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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Full Issue 49(1) Apr 2020

Full Issue 49(1)

International Journal of Speleology

No abstract provided.


Table Of Contents Apr 2020

Table Of Contents

International Journal of Speleology

No abstract provided.


Cave Airflow Mechanism Of A Crevice-Type Cave: A Case Study From Czechia, Martin Kašing, Jan Lenart Apr 2020

Cave Airflow Mechanism Of A Crevice-Type Cave: A Case Study From Czechia, Martin Kašing, Jan Lenart

International Journal of Speleology

At present, crevice-type caves are investigated mainly by means of geomorphic and geophysical methods. Microclimatic research of this type of caves is underrepresented and is often limited to temperature and humidity measurement only. Yet, microclimatic research of such caves can significantly help in the management and conservation of caves, speleological exploration or analysis of speleothems. Being the first ever research of ventilation within a crevice-type cave, a complex analysis of cave ventilation was performed within the Velká Ondrášova Cave, a crevice-type cave in the Outer Western Carpathians, Czechia. Long-term temperature recording, airflow tracing within the cave, and a total of ...


Non-Associative Algebraic Structures In Knot Theory, Emanuele Zappala Feb 2020

Non-Associative Algebraic Structures In Knot Theory, Emanuele Zappala

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation we investigate self-distributive algebraic structures and their cohomologies, and study their relation to topological problems in knot theory. Self-distributivity is known to be a set-theoretic version of the Yang-Baxter equation (corresponding to Reidemeister move III) and is therefore suitable for producing invariants of knots and knotted surfaces. We explore three different instances of this situation. The main results of this dissertation can be, very concisely, described as follows. We introduce a cohomology theory of topological quandles and determine a class of topological quandles for which the cohomology can be computed, at least in principle, by means of ...


Uncertainties Associated With The Use Of Erosional Cave Scallop Lengths To Calculate Stream Discharges, Gregory S. Springer, Andrew Hall Jan 2020

Uncertainties Associated With The Use Of Erosional Cave Scallop Lengths To Calculate Stream Discharges, Gregory S. Springer, Andrew Hall

International Journal of Speleology

Scallops are extremely valuable indicators of past water flows in caves because they often record events that cannot be safely witnessed nor measured. Qualitatively, the inverse relationship between their lengths and formative water velocities is useful for determining how flow changes along a cave passage, but they are most valuable because they can be used to directly estimate actual water velocities and discharges. We explore the effects of sample size, measurement choices, and other methods commonly applied to the use of cave scallops in estimating cave stream velocities and discharges. We measured 100 scallops on a cave wall and find ...


Active Growth Of Non-Hydrothermal Subaqueous And Subaerial Barite (Baso4) Speleothems In Lechuguilla Cave (New Mexico, Usa), Max Wisshak, Hazel A. Barton, Katey E. Bender, Harvey R. Duchene Jan 2020

Active Growth Of Non-Hydrothermal Subaqueous And Subaerial Barite (Baso4) Speleothems In Lechuguilla Cave (New Mexico, Usa), Max Wisshak, Hazel A. Barton, Katey E. Bender, Harvey R. Duchene

International Journal of Speleology

Barite (BaSO4) speleothems have been reported from caves around the globe and interpreted to have chiefly formed in phreatic, hypogene, hydrothermal settings. Here we report two contrasting types of barite speleothems (bluish tabular crystals in a shallow pool and actively dripping greenish stalactites), which today form at lower temperatures in the non-hydrothermal and vadose environment of Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico, USA. Scanning electron microscopy analysis, along with energy- and wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, WDS), as well as X-ray diffraction (XRD), characterize the habit and chemical composition as barite. Fractionation of the minor element calcium is related to growth along ...


Art, Artfulness, Or Artifice?: A Review Of The Art Of Statistics: How To Learn From Data, By David Spiegelhalter, Jason Makansi Jan 2020

Art, Artfulness, Or Artifice?: A Review Of The Art Of Statistics: How To Learn From Data, By David Spiegelhalter, Jason Makansi

Numeracy

David Spiegelhalter. 2019. The Art of Statistics: How to Learn From Data. (London: The Penguin Group). 444 pp. ISBN 978-1541618510

The author successfully eases the reader away from the rigor of statistical methods and calculations and into the realm of statistical thinking. Despite an engaging style and attention-grabbing examples, the reader of The Art of Statistics will need more than a casual grounding in statistics to get what Spiegelhalter, I believe, intends from his book. It should be viewed as a companion to a more rigorous textbook on statistical methods but not necessarily a book that makes statistics any less ...


