# Physical Sciences and Mathematics Commons™

Articles 1 - 30 of 2631

## Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Isolution 1.0: An Isotope Evolution Model Describing The Stable Oxygen (Δ18O) And Carbon (Δ13C) Isotope Values Of Speleothems, Michael Deininger, Denis Scholz Jan 2019

#### Isolution 1.0: An Isotope Evolution Model Describing The Stable Oxygen (Δ18O) And Carbon (Δ13C) Isotope Values Of Speleothems, Michael Deininger, Denis Scholz

##### International Journal of Speleology

Stable oxygen and carbon isotope ratios (δ13C and δ18O) are the most applied climate and environmental proxies in speleothems allowing to infer past changes in cave drip water δ13C and δ18O related to climate and environmental variations from above the cave. However, disequilibrium isotope fractionation processes can modify δ13C and δ18O values in speleothems, which is in most cases difficult to estimate due to inter-dependencies on various cave specific parameter. To better understand the effect of these disequilibrium isotope fractionation processes proxy system models were developed in recent ...

Jan 2019

#### Developing Mathematics Teachers’ Attention To Quantitative Reasoning In Task Design: A Modeling Approach, David Glassmeyer

##### Numeracy

This study examines how a models-and-modeling perspective affected teachers' attention to quantitative reasoning in task design. A Model-Eliciting Activity (MEA) was implemented with 21 teachers over four weeks, challenging teachers to design a quantitative reasoning task for their students. Teachers’ initial quantitative reasoning tasks did not incorporate quantities or quantitative relationships, two essential components of quantitative reasoning. As teachers revised their tasks through the MEA, most teachers began attending to these components. This article details how a modeling approach to teacher education provided a method to describe and support teachers to incorporate quantitative reasoning in their classroom tasks, though attending ...

Jan 2019

#### The Sons Report (1989-1994, Mathematical Association Of America): The Way It Was, Linda R. Sons

##### Numeracy

Recollections and commentary by Linda R. Sons on a 1994 national report entitled Quantitative Reasoning for College Graduates: A Complement to the Standards. Professor Sons chaired the committee which wrote the report and championed its use.

This paper traces the development of the 1994 MAA report Quantitative Reasoning for College Graduates: A Complement to the Standards--a report which is still surprisingly relevant. The paper highlights some major parts of the report, describing the context in which its conclusions were made. Additionally, it challenges and encourages those continuing the quest for QL in the nation by noting progress made since ...

Jan 2019

#### The Second Decade Of Numeracy: Entering The Seas Of Literacy, H. L. Vacher

##### Numeracy

This multipurpose editorial explores and tries to count the many types of literacy that are referred to by name in Wikipedia and Numeracy. Wikipedia’s Category:Literacy page identifies 44 kinds of literacy that are the subject of articles, ranging from numeracy and graphicacy to braille literacy and diaspora literacy. In addition, searching Google finds more than 30 adjective-literacy or noun-literacy collocations, including quantitative literacy, adult literacy, and document literacy, that do not have Wikipedia pages of their own but are mentioned on other Wikipedia pages. The sum puts this modest literacy count in line with the more than 70 ...

Jan 2019

#### An Uncommon Textbook: Review Of Common Sense Mathematics By Ethan Bolker And Maura Mast, Bernard Madison

##### Numeracy

Ethan D. Bolker and Maura B. Mast. 2016. Common Sense Mathematics.(Washington DC.: Mathematics Association of America) ISBN-13: 978-1-93951-210-9.

Common Sense Mathematics is an integrative quantitative reasoning (QR) textbook that is built around scores of exercises derived from authentic circumstances from public media and other public sources. The exercises elicit responses from students requiring extensive communication and analyses and distinguish the book from ones typically encountered in a mathematics or science course. Responses to exercises often require one-half page or more of writing and can occupy considerable class time in discussion. The book has material for a one- or two-semester ...

