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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Graphene Oxide–Based Nanomaterials: An Insight Into Retinal Prosthesis, Jia Yang, Zih Yu, Sheng Cheng, Johnson Chung, Xiao Liu, Chung Wu, Shien Lin, Guan Chen Jan 2020

Graphene Oxide–Based Nanomaterials: An Insight Into Retinal Prosthesis, Jia Yang, Zih Yu, Sheng Cheng, Johnson Chung, Xiao Liu, Chung Wu, Shien Lin, Guan Chen

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Retinal prosthesis has recently emerged as a treatment strategy for retinopathies, providing excellent assistance in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and retinitis pigmentosa. The potential application of graphene oxide (GO), a highly biocompatible nanomaterial with superior physicochemical properties, in the fabrication of electrodes for retinal prosthesis, is reviewed in this article. This review integrates insights from biological medicine and nanotechnology, with electronic and electrical engineering technological breakthroughs, and aims to highlight innovative objectives in developing biomedical applications of retinal prosthesis.


Sharkeye: Real-Time Autonomous Personal Shark Alerting Via Aerial Surveillance, Robert A. Gorkin Iii, Kye Adams, Matthew J. Berryman, Sam Aubin, Wanqing Li, Andrew R. Davis, Johan Barthelemy Jan 2020

Sharkeye: Real-Time Autonomous Personal Shark Alerting Via Aerial Surveillance, Robert A. Gorkin Iii, Kye Adams, Matthew J. Berryman, Sam Aubin, Wanqing Li, Andrew R. Davis, Johan Barthelemy

SMART Infrastructure Facility - Papers

While aerial shark spotting has been a standard practice for beach safety for decades, new technologies offer enhanced opportunities, ranging from drones/unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) that provide new viewing capabilities, to new apps that provide beachgoers with up-to-date risk analysis before entering the water. This report describes the Sharkeye platform, a first-of-its-kind project to demonstrate personal shark alerting for beachgoers in the water and on land, leveraging innovative UAV image collection, cloud-hosted machine learning detection algorithms, and reporting via smart wearables. To execute, our team developed a novel detection algorithm trained via machine learning based on aerial footage of ...


Towards Agent-Based Traffic Simulation Using Live Data From Sensors For Smart Cities, Johan Barthelemy, Yan Qian, Pascal Perez Jan 2020

Towards Agent-Based Traffic Simulation Using Live Data From Sensors For Smart Cities, Johan Barthelemy, Yan Qian, Pascal Perez

SMART Infrastructure Facility - Papers

The Smart City and Internet-of-Things revolutions enable the collection of various types of data in real-time through sensors. This data can be used to improve the decision tools and simulations used by city planners. This paper presents a new framework for real-time traffic simulation integrating an agent-based methodology with live CCTV and other sensor data while respecting the privacy regulations. The framework simulates traffic flows of pedestrians, vehicles and bicycles and their interactions. The approach has been applied in Liverpool (NSW, Australia) showing promising preliminary results and can easily ingest additional sensor data, e.g. air quality.


Fabrication Of Aligned Biomimetic Gellan Gum-Chitosan Microstructures Through 3d Printed Microfluidic Channels And Multiple In Situ Cross-Linking Mechanisms, Thomas Robinson, Sepehr Talebian, Javad Foroughi, Zhilian Yue, Cormac Fay, Gordon G. Wallace Jan 2020

Fabrication Of Aligned Biomimetic Gellan Gum-Chitosan Microstructures Through 3d Printed Microfluidic Channels And Multiple In Situ Cross-Linking Mechanisms, Thomas Robinson, Sepehr Talebian, Javad Foroughi, Zhilian Yue, Cormac Fay, Gordon G. Wallace

SMART Infrastructure Facility - Papers

In this study we use a combination of ionic- and photo-cross-linking to develop a fabrication method for producing biocompatible microstructures using a methacrylated gellan gum (a polyanion) and chitosan (a polycation) in addition to lithium phenyl-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoylphosphinate (LAP) as the photoinitiator. This work involves the development of a low-cost, portable 3D bioprinter and a customized extrusion mechanism for controlled introduction of the materials through a 3D printed microfluidic nozzle, before being cross-linked in situ to form robust microstructure bundles. The formed microstructures yielded a diameter of less than 1 μm and a tensile strength range of ∼1 MPa. This ...


