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Articles 1 - 30 of 2555

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The Role Of Mites In The Construction And Weathering Of Siliceous Biospeleothems, María José López-Galindo Nov 2018

The Role Of Mites In The Construction And Weathering Of Siliceous Biospeleothems, María José López-Galindo

International Journal of Speleology

Acarines are well-documented as formative elements in the biocenosis of soils. However, their role in the construction and weathering of siliceous speleothems has received very little attention in previous research. The present study describes different groups of cavities (nesting/molting sites) excavated by these organisms in the surface of siliceous speleothems that are deposited in the fissures between various granite boulders in Southern Spain. There is evidence that there are immature stages that would survive the heat and drought of summer in the form of small larvae, or euedaphic nymphs, in the soil. This study provides the first description of ...


Evolution Of Noble Gas And Water Isotopes Along The Regional Groundwater Flow Path Of The Konya Closed Basin, Turkey, N. Nur Ozyurt, C. Serdar Bayari Nov 2018

Evolution Of Noble Gas And Water Isotopes Along The Regional Groundwater Flow Path Of The Konya Closed Basin, Turkey, N. Nur Ozyurt, C. Serdar Bayari

International Journal of Speleology

Noble gas and water isotope compositions of regional groundwater were investigated along two transects in the Konya Closed Basin (KCB) of central Turkey. According to the 3He/4He versus Ne/He plot of samples, crust (up to 86%) and mantle (up to 26%) appear to be the primary and secondary sources of dissolved He in groundwater, respectively. After the beginning of both transects where the flow domain is confined, both 3He and 4He accumulate steadily in groundwater. Thereafter, the intermediate recharge from the surface in the unconfined part of regional flow system disrupts the steady accumulation ...


Interpreting The Origin And Evolution Of ‘Karst’ Features From A Siliceous Hydrothermal Terrane: A Case Study From The Upper Geyser Basin In Yellowstone National Park, Usa, Kevin W. Blackwood, Lainee A. Sanders, Stacy I. Gantt-Blackwood Nov 2018

Interpreting The Origin And Evolution Of ‘Karst’ Features From A Siliceous Hydrothermal Terrane: A Case Study From The Upper Geyser Basin In Yellowstone National Park, Usa, Kevin W. Blackwood, Lainee A. Sanders, Stacy I. Gantt-Blackwood

International Journal of Speleology

The Upper Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park occurs over a siliceous hydrothermal terrane containing numerous hot springs and geysers. The pool and vent-conduit geometries of these hydrothermal features share a resemblance to conventional karst features known from other rock types, suggesting karst processes could be responsible for their origin and/or evolution. Hypogene speleogenesis is a cave-forming process in which the formation of caves is decoupled from and occurs independently of surface recharge. The geologic setting for hypogene speleogenesis typically occurs at the distal end of regional groundwater systems wherein the hydrogeology is manifested by ascending fluids and/or ...


Merging The Concepts Of Pseudokarst And Paleoseismicity In Sweden: A Unified Theory On The Formation Of Fractures, Fracture Caves, And Angular Block Heaps, Nils-Axel Mörner, Rabbe Sjöberg Oct 2018

Merging The Concepts Of Pseudokarst And Paleoseismicity In Sweden: A Unified Theory On The Formation Of Fractures, Fracture Caves, And Angular Block Heaps, Nils-Axel Mörner, Rabbe Sjöberg

International Journal of Speleology

Sweden has thousands of caves cut into the bedrock, two thirds of which occur in the crystalline bedrock, and hence represent pseudokarst phenomena. The formation of these caves can only be understood in terms of paleoseismics. In this paper, we review the parallel evolution of the concept of pseudokarst caves and of the concept of paleoseismic activity in Sweden, and combine both concepts into a unified theory on the formation of fractures, fracture caves and angular block heaps.