The Author’S Reflections On No B.S. (Bad Stats): Black People Need People Who Believe In Black People Enough Not To Believe Every Bad Thing They Hear About Black People, Ivory A. Toldson Jan 2020

The Author’S Reflections On No B.S. (Bad Stats): Black People Need People Who Believe In Black People Enough Not To Believe Every Bad Thing They Hear About Black People, Ivory A. Toldson

Numeracy

Toldson, Ivory. A. 2019. No BS (Bad Stats): Black People Need People Who Believe in Black People Enough Not to Believe Every Bad Thing They Hear About Black People (Boston, MA: Brill-Sense) 194 pp. ISBN 978-9004397026.

This essay provides an introduction to No BS (Bad Stats): Black People Need People Who Believe in Black People Enough Not to Believe Every Bad Thing They Hear About Black People. In the essay, the author discusses how cynical views about the educational potential of Black children motivated him to write a book that challenges negative statistics. The essay also outlines the harmful consequences ...


Effects Of Quantitative Literacy On Healthcare Decision-Making: An Aural Context, Robert G. Root, Sonia Bhala Jan 2020

Effects Of Quantitative Literacy On Healthcare Decision-Making: An Aural Context, Robert G. Root, Sonia Bhala

Numeracy

We propose a relationship between sensory modality, numerical formatting, and performance on a survey simulating healthcare decision-making. We examine the current literature on aural health literacy, and specifically aural literacy coupled with health numeracy. We then create a survey instrument called the Bhala test for this purpose and demonstrate that it is moderately internally consistent and provides results that correlate with the NUMi assessment, a widely accepted measure of health numeracy. The quantitative information provided in the Bhala test has two treatments, percentage and natural frequency formats, in an effort to determine which format is easier for subjects to use ...


Gradient Boosting For Survival Analysis With Applications In Oncology, Nam Phuong Nguyen Jan 2020

Gradient Boosting For Survival Analysis With Applications In Oncology, Nam Phuong Nguyen

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Cancer is one of the most deadly diseases that the world has been fighting against over decades. An enormous number of research has been conducted, via a wide scale of approaches, raging from genetic analysis to mathematical modeling. Survival analysis is a well-performed methodology frequently used to estimate the survival probability of a patient. Although there has been a large number of methods for survival analysis, efficient exploration of a high-dimensional feature space has been challenging due to its computational cost and complexity. This thesis adapts the component-wise gradient boosting algorithms for cancer survival analysis, and also proposes a new ...


A Mathematical Modeling Of Infrared Neural Stimulation, Cesil S. Alex Jan 2020

A Mathematical Modeling Of Infrared Neural Stimulation, Cesil S. Alex

Undergraduate Journal of Mathematical Modeling: One + Two

Electrical stimulation is the gold standard for artificial neural stimulation. The greatest disadvantage with electrical stimulation is that it scatters in space and it is difficult to achieve specific point stimulation. Recently, infrared stimulation attracted attention to address this issue. Infrared stimulation works on the principle of heating the tissue, exploiting the energy of infrared lasers to heat the cellular aqueous solution that helps transfer the energy to the cell membrane without direct contact, and provides a discrete localization of stimulation as it does not spread in space like electric fields. In the present study, a heat transfer model for ...


An Exploration Of Wind Energy, Bianca De Haan Jan 2020

An Exploration Of Wind Energy, Bianca De Haan

Undergraduate Journal of Mathematical Modeling: One + Two

Wind energy is renewable energy extrapolated from the wind that has the potential to revolutionize our power supply in the near future as fossil fuels become outdated. Wind turbines capture the energy as the wind spins the blades of the turbine, transforming wind energy into mechanical energy and then into electrical energy through a generator. One of the techniques utilized to understand wind energy is to manipulate various variables in the formula for wind power. These variables such as the power coefficient, wind velocity, number and length of blades are explored to find its optimal value. The variable of turbine ...


Prosthetic Leg Model, Dang Nguyen Jan 2020

Prosthetic Leg Model, Dang Nguyen

Undergraduate Journal of Mathematical Modeling: One + Two

The main goal of this paper is to introduce an imitated prosthetic leg model by analyzing the applied forces. Even though the model is based on the idea of a prosthetic leg, it is also applicable to people without disabilities. The same concept of the model can be seen in the circus, where a person maintains a balanced state while on an incredible height without falling. When all the applying forces in the system are calculated, the design achieves the ideal state which allows it to function most effectively. One of the essential factors applied to the imitated prosthetic leg ...