#### Using The Sir Epidemiology Model With Vector Transmission To Predict The Effectiveness Of A Viral Marketing Campaign And The Spread Of Product Adoption, Michael Freed

##### Undergraduate Journal of Mathematical Modeling: One + Two

Stevelab, LLC is working on an app that will be released within the year. For planning purposes, the company needs to be able to predict how well the app will spread in its initial phase. Because the pilot launch will be limited to Hillsborough County, FL, there is a limited population. The marketing strategy is to sell the application to places where people gather to mingle and socialize, with a particular focus to the bar scene. Customers of the bar can use the app for free. In addition to our direct sales efforts, we can expect the bar owners to ...

Jan 2019

#### Equilibrium Ratio Of Polymers To Monomers In Cooperative Polymerization Of Amyloid-Β Protein, Tina Gagliardo

##### Undergraduate Journal of Mathematical Modeling: One + Two

Amyloid-β42 is a protein polymer that catalyzes the formation of pathogenic amyloid plaques that are a prominent feature in the brain tissue of patients who suffer from Alzheimer’s disease. Aβ42 polymerizes via a nucleation-elongation mechanism; several monomers must first congregate into a nucleus before it can elongate into a polymer. The nucleation step is energetically unfavorable since a nucleus smaller than 7 to 8 monomeric units is unstable, therefore the pieces tend to dissociate faster than they can bond together. A solution of Aβ42 will consist of 100% monomers and oligomers smaller than the nucleus when the total concentration ...

Jan 2019

#### Calculating Water Wavelength Using Dispersion Relation And Approximation, Chantelle Lee

##### Undergraduate Journal of Mathematical Modeling: One + Two

The dispersion relation equation is used to directly compute wave number and wave length to compliment water wave pressure sensor readings. Waves are measured to help coastal engineering to better mitigate coastal infrastructures. Various given wave periods and water depths are used to show how the dispersion relation equation could compute wave length. Also, shallow and deep-water approximations are formulated from the dispersion relation equation and the results are compared.

Effects Of Change In Tire Pressure Upon Efficiency Of A Vehicle, Haider Ali Khan Jan 2019

#### Effects Of Change In Tire Pressure Upon Efficiency Of A Vehicle, Haider Ali Khan

##### Undergraduate Journal of Mathematical Modeling: One + Two

The objective of this paper is to compare the difference in the efficiency of acceleration, of a 2018 Audi A8, in two distinct scenarios where the tire pressure is kept at a maximum and partial level. The approach towards solving the issue is multi-faceted, the efficiency is dependent on the difference in the time it takes for the car to accelerate, thus to obtain the elapsed time, the foundational basis is set by the relations between Torque/Force, and RPM/Speed of the vehicle. All the calculations are completed by using the data extracted from the car’s specifications set ...

#### Population And Mortality Predictions Of The Florida Manatee – Ten Year Watercraft Mortality, Dylan Lehigh

##### Undergraduate Journal of Mathematical Modeling: One + Two

The West Indian Manatee is currently listed as a threatened species by the U.S Fish and Wildlife service. A threatened designation means population levels still are at risk of becoming endangered again in the foreseeable future. This project seeks to forecast how many manatees would perish from watercraft strikes (the greatest threat to their survival) based upon the most current method utilized for projecting manatee population growth.

The latest version, known as the Core Biological Model (version 6) or CBMv6, was employed along with the most current manatee population data, which was provided by Dr. Jeffrey A. Hostetler. Dr ...

Jan 2019

#### A Mathematical Model For The Upper Limits Of Thyroid Volume In Adolescents, Jacob Treanor

##### Undergraduate Journal of Mathematical Modeling: One + Two

This paper describes a mathematical model that relates age to the volume of the thyroid gland, given in milliliters, of adolescents based on data from a 1997 study by the World Health Organization (W.H.O.) (World Health Organization, 1997). Using the upper limit per age group provided by the data, a model was constructed through integration of the second derivative of the data for males and females, ages 6-15. It was concluded that the upper limit for the thyroid volume could be expressed by one of two second order polynomial equations, depending on gender, with any values significantly larger ...