A Game-Based Approach To Exploring Gender Differences In Smallholder Decisions To Change Farming Practices: White Rice Production In Laos, Silva Larson, Anne Giger-Dray, Tina Cornioley, Manithaythip Thephavanh, Phomma Thammavong, Sisavan Vorlasan, John Connell, Magnus Moglia, Peter Case, Kim Alexander, Pascal Perez Jan 2020

A Game-Based Approach To Exploring Gender Differences In Smallholder Decisions To Change Farming Practices: White Rice Production In Laos, Silva Larson, Anne Giger-Dray, Tina Cornioley, Manithaythip Thephavanh, Phomma Thammavong, Sisavan Vorlasan, John Connell, Magnus Moglia, Peter Case, Kim Alexander, Pascal Perez

SMART Infrastructure Facility - Papers

© 2020 by the authors. What influences farmers' decisions to adopt agricultural technologies is an important question for international agricultural research projects. There are often interpersonal differences between women and men that influence the adoption of decisions and behaviours, but few studies in the literature focus on these factors. We describe a game-based approach to explore decision-making processes underpinning the adoption of new farming technologies and practices in Lao People's Democratic Republic. Sowing a different rice variety is the tailored technology. The game explored adoption behaviours influencing decisions on transitioning from growing glutinous rice, a traditional variety preferred for consumption ...


Stabilization Of Skyrmions In A Nanodisk Without An External Magnetic Field, Hang Li, Collins Akosa, Peng Yan, Yuanxu Wang, Zhenxiang Cheng Jan 2020

Stabilization Of Skyrmions In A Nanodisk Without An External Magnetic Field, Hang Li, Collins Akosa, Peng Yan, Yuanxu Wang, Zhenxiang Cheng

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

We study, in the absence of a magnetic field, the stability of skyrmions in a disk-shaped ferromagnetic multilayer in the presence of locally pinned spins at the edge. This particular boundary condition suppresses the formation of helical states yet enhances the stabilization of states with rotational symmetry, such as Neél skyrmions. Numerical simulation shows that the size of the disk is a viable parameter to control the creation and annihilation of skyrmionic states. We also find that the demagnetization field renormalizes the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. This study opens an alternative avenue to the generation, stabilization, and control of magnetic skyrmions in ...


Voltage-Induced Penetration Effect In Liquid Metals At Room Temperature, Fei Yun, Zhenwei Yu, Yahua He, Lei Jiang, Zhao Wang, Haoshuang Gu, Xiaolin Wang Jan 2020

Voltage-Induced Penetration Effect In Liquid Metals At Room Temperature, Fei Yun, Zhenwei Yu, Yahua He, Lei Jiang, Zhao Wang, Haoshuang Gu, Xiaolin Wang

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

© 2020 The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of China Science Publishing & Media Ltd. Room-temperature liquid metal is discovered to be capable of penetrating through macro- and microporous materials by applying a voltage. The liquid metal penetration effects are demonstrated in various porous materials such as tissue paper, thick and fine sponges, fabrics, and meshes. The underlying mechanism is that the high surface tension of liquid metal can be significantly reduced to near-zero due to the voltage-induced oxidation of the liquid metal surface in a solution. It is the extremely low surface tension and gravity that ...


Synthesis And 3d Printing Of Conducting Alginate–Polypyrrole Ionomers, Cassandra Wright, Binbin Zhang, Johnson Chung, Jonathan Pannell, Melissa Kuester, Paul J. Molino, Timothy Hanks Jan 2020

Synthesis And 3d Printing Of Conducting Alginate–Polypyrrole Ionomers, Cassandra Wright, Binbin Zhang, Johnson Chung, Jonathan Pannell, Melissa Kuester, Paul J. Molino, Timothy Hanks

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Hydrogels composed of calcium cross-linked alginate are under investigation as bioinks for tissue engineering scaffolds due to their variable viscoelasticity, biocompatibility, and erodibility. Here, pyrrole was oxidatively polymerized in the presence of sodium alginate solutions to form ionomeric composites of various compositions. The IR spectroscopy shows that mild base is required to prevent the oxidant from attacking the alginate during the polymerization reaction. The resulting composites were isolated as dried thin films or cross-linked hydrogels and aerogels. The products were characterized by elemental analysis to determine polypyrrole incorporation, electrical conductivity measurements, and ...


