Phase 3 drilling operations from 3.0-3.3 km measured depth, which encompasses the active trace of the San Andreas Fault. We use dimensionality reduction to increase the interpretability of the retrieved clusters, and we compare the performance of distance- and density-based clustering techniques. K-means clustering ...


Optical Relaxation Of Defects In Kapton Caused By Irradiation, Ashlan Keeler Swainston Apr 2020

Optical Relaxation Of Defects In Kapton Caused By Irradiation, Ashlan Keeler Swainston

Physics Capstone Projects

Radiation can create atomic-scale defect states in polymers, leading to changes in their optical, electrical and mechanical properties. Recent studies of polymers have shown that these defect states are sensitive to oxygen or air exposure. It is believed that air cause the number of defect states to decrease and the polymers to revert to their original states. However, the time scale of this regression is not known. This experiment quantified the time that it takes one polymer to recover and the extent of said recovery; polymide (PI). In order to study the regression, optical transmission data were taken using a ...


Developing And Implementing A 100% Renewable Electricity Resolution: A Research-Based Framework, Emily E. Skill, Roslynn Brain Mccann, Sarah C. Klain Apr 2020

Developing And Implementing A 100% Renewable Electricity Resolution: A Research-Based Framework, Emily E. Skill, Roslynn Brain Mccann, Sarah C. Klain

All Current Publications

While it may seem that the efforts of local governments have only a marginal impact on the global issue of climate change, local action can spread to generate large-scale change. Local action can inspire other communities to adopt policies, creating the potential to expand and form regional action on climate change. Furthermore, local policies can influence state and federal policies. This guide will walk you through a five-step framework that was developed from the results of a qualitative research study that explored how three Utah cities, Salt Lake City, Park City, and Moab, successfully adopted 100% renewable electricity resolutions.


Understanding Noether’S Theorem By Visualizing The Lagrangian, Seth Moser Apr 2020

Understanding Noether’S Theorem By Visualizing The Lagrangian, Seth Moser

Physics Capstone Projects

By approaching Lagrangian mechanics from a graphical perspective the implications of Noether’s Theorem can be made easier to understand. Plotting the Lagrangian for classical single particle systems for one coordinate onto a position-velocity phase space along with the corresponding equations of motion can demonstrate how a system is invariant under continuous transforms in that coordinate. This invariance can be shown to be associated with a quantity in the system that’s conserved via Noether’s Theorem. The relationship between the symmetry of the system and conserved quantities can then be extended to fields. Invariance in this case is extended ...


Determing The Chaotic Nature Of Periodic Orbits, Bo Johnson Apr 2020

Determing The Chaotic Nature Of Periodic Orbits, Bo Johnson

Physics Capstone Projects

The determination of the long-term behavior of periodic orbits is considered. Different numerical techniques, including the Lyapunov Exponent, the Smaller Alignment Index, and the Generalized Alignment Index are used. Because of the discontinuous nature of the system under consideration, these methods are found to be insufficient and a more simplistic approach is utilized. The simplistic approach determines long-term behavior up to 500 periods of an orbit. It is found that in-phase periodic modes result in the largest amount of stable modes. Future work will look at the common characteristics of the in-phase modes to better understand why they are more ...