Numeracy And Social Justice: A Wide, Deep, And Longstanding Intersection, Kira Hamman, Victor Piercey, Samuel L. Tunstall Jan 2019

#### Numeracy And Social Justice: A Wide, Deep, And Longstanding Intersection, Kira Hamman, Victor Piercey, Samuel L. Tunstall

##### Numeracy

We discuss the connection between the numeracy and social justice movements both in historical context and in its modern incarnation. The intersection between numeracy and social justice encompasses a wide variety of disciplines and quantitative topics, but within that variety there are important commonalities. We examine the importance of sound quantitative measures for understanding social issues and the necessity of interdisciplinary collaboration in this work. Particular reference is made to the papers in the first part of the Numeracy special collection on social justice, which appear in this issue.

Three Formative Questions In The Quantitative Literacy Movement, Dorothy Wallace Jan 2019

#### Three Formative Questions In The Quantitative Literacy Movement, Dorothy Wallace

##### Numeracy

In this essay we remember early discussions attempting to answer three questions that played a formative role in our understanding of and approach to numeracy, quantitative literacy, and quantitative reasoning: (1) What is numeracy? (2) Should the QL movement promote any specific kind of pedagogy? (3) What organizational structure will best support QL?

As the QL movement has progressed, these three questions continue to be difficult to answer. As a result, they have been useful formative guides for institutions and organizations seeking to improve the quantitative reasoning of students. Now that the quantitative literacy movement has a firmer standing in ...

The Role Of Mites In The Construction And Weathering Of Siliceous Biospeleothems, María José López-Galindo Nov 2018

#### The Role Of Mites In The Construction And Weathering Of Siliceous Biospeleothems, María José López-Galindo

##### International Journal of Speleology

Acarines are well-documented as formative elements in the biocenosis of soils. However, their role in the construction and weathering of siliceous speleothems has received very little attention in previous research. The present study describes different groups of cavities (nesting/molting sites) excavated by these organisms in the surface of siliceous speleothems that are deposited in the fissures between various granite boulders in Southern Spain. There is evidence that there are immature stages that would survive the heat and drought of summer in the form of small larvae, or euedaphic nymphs, in the soil. This study provides the first description of ...

Evolution Of Noble Gas And Water Isotopes Along The Regional Groundwater Flow Path Of The Konya Closed Basin, Turkey, N. Nur Ozyurt, C. Serdar Bayari Nov 2018

#### Evolution Of Noble Gas And Water Isotopes Along The Regional Groundwater Flow Path Of The Konya Closed Basin, Turkey, N. Nur Ozyurt, C. Serdar Bayari

##### International Journal of Speleology

Noble gas and water isotope compositions of regional groundwater were investigated along two transects in the Konya Closed Basin (KCB) of central Turkey. According to the 3He/4He versus Ne/He plot of samples, crust (up to 86%) and mantle (up to 26%) appear to be the primary and secondary sources of dissolved He in groundwater, respectively. After the beginning of both transects where the flow domain is confined, both 3He and 4He accumulate steadily in groundwater. Thereafter, the intermediate recharge from the surface in the unconfined part of regional flow system disrupts the steady accumulation ...

Interpreting The Origin And Evolution Of ‘Karst’ Features From A Siliceous Hydrothermal Terrane: A Case Study From The Upper Geyser Basin In Yellowstone National Park, Usa, Kevin W. Blackwood, Lainee A. Sanders, Stacy I. Gantt-Blackwood Nov 2018

#### Interpreting The Origin And Evolution Of ‘Karst’ Features From A Siliceous Hydrothermal Terrane: A Case Study From The Upper Geyser Basin In Yellowstone National Park, Usa, Kevin W. Blackwood, Lainee A. Sanders, Stacy I. Gantt-Blackwood

##### International Journal of Speleology

The Upper Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park occurs over a siliceous hydrothermal terrane containing numerous hot springs and geysers. The pool and vent-conduit geometries of these hydrothermal features share a resemblance to conventional karst features known from other rock types, suggesting karst processes could be responsible for their origin and/or evolution. Hypogene speleogenesis is a cave-forming process in which the formation of caves is decoupled from and occurs independently of surface recharge. The geologic setting for hypogene speleogenesis typically occurs at the distal end of regional groundwater systems wherein the hydrogeology is manifested by ascending fluids and/or ...