Tunable Magnetic Anisotropy And Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction In An Ultrathin Van Der Waals Fe3gete2/In2se3 Heterostructure, Dong Chen, Wei Sun, Hang Li, Jian Li Wang, Yuanxu Wang Jan 2020

Tunable Magnetic Anisotropy And Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction In An Ultrathin Van Der Waals Fe3gete2/In2se3 Heterostructure, Dong Chen, Wei Sun, Hang Li, Jian Li Wang, Yuanxu Wang

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

© Copyright © 2020 Chen, Sun, Li, Wang and Wang. The promise of future spintronic devices with nanoscale dimension, high-density, and low-energy consumption motivates the search for van der Waals heterostructure that stabilize topologically protected whirling spin textures such as magnetic skyrmions and domain walls. To translate these compelling features into practical devices, a key challenge lies in achieving effective manipulation of the magnetic anisotropy energy and the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction, the two key parameters that determine skyrmions. Through the first-principles calculation, we demonstrate that the polarization-induced broken inversion symmetry in the two-dimensional Fe3GeTe2/In2Se3 multiferroic heterostructure does cause an interfacial DM ...


Na-Doped Zno Uv Filters With Reduced Photocatalytic Activity For Sunscreen Applications, Rafid Abdlateef Mueen, Michael L. F Lerch, Zhenxiang Cheng, Konstantin K. Konstantinov Jan 2020

Na-Doped Zno Uv Filters With Reduced Photocatalytic Activity For Sunscreen Applications, Rafid Abdlateef Mueen, Michael L. F Lerch, Zhenxiang Cheng, Konstantin K. Konstantinov

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

Due to its physical and chemical stability in addition to its transparency in the visible region with ultraviolet protective activity, ZnO can be used in sunscreen applications. In our article, Na-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles were prepared in different concentrations by sol–gel and solvothermal techniques to reduce their photocatalytic activity. The photocatalytic activity of the doped samples was suppressed effectively at a concentration of 0.03 at% Na doping up to 90% by conducting the sol–gel process rather than the solvothermal process which resulted in about 70% photocatalytic reduction in a period of time from (0–30 min) when ...


Design, Synthesis And Characterization Of A Novel Type Of Thermo-Responsible Phospholipid Microcapsule-Alginate Composite Hydrogel For Drug Delivery, Liang Ding, Xinxia Cui, Rui Jiang, Keya Zhou, Yalei Wen, Chenfeng Wang, Zhilian Yue, Shigang Shen, Xuefeng Pan Jan 2020

Design, Synthesis And Characterization Of A Novel Type Of Thermo-Responsible Phospholipid Microcapsule-Alginate Composite Hydrogel For Drug Delivery, Liang Ding, Xinxia Cui, Rui Jiang, Keya Zhou, Yalei Wen, Chenfeng Wang, Zhilian Yue, Shigang Shen, Xuefeng Pan

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

Liposomes are extensively used in drug delivery, while alginates are widely used in tissue engineering. However, liposomes are usually thermally unstable and drug-leaking when in liquids, while the drug carriers made of alginates show low loading capacities when used for drug delivery. Herein, we developed a type of thermo-responsible liposome-alginate composite hydrogel (TSPMAH) by grafting thermo-responsive liposomes onto alginates by using Ca2+ mediated bonding between the phosphatidic serine (PS) in the liposome membrane and the alginate. The temperature-sensitivity of the liposomes was actualized by using phospholipids comprising dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and PS and the liposomes were prepared by a thin-film dispersion ...


Synthesis Of Hierarchical Sn/Sno Nanosheets Assembled By Carbon-Coated Hollow Nanospheres As Anode Materials For Lithium/Sodium Ion Batteries, Fengrong He, Qi Xu, Baoping Zheng, Jun Zhang, Zhenguo Wu, Yanjun Zhong, Yanxiao Chen, Wei Xiang, Benhe Zhong, Xiaodong Guo Jan 2020

Synthesis Of Hierarchical Sn/Sno Nanosheets Assembled By Carbon-Coated Hollow Nanospheres As Anode Materials For Lithium/Sodium Ion Batteries, Fengrong He, Qi Xu, Baoping Zheng, Jun Zhang, Zhenguo Wu, Yanjun Zhong, Yanxiao Chen, Wei Xiang, Benhe Zhong, Xiaodong Guo

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

This journal is The Royal Society of Chemistry. Tin-based anode materials have aroused interest due to their high capacities. Nevertheless, the volume expansion problem during lithium insertion/extraction processes has severely hindered their practical application. In particular, nano-micro hierarchical structure is attractive with the integrated advantages of nano-effect and high thermal stability of the microstructure. Herein, hierarchical Sn/SnO nanosheets assembled by carbon-coated hollow nanospheres were successfully synthesized by a facile glucose-assisted hydrothermal method, in which the glucose served as both morphology-control agent and carbon source. The hierarchical Sn/SnO nanosheets exhibit excellent electrochemical performances owing to the unique configuration ...