The Cyrilka Cave—The Longest Crevice-Type Cave In Czechia: Structural Controls, Genesis, And Age, Jan Lenart, Martin Kašing, Petr Tábořík, Natalia Piotrowska, Jacek Pawlyta Oct 2018

The Cyrilka Cave—The Longest Crevice-Type Cave In Czechia: Structural Controls, Genesis, And Age, Jan Lenart, Martin Kašing, Petr Tábořík, Natalia Piotrowska, Jacek Pawlyta

International Journal of Speleology

The Cyrilka Cave is the second longest pseudokarst cave and the longest crevice-type cave in Czechia. Developed within the headscarp area of a deep-seated landslide, the cave became a focus of scientific research in recent years when new passages were discovered. Structural analysis provided a general tectonic plan of the cave, as well as more detailed data on geometry and kinematics of the relaxed rock massif. The primary structure of NNE- to ENE-striking bedding is broken by a system of NNE-striking fissures interconnected by two continuous ENE-striking dextral fracture zones. Abundant signs of recent sinistral strike-slips within the rock massif ...


On Biospeleothems From A Venezuelan Tepui Cave: U-Th Dating, Growth Rates, And Morphology, Joyce Lundberg, Charles Brewer-Carías, Donald A. Mcfarlane Oct 2018

On Biospeleothems From A Venezuelan Tepui Cave: U-Th Dating, Growth Rates, And Morphology, Joyce Lundberg, Charles Brewer-Carías, Donald A. Mcfarlane

International Journal of Speleology

Seven silica biospeleothems from Cueva Charles Brewer, Chimantá Plateau, Venezuela have been successfully U-Th dated despite very low U and high detrital Th concentrations. Growth rates are low, between ~100 to ~800 µm/ka, and are greater closer to water level. Dates in unaltered material are in good stratigraphic order, but secondary silicification may compromise the U-Th system, yielding unreliable sequences of ages. Detritally-enriched layers correlate with global climate cycles of the Late Quaternary, in particular the cooler, drier phases of MIS 5d, 5a, and 4. SEM studies indicate that the peloidal material is made up of silica nano-particles assembled ...


Evidence For Subsurface Origin Of Boulder Caves, Roofed Slots And Boulder-Filled Canyons (Broumov Highland, Czechia), Filip Duszyński, Kacper Jancewicz, Piotr Migoń Sep 2018

Evidence For Subsurface Origin Of Boulder Caves, Roofed Slots And Boulder-Filled Canyons (Broumov Highland, Czechia), Filip Duszyński, Kacper Jancewicz, Piotr Migoń

International Journal of Speleology

The backslope of a sandstone cuesta in the Broumov Highland (Czechia) is cut by a complex network of canyons. Long sections of canyons have thick boulder fills which are difficult to reconcile with simple rock fall and talus development scenario. Boulder caves occur within these fills and their lowermost parts are drained by streams that evacuate fine loose sandy material produced by weathering and mechanical erosion. These boulder fills are explained as largely in situ, residual features, left after subsurface selective disintegration of rock mass, mainly joint-guided, and removal of grains by underground water. Evacuation of fines leaves voids into ...


Old And Recent Processes In A Warm And Humid Desert Hypogene Cave: ‘A’Rak Na‘Asane, Israel, Amos Frumkin, Shlomi Aharon, Uri Davidovich, Boaz Langford, Yoav Negev, Micka Ullman, Anton Vaks, Shemesh Ya‘Aran, Boaz Zissu Jul 2018

Old And Recent Processes In A Warm And Humid Desert Hypogene Cave: ‘A’Rak Na‘Asane, Israel, Amos Frumkin, Shlomi Aharon, Uri Davidovich, Boaz Langford, Yoav Negev, Micka Ullman, Anton Vaks, Shemesh Ya‘Aran, Boaz Zissu

International Journal of Speleology

Recent environmental processes are studied in ʻA’rak Naʻasane Cave at the northern Judean Desert, Israel. The outer zone of the cave is heavily influenced by the outside environment through a large entrance, facilitating entry of air flow, fauna and humans, with minor cave-forming modifications. Conversely, the inner cave sustains humid and warm conditions, favoring modifications by condensation corrosion of convective air flow, associated with deposition of popcorn speleothems at the lower parts of dissolution pockets. The warm humid air of the inner cave may be associated with an underlying thermal water table. Active condensation corrosion is decreasing, possibly because ...