Finding The Growth Rate Of A Tumor, Christine Staat Jan 2020

Finding The Growth Rate Of A Tumor, Christine Staat

Undergraduate Journal of Mathematical Modeling: One + Two

The Gompertz method is used to analyze the growing glioblastoma data and estimate how accurate the results of growth over time are. The Gompertz curve is expressed as V(t) = αe-βe-γt. The data from the tumor is graphed in Excel along with the values from the Gompertz equation. Excel solver is used to assist in determining the constant values of α, β, and γ. The data of the tumor is overall very close to the outcome of the Gompertz model following a sigmoidal “S” curve.


Optimization Of Handicap Ramp, Tyler Schilling Jan 2020

Optimization Of Handicap Ramp, Tyler Schilling

Undergraduate Journal of Mathematical Modeling: One + Two

The objective of this project is to minimize the cost of building a handicap ramp. This is done by introducing an equation that represents the total cost of the construction, including labor and materials. Variables are then defined in terms of block length l, allowing for an equation with one variable to be graphed and derived. This equation then undergoes the first derivative test to find a value of l that would create a minimum output for cost. This value is then compared to the physical constraints of the project allowing for a realistic minimum cost to be found. The ...


Calculating The Area Within The Orbit Of Arrokoth, Aurielle Collins Jan 2020

Calculating The Area Within The Orbit Of Arrokoth, Aurielle Collins

Undergraduate Journal of Mathematical Modeling: One + Two

The area within the orbit of the Kuiper Belt object (KBO) Arrokoth (or 2014MU69) is approximated using the corresponding ellipse. The fact that the Sun lies at a focus of the ellipse is of interest. Attention is made to the known deviations of orbits from their models. It is at least of interest that the ellipse model is still essentially valid. Theoretically, if there were only the Sun and Arrokoth in the Universe, the orbit would be precisely described by the ellipse model.


Mariana Serpentinite Mud Volcanism Exhumes Subducted Seamount Materials: Implications For The Origin Of Life, Patricia Freyer, C. G. Wheat, Trevor Williams, Christopher Kelley, Kevin Johnson, Jeffrey Ryan, Walter Kurz, John Shervais, Elmar Albers, Barbara Bekins Jan 2020

Mariana Serpentinite Mud Volcanism Exhumes Subducted Seamount Materials: Implications For The Origin Of Life, Patricia Freyer, C. G. Wheat, Trevor Williams, Christopher Kelley, Kevin Johnson, Jeffrey Ryan, Walter Kurz, John Shervais, Elmar Albers, Barbara Bekins

School of Geosciences Faculty and Staff Publications

The subduction of seamounts and ridge features at convergent plate boundaries plays an important role in the deformation of the overriding plate and influences geochemical cycling and associated biological processes. Active serpentinization of forearc mantle and serpentinite mud volcanism on the Mariana forearc (between the trench and active volcanic arc) provides windows on subduction processes.  Here, we present (1) the first observation of an extensive exposure of an undeformed Cretaceous seamount currently being subducted at the Mariana Trench inner slope; (2) vertical deformation of the forearc region related to subduction of Pacific Plate seamounts and thickened crust; (3) recovered Ocean ...


The Peculiar Nature Of Florida’S Sandhill Wetlands, Ponds & Lakes— Their Ecohydrology, Relationship With The Regional Aquifer & Importance Within The Landscape., Renae Starr Nowicki Nov 2019

The Peculiar Nature Of Florida’S Sandhill Wetlands, Ponds & Lakes— Their Ecohydrology, Relationship With The Regional Aquifer & Importance Within The Landscape., Renae Starr Nowicki

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation explores the ecohydrology of Florida’s peculiar and poorly studied sandhill wetland and water features, particularly those located in west-central Florida. The primary research goals include: compilation and summarization of the available ecohydrologic information for features across Florida; comparison of water level and water geochemistry data between sandhill wetlands and waters and the regional aquifer to provide evidence of regional hydrologic control; and use of geophysical applications to examine the hydraulic connections between sandhill wetlands and waters and the regional aquifer.

From this research, a natural history of sandhill wetland and water ecohydrology is presented, highlighting: the differences ...


Use Of Spectrofluorometry To Detect Petroleum Hydrocarbons In The Marine Environment, Mary Iris Abercrombie Nov 2019

Use Of Spectrofluorometry To Detect Petroleum Hydrocarbons In The Marine Environment, Mary Iris Abercrombie

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The genesis of this research was the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, which discharged petroleum and gas into the Gulf of Mexico for 87 days in 2010. High-resolution fluorescence spectroscopy was employed for the detection of petroleum in seawater samples following the oil spill. Fluorescence arises from the chemical structure of π-bonding in C=C bonds, especially those in aromatic structures. Spectrofluorometry was also used to observe and track the formation of petroleum plumes in seawater undergoing controlled physical dispersion in a wave tank, both with and without the addition of chemical dispersant. Further, the changing fluorescence characteristics of a broad ...