Ferroelectrically Tunable Magnetism In Bifeo3/Batio3 Heterostructure Revealed By The First-Principles Calculations, Wenxuan Wang, Wei Sun, Guangbiao Zhang, Fengzhu Ren, Yuanxu Wang, Caiyin You, Zhenxiang Cheng Jan 2020

Ferroelectrically Tunable Magnetism In Bifeo3/Batio3 Heterostructure Revealed By The First-Principles Calculations, Wenxuan Wang, Wei Sun, Guangbiao Zhang, Fengzhu Ren, Yuanxu Wang, Caiyin You, Zhenxiang Cheng

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

© 2020 The perovskite oxide interface has attracted extensive attention as a platform for achieving strong coupling between ferroelectricity and magnetism. In this work, robust control of magnetoelectric (ME) coupling in the BiFeO3/BaTiO3 (BFO/BTO) heterostructure (HS) was revealed by using the first-principles calculation. Switching of the ferroelectric polarization of BTO induce large ME effect with significant changes on the magnetic ordering and easy magnetization axis, making up for the weak ME coupling effect of single-phase multiferroic BFO. In addition, the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) and the exchange coupling constants J for the BFO part of the HSs are simultaneously manipulated ...


Thermally Actuated Hydrogel Bead Based Braided Artificial Muscle, Bidita Binte Salahuddin, Holly Warren, Geoffrey M. Spinks Jan 2020

Thermally Actuated Hydrogel Bead Based Braided Artificial Muscle, Bidita Binte Salahuddin, Holly Warren, Geoffrey M. Spinks

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

© 2020 IOP Publishing Ltd. Braided (McKibben) artificial muscles are one of the most attractive biomimetic actuators since they exhibit similar static and dynamic performance to skeletal muscles. One disadvantage of these systems, when intended for portable applications, is the need for a compressor or pump to provide pressurised fluid for muscle activation. An alternative is to use an expandable material, such as a hydrogel. This work investigates the development of hydrogel-based braided artificial muscles which can produce mechanical work through controlled hydrogel swelling in the presence of water. Hydrogel bead-filled braided meshes were prepared where no internal bladder was needed ...


Recent Progress On Understanding And Constructing Reliable Na Anode For Aprotic Na-O2 Batteries: A Mini Review, Shuo Zhao, Lin Li, Fujun Li, Shulei Chou Jan 2020

Recent Progress On Understanding And Constructing Reliable Na Anode For Aprotic Na-O2 Batteries: A Mini Review, Shuo Zhao, Lin Li, Fujun Li, Shulei Chou

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

© 2020 The Authors Aprotic Na-O2 batteries attract increasing attention for the low charging/discharging overpotentials, high energy density, and low cost. Significant progress has been achieved in the battery system, but challenges remain in constructing reliable Na anodes. This review presents an overview of the fundamental understanding of Na anodes in aprotic Na-O2 batteries, including chemical reactivity of Na metal and dendrite formation mechanism. The constructing strategies are summarized as mechanical reinforcement of separators, electrolyte modifications, and electrode structure and material design. Perspectives are envisioned for the further development of durable Na anodes for aprotic Na-O2 batteries.


Ac Loss And Contact Resistance Of Different Cicc Cable Patterns: Experiments And Numerical Modeling, Anvar Valiyaparambil Abdulsalam, J Qin, Y Wu, T Bagni, A Devred, T Haugan, Md. Shahriar Al Hossain, C Zhou, Arend Nijhuis Jan 2020

Ac Loss And Contact Resistance Of Different Cicc Cable Patterns: Experiments And Numerical Modeling, Anvar Valiyaparambil Abdulsalam, J Qin, Y Wu, T Bagni, A Devred, T Haugan, Md. Shahriar Al Hossain, C Zhou, Arend Nijhuis

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

© 2020 The Author(s) For upcoming nuclear fusion energy reactors, like the China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) and EU-DEMO, the superconducting Cable-In-Conduit Conductors (CICC) are in the design phase, and the operating conditions like electromagnetic forces can be higher than in previous devices like ITER. The prototype conductors for the Central Solenoid (CS) coils in the CFETR, for example, are designed to produce a peak field of 19.9 T and are expected to be made of high current density Nb3Sn strands. Investigations are also ongoing on the application of bismuth strontium calcium copper oxide (BSCCO) and MgB2 strands ...