A Review Of Fractals In Karst, Eulogio Pardo-Igúzquiza, Peter A. Dowd, Juan J. Durán, Pedro Robledo-Ardila Nov 2018

#### A Review Of Fractals In Karst, Eulogio Pardo-Igúzquiza, Peter A. Dowd, Juan J. Durán, Pedro Robledo-Ardila

##### International Journal of Speleology

Many features of a karst massif can either be modelled using fractal geometry or have a fractal distribution. For the exokarst, typical examples include the geometry of the landscape and the spatial location and size-distribution of karst depressions. Typical examples for the endokarst are the geometry of the three-dimensional network of karst conduits and the length-distribution of caves. In addition, the hydrogeological parameters of the karst massif, such as hydraulic conductivity, and karst spring hydrographs may also exhibit fractal behaviour. In this work we review the karst features that exhibit fractal behaviour, we review the literature in which they are ...

Oct 2018

#### Merging The Concepts Of Pseudokarst And Paleoseismicity In Sweden: A Unified Theory On The Formation Of Fractures, Fracture Caves, And Angular Block Heaps, Nils-Axel Mörner, Rabbe Sjöberg

##### International Journal of Speleology

Sweden has thousands of caves cut into the bedrock, two thirds of which occur in the crystalline bedrock, and hence represent pseudokarst phenomena. The formation of these caves can only be understood in terms of paleoseismics. In this paper, we review the parallel evolution of the concept of pseudokarst caves and of the concept of paleoseismic activity in Sweden, and combine both concepts into a unified theory on the formation of fractures, fracture caves and angular block heaps.

The Cyrilka Cave—The Longest Crevice-Type Cave In Czechia: Structural Controls, Genesis, And Age, Jan Lenart, Martin Kašing, Petr Tábořík, Natalia Piotrowska, Jacek Pawlyta Oct 2018

#### The Cyrilka Cave—The Longest Crevice-Type Cave In Czechia: Structural Controls, Genesis, And Age, Jan Lenart, Martin Kašing, Petr Tábořík, Natalia Piotrowska, Jacek Pawlyta

##### International Journal of Speleology

The Cyrilka Cave is the second longest pseudokarst cave and the longest crevice-type cave in Czechia. Developed within the headscarp area of a deep-seated landslide, the cave became a focus of scientific research in recent years when new passages were discovered. Structural analysis provided a general tectonic plan of the cave, as well as more detailed data on geometry and kinematics of the relaxed rock massif. The primary structure of NNE- to ENE-striking bedding is broken by a system of NNE-striking fissures interconnected by two continuous ENE-striking dextral fracture zones. Abundant signs of recent sinistral strike-slips within the rock massif ...

On Biospeleothems From A Venezuelan Tepui Cave: U-Th Dating, Growth Rates, And Morphology, Joyce Lundberg, Charles Brewer-Carías, Donald A. Mcfarlane Oct 2018

#### On Biospeleothems From A Venezuelan Tepui Cave: U-Th Dating, Growth Rates, And Morphology, Joyce Lundberg, Charles Brewer-Carías, Donald A. Mcfarlane

##### International Journal of Speleology

Seven silica biospeleothems from Cueva Charles Brewer, Chimantá Plateau, Venezuela have been successfully U-Th dated despite very low U and high detrital Th concentrations. Growth rates are low, between ~100 to ~800 µm/ka, and are greater closer to water level. Dates in unaltered material are in good stratigraphic order, but secondary silicification may compromise the U-Th system, yielding unreliable sequences of ages. Detritally-enriched layers correlate with global climate cycles of the Late Quaternary, in particular the cooler, drier phases of MIS 5d, 5a, and 4. SEM studies indicate that the peloidal material is made up of silica nano-particles assembled ...