Biomimetic Light Harvesting In Metalloporphyrins Encapsulated/Incorporated Within Metal Organic Frameworks (Mofs)., Abdulaziz A. Alanazi Nov 2019

Biomimetic Light Harvesting In Metalloporphyrins Encapsulated/Incorporated Within Metal Organic Frameworks (Mofs)., Abdulaziz A. Alanazi

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Global energy supply relies mostly on fossil fuels and only 10% comes from renewable energy. These places humankind in an unsafe situation as the fossil fuel resources won’t last forever. More efficient use of renewable energy is required sooner than later to meet the growing energy need. A promising approach is to utilize light harvesting chromophores (e.g., porphyrin derivatives) to advance organic photovoltaics and increase its efficiency or to improve photocatalysts. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) can be employed to aid the self-assembly of the porphyrin chromophores in a large light-harvesting system comparable to the natural photosystem. The advantage ...


Self-Assembly Of 2d And 3d Metallo-Supramolecules With Increasing Complexity, Bo Song Nov 2019

Self-Assembly Of 2d And 3d Metallo-Supramolecules With Increasing Complexity, Bo Song

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Synthetic organic chemistry played a crucial role in the construction of molecules through the formation and dissociation of covalent bonds. However, the laborious synthetic procedures as well as the low yield after multiple steps have restricted the pursuit of complicated giant molecules with high efficiency. Being complementary to organic synthesis, self-assembly provided an alternative route to achieving the giant architectures using weak non-covalent interactions in high efficiency, which is in analog to natural systems such as DNA, peptide, and protein. Among the various interactions, coordination has shown unique advantages in terms of directionality, reversibility and strength. Serving as a bottom-up ...


Introducing A Mobile Health Care Platform In An Underserved Rural Population: Reducing Assimilations Gaps On Adoption And Use Via Nudges, Joseph Hodges Nov 2019

Introducing A Mobile Health Care Platform In An Underserved Rural Population: Reducing Assimilations Gaps On Adoption And Use Via Nudges, Joseph Hodges

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Rural communities are often overlooked when it comes to offering cutting edge consumer healthcare technologies. Mobile applications usually exclude populations in rural demographics due to the infrastructure requirements and available technology in the region. The population studied is a low income rural health plan in southwest Georgia. They are uniquely considered as they have the highest healthcare costs in the U.S. and are compared to healthcare costs among higher income populations like Vail, Colorado. Innovations, such as mobile healthcare applications, have the capacity to offset some of these costs, but even if adoption occurs, this does not guarantee use ...


Untapped Potential Of Gorgonian Octocorals For Detecting Environmental Change In Biscayne National Park, Florida, Usa, Selena A. Kupfner Johnson Nov 2019

Untapped Potential Of Gorgonian Octocorals For Detecting Environmental Change In Biscayne National Park, Florida, Usa, Selena A. Kupfner Johnson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

One consequence of dramatic stony-coral loss has been recognition that gorgonian octocorals (Anthozoa: Octocorallia) have emerged among the dominant reef fauna. However, gorgonians are notoriously difficult to field-identify and consequently have been underrepresented in most monitoring efforts resulting in a lack of long-term data. The rich diversity of habitats, close proximity to the urban center of Miami, and connectivity to other areas of Florida have made Biscayne National Park an active location for reef research since its establishment in 1968. As such, a plethora of data (e.g., museum specimen and species abundance data) has been collected and stored in ...


Design, Synthesis, And Self-Assembly Of Supramolecular Fractals Based On Terpyridine With Different Transition Metal Ions, Lei Wang Nov 2019

Design, Synthesis, And Self-Assembly Of Supramolecular Fractals Based On Terpyridine With Different Transition Metal Ions, Lei Wang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Fractals have existed in a variety of natural forms, and the concept of "fractal geometry" has been developed in many areas by humankind, including art, economics, mathematics, physics, chemistry, material science, and etc. In the field of chemistry, researchers have endeavored great efforts to express the concept using molecules either by theoretical prediction or using synthetic methods in the past few decades, and one successful example is the “Sierpiński triangle”. Challenge still remains to achieve other fractal geometries as well as high generation of fractals with precisely controlled shape and size. Coordination-driven self-assembly has witnessed a wide array of well-defined ...