Promoted Photocharge Separation In 2d Lateral Epitaxial Heterostructure For Visible-Light-Driven Co2 Photoreduction, Li Wang, Xue Zhao, Dongdong Lv, Chuangwei Liu, Weihong Lai, Chunyi Sun, Zhongmin Su, Xun Xu, Weichang Hao, Shi Xue Dou, Yi Du Jan 2020

Promoted Photocharge Separation In 2d Lateral Epitaxial Heterostructure For Visible-Light-Driven Co2 Photoreduction, Li Wang, Xue Zhao, Dongdong Lv, Chuangwei Liu, Weihong Lai, Chunyi Sun, Zhongmin Su, Xun Xu, Weichang Hao, Shi Xue Dou, Yi Du

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

Photocarrier recombination remains a big barrier for the improvement of solar energy conversion efficiency. For 2D materials, construction of heterostructures represents an efficient strategy to promote photoexcited carrier separation via an internal electric field at the heterointerface. However, due to the difficulty in seeking two components with suitable crystal lattice mismatch, most of the current 2D heterostructures are vertical heterostructures and the exploration of 2D lateral heterostructures is scarce and limited. Here, lateral epitaxial heterostructures of BiOCl @ Bi2O3 at the atomic level are fabricated via sonicating-assisted etching of Cl in BiOCl. This unique lateral heterostructure expedites photoexcited ...


Anisotropic And Extreme Magnetoresistance In The Magnetic Semimetal Candidate Erbium Monobismuthide, L Fan, F Tang, W Meng, W Zhao, L Zhang, Z Han, Bo Qian, X Jiang, X M. Zhang, Y Fang Jan 2020

Anisotropic And Extreme Magnetoresistance In The Magnetic Semimetal Candidate Erbium Monobismuthide, L Fan, F Tang, W Meng, W Zhao, L Zhang, Z Han, Bo Qian, X Jiang, X M. Zhang, Y Fang

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

Rare-earth monopnictides display rich physical behaviors, featuring most notably spin and orbital orders in their ground state. Here, we grow ErBi single crystal and study its magnetic, thermal, and electrical properties. An analysis of the magnetic entropy and magnetization indicates that the weak magnetic anisotropy in ErBi possibly derives from the mixing effect, namely the anisotropic ground state of Er3+(4f11) mingles with the isotropic excited state through exchange interaction. At low temperature, an extremely large magnetoresistance (∼104%) with a parabolic magnetic-field dependence is observed, which can be ascribed to the nearly perfect electron-hole compensation and ultrahigh carrier mobility. When ...


Electrical Stimulation-Induced Osteogenesis Of Human Adipose Derived Stem Cells Using A Conductive Graphene-Cellulose Scaffold, Jianfeng Li, Xiao Liu, Jeremy Micah Crook, Gordon G. Wallace Jan 2020

Electrical Stimulation-Induced Osteogenesis Of Human Adipose Derived Stem Cells Using A Conductive Graphene-Cellulose Scaffold, Jianfeng Li, Xiao Liu, Jeremy Micah Crook, Gordon G. Wallace

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

The versatile properties of graphene-based materials are enabling various tissue regeneration, towards meeting an ever increasing demand for replacement tissues due to injury through trauma and disease. In particular, an innate ability for graphene to promote osteogenic differentiation of stem cells, combined with the potential to enhance the biological activity of cells through electrical stimulation (ES) using graphene, supports its use for osteoinduction or reconstruction. In this paper, we describe a miniaturized graphene-cellulose (G-C) scaffold-based device that incorporates electroactive G-C 'paper' within a polystyrene chamber for concomitant cell culture and ES. The G-C electrodes possessed lower impedance and higher charge ...