Unconfined Hypogene Evaporite Karst: West Texas And Southeastern New Mexico, Usa, Kevin W. Stafford, Jon T. Ehrhart, Adam F. Majzoub, Jessica M. Shields, Wesley A. Brown Jul 2018

Unconfined Hypogene Evaporite Karst: West Texas And Southeastern New Mexico, Usa, Kevin W. Stafford, Jon T. Ehrhart, Adam F. Majzoub, Jessica M. Shields, Wesley A. Brown

International Journal of Speleology

Diverse karst phenomena occur throughout the Gypsum Plain where the Castile Formation crops out over ~1800 km2 in West Texas and southeastern New Mexico. Hypergene karst is extensive and widespread, while traditional hypogene karst manifestations (both caves and intrastratal dissolution) occur in high frequency in the western outcrop region where surface denudation has been the greatest so as to induce surficial breaching. Unconfined hypogene karst occurrences have been recently identified, including two general variations: 1) artesian-like discharge features; and 2) venting structures. Artesian-like discharge features arise at surficially-breached hypogene caves and through high permeability regions on the margins of ...


Calculus Of The Impossible: Review Of The Improbability Principle (2014) By David Hand And The Logic Of Miracles (2018) By Lásló Mérő, Samuel L. Tunstall Jul 2018

Calculus Of The Impossible: Review Of The Improbability Principle (2014) By David Hand And The Logic Of Miracles (2018) By Lásló Mérő, Samuel L. Tunstall

Numeracy

David J. Hand. 2014. The Improbability Principle: Why Coincidences, Miracles, and Rare Events Happen Every Day (New York, NY: Scientific American/Farrar, Straus and Giroux) 288 pp. ISBN: 978-0374175344.

Lásló Mérő. 2018. The Logic of Miracles: Making Sense of Rare, Really Rare, and Impossibly Rare Events (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press) 288 pp. ISBN: 978-0300224153.

David Hand and Lásló Mérő both grapple with the occurrence of seemingly impossible events in these two popular science books. In this comparative review, I describe the two books, and explain why I prefer Hand's treatment of the impossible.


Forewarned Is Forearmed: Review Of Curbing Catastrophe: Natural Hazards And Risk Reduction In The Modern World By Timothy H. Dixon (2017), Jason Makansi Jul 2018

Forewarned Is Forearmed: Review Of Curbing Catastrophe: Natural Hazards And Risk Reduction In The Modern World By Timothy H. Dixon (2017), Jason Makansi

Numeracy

Timothy H. Dixon. 2017. Curbing Catastrophe: Natural Hazards and Risk Reduction in the Modern World. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press) 300 pp. ISBN 978-1108113663.

Curbing Catastrophe for the most part lives up to what is claimed in the foreword: “…a compelling account of recent and historical disasters, both natural and human-caused, drawing on common themes and providing a holistic understanding of hazards, disasters, and mitigation for anyone interested in this important and topical subject.” This is a pretty thorough treatment of an extraordinarily complex subject, and the gaps identified in this review should be considered explications more than criticisms.


Review Of Curbing Catastrophe: Natural Hazards And Risk Reduction In The Modern World, Kira H. Hamman Jul 2018

Review Of Curbing Catastrophe: Natural Hazards And Risk Reduction In The Modern World, Kira H. Hamman

Numeracy

Timothy H. Dixon. 2017. Curbing Catastrophe: Natural Hazards and Risk Reduction in the Modern World. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press) 300 pp. ISBN 978-1108113663.

In Curbing Catastrophe, Timothy H. Dixon explores commonalities among natural disasters like Hurricane Katrina, the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, and the meltdown at Fukushima. He identifies communication failure between scientists and policy makers as a major culprit in the devastation that results from such events and offers strategies for improving that communication. He includes optional in-depth scientific and quantitative examinations of the events and the resulting devastation, making the book appropriate for use in teaching ...


Quantitative Literacy And Civic Virtue, William Briggs Jul 2018

Quantitative Literacy And Civic Virtue, William Briggs

Numeracy

Mathematics educators are occasionally called upon to justify the existence or the offering of quantitative literacy courses. This paper argues that effective quantitative literacy courses have different goals than algebra courses and are legitimate alternatives to algebra courses for non-STEM students. Furthermore, quantitative literacy courses affirm the historic relationship between citizenship and education. In today’s world of proliferating news sources, social media, and fake news, quantitative literacy has become an essential component of the long-held ideal of civic virtue.