Perceptions Of The Effectiveness Of Food Policy Coalitions In Strengthening Community Food Security In The United States., Joseph G. England Iii Nov 2019

Perceptions Of The Effectiveness Of Food Policy Coalitions In Strengthening Community Food Security In The United States., Joseph G. England Iii

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Food insecurity is experienced most acutely and addressed most innovatively at the community level to which the concept of community food security (CFS) finds purchase (Hamm and Bellows, 2003). In recognition of the many varying dynamics embedded in the CFS concept, Food Policy Coalitions have become an organizational model adapted by communities across the United States. While FPCs have grown in number considerably over the last decade, there remains a considerable lack of empirical research documenting evaluation and engagement methods, as well as strategies used to address community food security. This research, framed by the Community Coalition Action Theory, draws ...


The Experiences Of African American Male Computer Science Majors In Two Year Colleges, Simone Brookins Jenkins Nov 2019

The Experiences Of African American Male Computer Science Majors In Two Year Colleges, Simone Brookins Jenkins

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

As the field of computer science grows and the computing science workforce demands more qualified workers, the United States workforce will require underrepresented minorities to help meet these demands. African American males are a demographic that can help meet this need but there are few of them pursuing computer science careers and successfully graduating with computer science degrees. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the experiences of African American male two-year college students who are in pursuit of a degree in computer science. My findings indicated that the study participants’ experiences such as positive interactions with faculty ...


Evaluating Conversation Agent Impact On Student Experience In A Distance Education Course, Grover Walters Nov 2019

Evaluating Conversation Agent Impact On Student Experience In A Distance Education Course, Grover Walters

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

We explore the efficacy of conversation agents operating as an instructional aid in a distance education course. Two aspects of efficacy are considered—conversation agent impact on student perceptions of the experience, and how different design features of the agent affect student perceptions of engagement. Evaluation of the agent is accomplished by collecting data from 24 undergraduate participants separated into random groups. We conduct two rounds of mixedmethod evaluation. Between the two rounds, a modification to the agent occurs based on the outcome of the first evaluation. Findings include limitations related to phrasing and data persistence features of the design ...


Fractional Random Weighted Bootstrapping For Classification On Imbalanced Data With Ensemble Decision Tree Methods, Sean Charles Carter Nov 2019

Fractional Random Weighted Bootstrapping For Classification On Imbalanced Data With Ensemble Decision Tree Methods, Sean Charles Carter

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Ensemble methods are commonly used for building predictive models for classification. Models that are unstable to perturbations in the training set, such as the decision tree, often see considerable reductions in error when grouped, using bootstrapped resamples of the training data to train many models. The non-parametric bootstrap, however, has limited efficacy when used on severely imbalanced data, especially when the number of observations of one or more classes is exceptionally small. We explore the fractional random weighted bootstrap, which randomly assigns fractional weights to observations, as an alternative resampling pro cedure in training machine learning ensembles, particularly decision tree ...


Measuring And Utilizing High-Dimensional Information Of Optical Fields, Ziyi Zhu Nov 2019

Measuring And Utilizing High-Dimensional Information Of Optical Fields, Ziyi Zhu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Currently, many areas of optical techniques including imaging, inspection and communication emphasize the utilization of the high-dimensional information encoded in optical fields. There is also a requirement for novel measurement techniques to extract this high-dimensional information with high-speed and accuracy. We firstly introduce a scan-free direct measurement technique that is capable of simultaneously characterizing the amplitude and phase of a coherent scalar optical field. Our direct measurement approach is constituted of a weak polarization perturbation which is followed by the recording of a polarization-resolving imaging process. The weak perturbation rotates the linear polarization on the spatial frequency domain of the ...


Boron Variation And The Subducted Sediment Component In The Volcanics From The Bifurcated Portion Of The Lesser Antilles Island Arc (Laia), Ami Margret Ngo Ward Nov 2019

Boron Variation And The Subducted Sediment Component In The Volcanics From The Bifurcated Portion Of The Lesser Antilles Island Arc (Laia), Ami Margret Ngo Ward

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

North of Martinique island the Lesser Antilles volcanic arc bifurcates, creating a double arc. Here volcanic activity has migrated up to 50 km westward with time, resulting in two volcanic lines that are distinct in age. The eastern line, commonly referred to as the old arc, was active from Early Eocene to Mid-Miocene (Nagle, 1971; Nagle et al., 1976; Westercamp and Tazieff, 1980; Andreieff et al., 1988). The western line, commonly referred to as the recent arc, has been active since the late Pliocene, ~6 Ma ago (Nagle, 1971; Nagle et al., 1976; Westercamp and Tazieff, 1980; Andreieff et al ...