Sulfur (34S/32S) Isotope Composition Of Gypsum And Implications For Deep Cave Formation On The Nullarbor Plain, Australia, Matej Lipar, Mateja Ferk, Sonja Lojen, Milo Barham Sep 2018

#### Sulfur (34S/32S) Isotope Composition Of Gypsum And Implications For Deep Cave Formation On The Nullarbor Plain, Australia, Matej Lipar, Mateja Ferk, Sonja Lojen, Milo Barham

##### International Journal of Speleology

Large deep caves with little relation to surface topography are distinctive karst features on the Nullarbor Plain of Australia. The presence of gypsum deposits and chemoautotrophic bacteria within the caves have been suggested as evidence for cave formation and (or) enlargement via sulfuric acid speleogenesis. To test this hypothesis, the stable sulfur isotope compositions (δ34S) of both cave gypsum and surface gypsum were measured. Analyses yielded relatively high, positive δ34S values from both cave gypsum and surface gypsum, arguing against gypsum genesis via microbial chemoautotrophy, and more broadly, sulfuric acid speleogenesis. Instead, the gypsum is interpreted ...

Evidence For Subsurface Origin Of Boulder Caves, Roofed Slots And Boulder-Filled Canyons (Broumov Highland, Czechia), Filip Duszyński, Kacper Jancewicz, Piotr Migoń Sep 2018

#### Evidence For Subsurface Origin Of Boulder Caves, Roofed Slots And Boulder-Filled Canyons (Broumov Highland, Czechia), Filip Duszyński, Kacper Jancewicz, Piotr Migoń

##### International Journal of Speleology

The backslope of a sandstone cuesta in the Broumov Highland (Czechia) is cut by a complex network of canyons. Long sections of canyons have thick boulder fills which are difficult to reconcile with simple rock fall and talus development scenario. Boulder caves occur within these fills and their lowermost parts are drained by streams that evacuate fine loose sandy material produced by weathering and mechanical erosion. These boulder fills are explained as largely in situ, residual features, left after subsurface selective disintegration of rock mass, mainly joint-guided, and removal of grains by underground water. Evacuation of fines leaves voids into ...

Old And Recent Processes In A Warm And Humid Desert Hypogene Cave: ‘A’Rak Na‘Asane, Israel, Amos Frumkin, Shlomi Aharon, Uri Davidovich, Boaz Langford, Yoav Negev, Micka Ullman, Anton Vaks, Shemesh Ya‘Aran, Boaz Zissu Jul 2018

#### Old And Recent Processes In A Warm And Humid Desert Hypogene Cave: ‘A’Rak Na‘Asane, Israel, Amos Frumkin, Shlomi Aharon, Uri Davidovich, Boaz Langford, Yoav Negev, Micka Ullman, Anton Vaks, Shemesh Ya‘Aran, Boaz Zissu

##### International Journal of Speleology

Recent environmental processes are studied in ʻA’rak Naʻasane Cave at the northern Judean Desert, Israel. The outer zone of the cave is heavily influenced by the outside environment through a large entrance, facilitating entry of air flow, fauna and humans, with minor cave-forming modifications. Conversely, the inner cave sustains humid and warm conditions, favoring modifications by condensation corrosion of convective air flow, associated with deposition of popcorn speleothems at the lower parts of dissolution pockets. The warm humid air of the inner cave may be associated with an underlying thermal water table. Active condensation corrosion is decreasing, possibly because ...

Unconfined Hypogene Evaporite Karst: West Texas And Southeastern New Mexico, Usa, Kevin W. Stafford, Jon T. Ehrhart, Adam F. Majzoub, Jessica M. Shields, Wesley A. Brown Jul 2018

#### Unconfined Hypogene Evaporite Karst: West Texas And Southeastern New Mexico, Usa, Kevin W. Stafford, Jon T. Ehrhart, Adam F. Majzoub, Jessica M. Shields, Wesley A. Brown

##### International Journal of Speleology

Diverse karst phenomena occur throughout the Gypsum Plain where the Castile Formation crops out over ~1800 km2 in West Texas and southeastern New Mexico. Hypergene karst is extensive and widespread, while traditional hypogene karst manifestations (both caves and intrastratal dissolution) occur in high frequency in the western outcrop region where surface denudation has been the greatest so as to induce surficial breaching. Unconfined hypogene karst occurrences have been recently identified, including two general variations: 1) artesian-like discharge features; and 2) venting structures. Artesian-like discharge features arise at surficially-breached hypogene caves and through high permeability regions on the margins of ...