New Insights On Secondary Minerals From Italian Sulfuric Acid Caves, Ilenia M. D'Angeli, Cristina Carbone, Maria Nagostinis, Mario Parise, Marco Vattano, Giuliana Madonia, Jo De Waele Jun 2018

New Insights On Secondary Minerals From Italian Sulfuric Acid Caves, Ilenia M. D'Angeli, Cristina Carbone, Maria Nagostinis, Mario Parise, Marco Vattano, Giuliana Madonia, Jo De Waele

International Journal of Speleology

Sulfuric acid minerals are important clues to identify the speleogenetic phases of hypogene caves. Italy hosts ~25% of the known worldwide sulfuric acid speleogenetic (SAS) systems, including the famous well-studied Frasassi, Monte Cucco, and Acquasanta Terme caves. Nevertheless, other underground environments have been analyzed, and interesting mineralogical assemblages were found associated with peculiar geomorphological features such as cupolas, replacement pockets, feeders, sulfuric notches, and sub-horizontal levels. In this paper, we focused on 15 cave systems located along the Apennine Chain, in Apulia, in Sicily, and in Sardinia, where copious SAS minerals were observed. Some of the studied systems (e.g ...


Extremely High Diversity Of Sulfate Minerals In Caves Of The Irazú Volcano (Costa Rica) Related To Crater Lake And Fumarolic Activity, Andrés Ulloa, Fernando Gázquez, Aurelio Sanz-Arranz, Jesús Medina, Fernando Rull, José María Calaforra, Guillermo E. Alvarado, María Martínez, Geoffroy Avard, J. Maarten De Moor, Jo De Waele Jun 2018

Extremely High Diversity Of Sulfate Minerals In Caves Of The Irazú Volcano (Costa Rica) Related To Crater Lake And Fumarolic Activity, Andrés Ulloa, Fernando Gázquez, Aurelio Sanz-Arranz, Jesús Medina, Fernando Rull, José María Calaforra, Guillermo E. Alvarado, María Martínez, Geoffroy Avard, J. Maarten De Moor, Jo De Waele

International Journal of Speleology

The caves of the Irazú volcano (Costa Rica), became accessible after the partial collapse of the NW sector of the Irazú volcano in 1994, offering the opportunity to investigate active minerogenetic processes in volcanic cave environments. We performed a detailed mineralogical and geochemical study of speleothems in the caves Cueva los Minerales and Cueva Los Mucolitos, both located in the northwest foothills of the main crater. Mineralogical analyses included X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy, while geochemical characterization used Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) coupled to Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). In addition, measurements of environmental parameters in the caves, cave ...


Full Issue 47(2) Jun 2018

Full Issue 47(2)

International Journal of Speleology

No abstract provided.


Table Of Contents Jun 2018

Table Of Contents

International Journal of Speleology

No abstract provided.


Drip Water Measurements From Carlsbad Cavern: Implications Towards Paleoclimate Records Yielded From Evaporative-Zone Stalagmites, Victor J. Polyak, Jessica B.T. Rasmussen, Yemane Asmerom Jun 2018

Drip Water Measurements From Carlsbad Cavern: Implications Towards Paleoclimate Records Yielded From Evaporative-Zone Stalagmites, Victor J. Polyak, Jessica B.T. Rasmussen, Yemane Asmerom

International Journal of Speleology

Stalagmites can host numerous potential climate proxies (stable and radiogenic isotopes, trace elements, annual and non-annual banding, grayscale, growth hiatuses, mineral assemblage). Reproducibility and/or integration of proxy results between one or more stalagmites will become increasingly important, and ideally, climate records generated by multiple stalagmites from the same cave or cave room are expected to be near-identical. The reality is that stalagmites from the same cave room can yield differing results to some degree, especially in cave environment zones that are evaporative. Our drip water study in an evaporative shallow-depth cave environment in Carlsbad Cavern shows that adjacent drip ...