Multiphase Identification In Ni-Pbte Contacts By Ebsd And Aberration-Corrected Stem, Xavier Reales Ferreres, Gilberto Casillas, Sima Aminorroaya-Yamini, Azdiar Adil Gazder Jan 2020

Multiphase Identification In Ni-Pbte Contacts By Ebsd And Aberration-Corrected Stem, Xavier Reales Ferreres, Gilberto Casillas, Sima Aminorroaya-Yamini, Azdiar Adil Gazder

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

EBSD in combination with aberration-corrected STEM is used to study the interfacial layer forming at Ni electrode - PbTe thermoelectric material interfaces. Contrary to previous studies, both orthorhombic and monoclinic phases are identified within the interfacial layer. EBSD and STEM data at interphase boundaries demonstrate an approximately smooth transition from orthorhombic to monoclinic phase with almost no crystal defects due to the small differences in lattice parameters and the prevalence of one of two previously unknown orientation relationships between the phases. Moreover, the presence of special boundaries resulting in orientation domains within both phases throughout the interfacial nickel telluride layer needs ...


Electrochemical And Optical Aspects Of Cobalt Meso-Carbazole Substituted Porphyrin Complexes, Katarzyna Laba, Mieczyslaw Lapkowski, David L. Officer, Pawel W. Wagner, Przemyslaw Data Jan 2020

Electrochemical And Optical Aspects Of Cobalt Meso-Carbazole Substituted Porphyrin Complexes, Katarzyna Laba, Mieczyslaw Lapkowski, David L. Officer, Pawel W. Wagner, Przemyslaw Data

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

A series of cobalt (II) porphyrin complexes modified with carbazole rings at one or more meso positions of the macrocycle were synthesized and characterized as to their spectroscopic and basic electrochemical properties in non-aqueous media. The effect of the number and position (syn and anti) of carbazole groups on the complexes properties were investigated. The comparison was made to cobalt (II) porphyrin containing mesityl groups at the meso-positions. The relation between the site of redox processes in cobalt meso-carbazole substituted porphyrins were analysed. It was shown that the conjugated π-ring system of the porphyrin macrocycle, the cobalt central metal ion ...


Carboxybetaine Functionalized Nanosilicas As Protein Resistant Surface Coatings, Brianna Knowles, Pawel W. Wagner, Shane A. Maclaughlin, Michael J. Higgins, Paul J. Molino Jan 2020

Carboxybetaine Functionalized Nanosilicas As Protein Resistant Surface Coatings, Brianna Knowles, Pawel W. Wagner, Shane A. Maclaughlin, Michael J. Higgins, Paul J. Molino

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

Materials with protein resistant properties are increasingly sought after for their potential application as low-fouling surface coatings. Hydrophilic coatings with improved resistance to protein fouling have been prepared from zwitterionic carboxybetaine (CB) functionalized silica nanoparticles (SiNPs). The authors report three methods of coating preparation via direct tethering of CB to predeposited particle films, a two-step surface functionalization process, and deposition of CB functionalized particle dispersions. The pH at which aqueous CB solutions were prepared and reacted to SiNPs was found to drastically influence the mechanism of CB attachment and affect the protein resistance of the resultant coatings. Depending on the ...


Biochar-Based Fertilizer: Supercharging Root Membrane Potential And Biomass Yield Of Rice, Jinkiat Chew, Longlong Zhu, Shaun Nielsen, Ellen Graber, David R. G Mitchell, Josip Horvat, Mohanad Hazim Mohammed, Minglong Liu, Lukas Van Zwieten, Scott Donne, Paul Munroe, Sarasadat Taherymoosavi, Ben Pace, Aditya Rawal, James Hook, Christopher Marjo, Donald Thomas, Genxing Pan, Lianqing Li, Rongjun Bian, Anna Mcbeath, Michael I. Bird, Torsten Thomas, Olivier Husson, Zakaria M. Solaiman, Stephen D. Joseph, Xiaorong Fan Jan 2020

Biochar-Based Fertilizer: Supercharging Root Membrane Potential And Biomass Yield Of Rice, Jinkiat Chew, Longlong Zhu, Shaun Nielsen, Ellen Graber, David R. G Mitchell, Josip Horvat, Mohanad Hazim Mohammed, Minglong Liu, Lukas Van Zwieten, Scott Donne, Paul Munroe, Sarasadat Taherymoosavi, Ben Pace, Aditya Rawal, James Hook, Christopher Marjo, Donald Thomas, Genxing Pan, Lianqing Li, Rongjun Bian, Anna Mcbeath, Michael I. Bird, Torsten Thomas, Olivier Husson, Zakaria M. Solaiman, Stephen D. Joseph, Xiaorong Fan

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

2020 The Authors Biochar-based compound fertilizers (BCF) and amendments have proven to enhance crop yields and modify soil properties (pH, nutrients, organic matter, structure etc.) and are now in commercial production in China. While there is a good understanding of the changes in soil properties following biochar addition, the interactions within the rhizosphere remain largely unstudied, with benefits to yield observed beyond the changes in soil properties alone. We investigated the rhizosphere interactions following the addition of an activated wheat straw BCF at an application rates of 0.25% (g·g−1 soil), which could potentially explain the increase of ...