#### Validating The Accuracy Of Neatwork, A Rural Gravity Fed Water Distribution System Design Program, Using Field Data In The Comarca Ngöbe-Bugle, Panama, Maria Briones

Despite the sustainable development goals to increase access to improved water there are still 884 million people in the world without access to an improved water source (WHO, 2017). One method to improve access to water in rural, mountainous areas, is through construction of gravity fed water distribution systems. These systems should be designed based upon fundamental principles of hydraulics. One method of doing so in a time efficient manner with minimal engineering knowledge is to utilize a downloadable computer program such as Neatwork, which aids in design of rural, gravity fed water distribution systems and has been used by ...

#### Calculus Of The Impossible: Review Of The Improbability Principle (2014) By David Hand And The Logic Of Miracles (2018) By Lásló Mérő, Samuel L. Tunstall

##### Numeracy

David J. Hand. 2014. The Improbability Principle: Why Coincidences, Miracles, and Rare Events Happen Every Day (New York, NY: Scientific American/Farrar, Straus and Giroux) 288 pp. ISBN: 978-0374175344.

Lásló Mérő. 2018. The Logic of Miracles: Making Sense of Rare, Really Rare, and Impossibly Rare Events (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press) 288 pp. ISBN: 978-0300224153.

David Hand and Lásló Mérő both grapple with the occurrence of seemingly impossible events in these two popular science books. In this comparative review, I describe the two books, and explain why I prefer Hand's treatment of the impossible.

#### Forewarned Is Forearmed: Review Of Curbing Catastrophe: Natural Hazards And Risk Reduction In The Modern World By Timothy H. Dixon (2017), Jason Makansi

##### Numeracy

Timothy H. Dixon. 2017. Curbing Catastrophe: Natural Hazards and Risk Reduction in the Modern World. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press) 300 pp. ISBN 978-1108113663.

Curbing Catastrophe for the most part lives up to what is claimed in the foreword: “…a compelling account of recent and historical disasters, both natural and human-caused, drawing on common themes and providing a holistic understanding of hazards, disasters, and mitigation for anyone interested in this important and topical subject.” This is a pretty thorough treatment of an extraordinarily complex subject, and the gaps identified in this review should be considered explications more than criticisms.

Jul 2018

#### Review Of Curbing Catastrophe: Natural Hazards And Risk Reduction In The Modern World, Kira H. Hamman

##### Numeracy

Timothy H. Dixon. 2017. Curbing Catastrophe: Natural Hazards and Risk Reduction in the Modern World. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press) 300 pp. ISBN 978-1108113663.

In Curbing Catastrophe, Timothy H. Dixon explores commonalities among natural disasters like Hurricane Katrina, the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, and the meltdown at Fukushima. He identifies communication failure between scientists and policy makers as a major culprit in the devastation that results from such events and offers strategies for improving that communication. He includes optional in-depth scientific and quantitative examinations of the events and the resulting devastation, making the book appropriate for use in teaching ...

Quantitative Literacy And Civic Virtue, William Briggs Jul 2018

#### Quantitative Literacy And Civic Virtue, William Briggs

##### Numeracy

Mathematics educators are occasionally called upon to justify the existence or the offering of quantitative literacy courses. This paper argues that effective quantitative literacy courses have different goals than algebra courses and are legitimate alternatives to algebra courses for non-STEM students. Furthermore, quantitative literacy courses affirm the historic relationship between citizenship and education. In today’s world of proliferating news sources, social media, and fake news, quantitative literacy has become an essential component of the long-held ideal of civic virtue.