Spar Caves As Fossil Hydrothermal Systems: Timing And Origin Of Ore Deposits In The Delaware Basin And Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico And Texas, Usa, David D. Decker, Victor J. Polyak, Yemane Asmerom Jun 2018

Spar Caves As Fossil Hydrothermal Systems: Timing And Origin Of Ore Deposits In The Delaware Basin And Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico And Texas, Usa, David D. Decker, Victor J. Polyak, Yemane Asmerom

International Journal of Speleology

Studies of sulfuric acid hypogene speleogenesis have contributed significantly to understanding the history of the Guadalupe Mountains of southeast New Mexico and west Texas for at least the past 12 Ma. A recently published hypothesis of supercritical CO2 spar cave genesis provides information that constrains the timing of the start of uplift to between 27 and 16 Ma, and helps to explain landscape evolution of this region for the last 185 Ma. This new speleogenetic model is summarized here and shows that U-Pb dating of crystals from different spar caves reveal different ages, and that a majority of the ...


Full Issue 47(1) May 2018

Full Issue 47(1)

International Journal of Speleology

No abstract provided.


Table Of Contents May 2018

Table Of Contents

International Journal of Speleology

No abstract provided.


Studies Aimed At The Synthesis Of Anti-Infective Agents, Ankush Kanwar Apr 2018

Studies Aimed At The Synthesis Of Anti-Infective Agents, Ankush Kanwar

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Infectious diseases continue to be a major concern worldwide. They are the second leading cause of death after heart disease. Factors such as an increasing global population, travel, urbanization, global climate change and evolution of pathogens have made infectious diseases more common. Infectious diseases, particularly neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) result in many deaths worldwide. Malaria and leishmaniasis are two common (NTDs) which affect low income countries around the globe. Low cost drugs with novel mechanism of action are required to tackle the growing resistances of parasites against current drugs used in the developing world, where most of the cases occur ...


The Association Of Size Variation In The Dental Arch To Third Molar Agenesis For A Modern Population, Devin N. Williams Apr 2018

The Association Of Size Variation In The Dental Arch To Third Molar Agenesis For A Modern Population, Devin N. Williams

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The frequency with which individuals do not develop their third molars, or wisdom teeth, is increasing worldwide. This current topic of human evolution is relevant to the research of anthropologists, geneticists, dentists, and other researchers involved in the study of human dentition. Many explanations have been offered to account for the prevalence of molar agenesis including, evolutionary, environmental, and genetic theories. The purpose of this research project is to determine the frequency of third molar agenesis and investigate the relationship between third molar agenesis and maxillomandibular jaw dimensions in a sample of orthodontic patients. This research tests the hypotheses that ...


Co-Authorship Analysis Of The Speleothem Proxy-Climate Community: Working Together To Tackle The Big Problems, Micheline L. Campbell, John N. Callow, Gavan S. Mcgrath, Hamish A. Mcgowan Apr 2018

Co-Authorship Analysis Of The Speleothem Proxy-Climate Community: Working Together To Tackle The Big Problems, Micheline L. Campbell, John N. Callow, Gavan S. Mcgrath, Hamish A. Mcgowan

International Journal of Speleology

Understanding the environmental context of speleothem palaeo-climate proxies is fundamental to their interpretation. We analyse four methodological approaches to accomplish this: stalactite discharge analysis, proxy/process tracer studies, discharge modelling, and geophysics. Datamining produced citation data sets that reflected these methodological sub-disciplines. Social network analysis is used to examine co-authorship within and between these sub-disciplines, and between the joint methodological community and the broader speleothem proxy climate community. Members of the sub-disciplines have become more connected to one another over time, and to members of the other sub-disciplines. High degrees of connectivity between and within communities allows for the rapid ...


Unusual Internal Structure Of Cm-Sized Coldwater Calcite: Weichselian Spars In Former Pools Of The Zinnbergschacht Cave (Franconian Alb/Se Germany), Detlev K. Richter, Rolf D. Neuser, Martin Harder, Hardy Schabdach, Denis Scholz Apr 2018

Unusual Internal Structure Of Cm-Sized Coldwater Calcite: Weichselian Spars In Former Pools Of The Zinnbergschacht Cave (Franconian Alb/Se Germany), Detlev K. Richter, Rolf D. Neuser, Martin Harder, Hardy Schabdach, Denis Scholz

International Journal of Speleology

The investigation of the internal structure of calcite crystals is a new focus in speleothem science, especially in the range of crystallization temperatures close to 0°C. Recently found calcite spars from Zinnbergschacht Cave of the Franconian Alb (SE Germany) are ideal for multi-method investigation. The elongated calcites (up to 6 cm in length) with three to six lateral faces and basal triangular faces at the ends are observed in collapse-zones in the cave. 230Th/U-ages of 38.9 ka suggest formation during the periglacial Weichselian, between the Scandinavian and Alpine Glaciations. The δ18O and δ13 ...