A High-Kinetics Sulfur Cathode With A Highly Efficient Mechanism For Superior Room-Temperature Na-S Batteries, Zichao Yan, Yaru Liang, Jin Xiao, Weihong Lai, Wanlin Wang, Qingbing Xia, Yunxiao Wang, Qinfen Gu, Huanming Lu, Shulei Chou, Yong Liu, Hua-Kun Liu, Shi Xue Dou Jan 2020

A High-Kinetics Sulfur Cathode With A Highly Efficient Mechanism For Superior Room-Temperature Na-S Batteries, Zichao Yan, Yaru Liang, Jin Xiao, Weihong Lai, Wanlin Wang, Qingbing Xia, Yunxiao Wang, Qinfen Gu, Huanming Lu, Shulei Chou, Yong Liu, Hua-Kun Liu, Shi Xue Dou

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

2020 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim Applications of room-temperature-sodium sulfur (RT-Na/S) batteries are currently impeded by the insulating nature of sulfur, the slow redox kinetics of sulfur with sodium, and the dissolution and migration of sodium polysulfides. Herein, a novel micrometer-sized hierarchical S cathode supported by FeS2 electrocatalyst, which is grown in situ in well-confined carbon nanocage assemblies, is presented. The hierarchical carbon matrix can provide multiple physical entrapment to polysulfides, and the FeS2 nanograins exhibit a low Na-ion diffusion barrier, strong binding energy, and high affinity for sodium polysulfides. Their combination makes it an ideal sulfur host ...


The Influence Of A Novel Inorganic-Polymer Lubricant On The Microstructure Of Interstitial-Free Steel During Ferrite Rolling, Ning Kong, Jie Zhang, Hongbo Li, Boyu Wei, David R. G Mitchell Jan 2020

The Influence Of A Novel Inorganic-Polymer Lubricant On The Microstructure Of Interstitial-Free Steel During Ferrite Rolling, Ning Kong, Jie Zhang, Hongbo Li, Boyu Wei, David R. G Mitchell

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. A novel polyphosphate lubricant was used and evaluated during hot (ferrite) rolling of an interstitial-free (IF) steel. The texture evolution of these rolled IF steels have been examined by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements. The polyphosphate lubricant shows an improved lubrication performance in terms of the texture optimization compared with lubricating oil and with unlubricated conditions. The γ-fiber texture is enhanced, and less shear texture is produced. This microstructure is responsible for enhanced drawability of ferrite rolled IF steels. The very high thermal stability of the ...


A Hybrid Electrochemical Energy Storage Device Using Sustainable Electrode Materials, Manickam Minakshi, David R. G Mitchell, Robert Jones, Nimai Pramanik, Annelise Jean-Fulcrand, Georg Garnweitner Jan 2020

A Hybrid Electrochemical Energy Storage Device Using Sustainable Electrode Materials, Manickam Minakshi, David R. G Mitchell, Robert Jones, Nimai Pramanik, Annelise Jean-Fulcrand, Georg Garnweitner

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

2020 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim A new electrochemical energy storage device, comprising a faradaic rechargeable pseudo-capacitor type electrode with a non-faradaic rechargeable capacitor electrode, is successfully developed for potential applications in smart electric grids. Mapping new electrodes possessing both high energy and power densities as well as long cycle life is vital for the sustainable energy management. In this work, we present a new approach to design electrodes, fabricated from sustainable resources by hybridizing calcined eggshell capacitor anode with a mixed binary metal oxide pseudo-capacitor cathode. Calcium carbonate (calcite), obtained from the biowaste-derived eggshell, is an effective electrode ...