Replication And Reinsertion Of Stalagmites Sampled For Paleoclimatic Purposes, Eleuterio Baeza, Rafael P. Lozano, Carlos Rossi Apr 2018

Replication And Reinsertion Of Stalagmites Sampled For Paleoclimatic Purposes, Eleuterio Baeza, Rafael P. Lozano, Carlos Rossi

International Journal of Speleology

Sampling stalagmites for paleoclimatic study can enter into conflict with preserving the beauty and integrity of caves. To minimize this impact, a variety of sampling strategies have been used by researches aware of cave-conservation issues. Based on our experience in two caves (El Soplao and La Buenita, Cantabria, N Spain), we propose to apply molding and casting laboratory techniques to create replicas of stalagmites, placing the replicas back in the original cave locations so that the impact of sampling to the cave is severely reduced. We provide detailed descriptions of the molding and casting methods, which vary depending on stalagmite ...


Moonmilk As A Human And Veterinary Medicine: Evidence Of Past Artisan Mining In Caves Of The Austrian Alps, Christoph Spötl Apr 2018

Moonmilk As A Human And Veterinary Medicine: Evidence Of Past Artisan Mining In Caves Of The Austrian Alps, Christoph Spötl

International Journal of Speleology

The use of moonmilk for medical and other purposes in the Alps is documented since the 16th century. This article reviews speleological reports and sparse historical accounts about the extraction of moonmilk from 18 caves in the Eastern Alps of Austria in an artisan mining style. One such example from a cave in Tyrol is documented in detail, where moonmilk was mined until the beginning of the 20th century and which, due to its remote location, uniquely preserved traces of both the mining and processing style.


Evaluation Of Academic And Social Engagement In A Technology-Based Collaborative Approach To Inclusive Geoscience Field Learning, Anita Marie Stone Marshall Apr 2018

Evaluation Of Academic And Social Engagement In A Technology-Based Collaborative Approach To Inclusive Geoscience Field Learning, Anita Marie Stone Marshall

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Field learning is an important aspect of geoscience education to teach or reinforce concepts and skills, and the highly social experience of field work can improve learning outcomes, create networks to support future academic success, and promote a sense of belonging in the geosciences. However, field learning presents significant barriers to participation for students with physical disabilities. The introduction of digital data collection and communication devices into traditional field work settings has created new opportunities to expand access to field learning experiences such as remote collaboration; a method of undertaking field work through collaborative teamwork and the use of digital ...


Characterization Of Nylon-12 In A Novel Additive Manufacturing Technology, And The Rheological And Spectroscopic Analysis Of Peg-Starch Matrix Interactions, Garrett Michael Craft Apr 2018

Characterization Of Nylon-12 In A Novel Additive Manufacturing Technology, And The Rheological And Spectroscopic Analysis Of Peg-Starch Matrix Interactions, Garrett Michael Craft

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this work differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis, Fourier-Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy [FT-IR] and polarized light microscopy will be employed to characterize polymeric systems. The first chapter broadly covers polymer synthesis and important characterization methods.

In the second chapter, a polyamide (PA12) will be sintered via a novel additive manufacturing (AM) technology developed here at USF termed LAPS (Large Area Projection Sintering). LAPS uses extended sintering timespans to ensure complete melting and densification of the polymer powder over the entire two-dimensional area of the part’s footprint. Further, it allows for the printed layer to crystallize and shrink in its ...


Identification Of Individuals From Ears In Real World Conditions, Earnest Eugene Hansley Apr 2018

Identification Of Individuals From Ears In Real World Conditions, Earnest Eugene Hansley

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A number of researchers have shown that ear recognition is a viable alternative to more common biometrics such as fingerprint, face and iris because the ear is relatively stable over time, the ear is non-invasive to capture, the ear is expressionless, and both the ear’s geometry and shape have significant variation among individuals. Researchers have used different approaches to enhance ear recognition. Some researchers have improved upon existing algorithms, some have developed algorithms from scratch to assist with recognizing individuals by ears, and some researchers have taken algorithms tried and tested for another purpose, i.e., face recognition, and ...