Green Synthesis And Stabilization Of Silver Nanoparticles Using Lysimachia Foenum-Graecum Hance Extract And Their Antibacterial Activity, Widsanusan Chartarrayawadee, Phattaraporn Charoensin, Juthaporn Saenma, Thearum Rin, Phichaya Khamai, Pitak Nasomjai, Chee O. Too Jan 2020

Green Synthesis And Stabilization Of Silver Nanoparticles Using Lysimachia Foenum-Graecum Hance Extract And Their Antibacterial Activity, Widsanusan Chartarrayawadee, Phattaraporn Charoensin, Juthaporn Saenma, Thearum Rin, Phichaya Khamai, Pitak Nasomjai, Chee O. Too

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

2020 Chartarrayawadee et al., published by De Gruyter 2020. The Lysimachia foenumgraecum Hance extract (LHE) was used for silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesis. In this study, the herbal plant of Lysimachia foenumgraecum Hance (LH) was extracted with deionized water and we are the first to successfully use LHE as reducing and stabilizing agents for the green synthesis of AgNPs. The concentration of LHE used in this study was in the range of 0.003 to 1.0 wt%. Aqueous colloidal solutions of AgNPs reduced and stabilized by LHE show long-term stability due to the steric stabilization effect. This can be confirmed ...


Effects Of Boron Content On Microstructure And Wear Properties Of Fecocrnibx High-Entropy Alloy Coating By Laser Cladding, Dezheng Liu, Jing Zhao, Yan Li, Wenli Zhu, Liangxu Lin Jan 2020

Effects Of Boron Content On Microstructure And Wear Properties Of Fecocrnibx High-Entropy Alloy Coating By Laser Cladding, Dezheng Liu, Jing Zhao, Yan Li, Wenli Zhu, Liangxu Lin

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

The FeCoCrNiBx high-entropy alloy (HEA) coatings with three different boron (B) contents were synthesized on Q245R steel (American grade: SA515 Gr60) by laser cladding deposition technology. Effects of B content on the microstructure and wear properties of FeCoCrNiBx HEA coating were investigated. In this study, the phase composition, microstructure, micro-hardness, and wear resistance (rolling friction) were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), a scanning electron microscope (SEM), a micro hardness tester, and a roller friction wear tester, respectively. The FeCoCrNiBx coatings exhibited a typical dendritic and interdendritic structure, and the microstructure was refined with the increase of B content. Additionally, the ...


Ultrahigh Energy Storage Properties In (Sr0.7bi0.2)Tio3-Bi(Mg0.5zr0.5)O3 Lead-Free Ceramics And Potential For High-Temperature Capacitors, Xi Kong, Letao Yang, Zhenxiang Cheng, Shujun Zhang Jan 2020

Ultrahigh Energy Storage Properties In (Sr0.7bi0.2)Tio3-Bi(Mg0.5zr0.5)O3 Lead-Free Ceramics And Potential For High-Temperature Capacitors, Xi Kong, Letao Yang, Zhenxiang Cheng, Shujun Zhang

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

2020 by the authors. Due to the enhanced demand for numerous electrical energy storage applications, including applications at elevated temperatures, dielectric capacitors with optimized energy storage properties have attracted extensive attention. In this study, a series of lead-free strontium bismuth titanate based relaxor ferroelectric ceramics have been successfully synthesized by high temperature solid-state reaction. The ultrahigh recoverable energy storage density of 4.2 J/cm3 under 380 kV/cm, with the high efficiency of 88%, was obtained in the sample with x = 0.06. Of particular importance is that this ceramic composition exhibits excellent energy storage performance over a wide ...


Rich Topological Nodal Line Bulk States Together With Drum-Head-Like Surface States In Naalge With Anti-Pbfcl Type Structure, Xiaotian Wang, Guangqian Ding, Zhenxiang Cheng, Gokhan Surucu, Xiaolin Wang, Tie Yang Jan 2020

Rich Topological Nodal Line Bulk States Together With Drum-Head-Like Surface States In Naalge With Anti-Pbfcl Type Structure, Xiaotian Wang, Guangqian Ding, Zhenxiang Cheng, Gokhan Surucu, Xiaolin Wang, Tie Yang

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

The band topology in condensed matter has attracted widespread attention in recent years. Due to the band inversion, topological nodal line semimetals (TNLSs) have band crossing points (BCPs) around the Fermi level, forming a nodal line. In this work, by means of first-principles, we observe that the synthesized NaAlGe intermetallic compound with anti-PbFCl type structure is a TNLS with four NLs in the kz = 0 and kz = π planes. All these NLs in NaAlGe exist around the Fermi level, and what is more, these NLs do not overlap with other bands. The exotic drum-head-like surface states can be clearly observed ...