Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Physical Sciences and Mathematics Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

University of Pennsylvania

Discipline
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 3096

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Formation Of Nanoparticles For The Oral Delivery Of Small Molecules By Flash Nanoprecipitation, Jing Zhi Lo May 2020

Formation Of Nanoparticles For The Oral Delivery Of Small Molecules By Flash Nanoprecipitation, Jing Zhi Lo

Master of Chemical Sciences Capstone Projects

Nanoparticles have shown considerable potential in many biological applications including drug delivery, bio-imaging, and medical diagnostics. Specifically, the development of nanoparticle-based drug formulations holds opportunities to improve the dissolution rate and oral availability of poorly water-soluble drugs. The goal of this project is to improve oral bioavailability of a small molecule drug (“G-1”) through the formation of nanoparticles using the flash nanoprecipitation (FNP) process. Interestingly, “G-1” formed ~80 nm particles that are electrostatically stabilized without the use of stabilizing polymers and concentration as high as 160 mg/mL of “G-1” formed nanoparticles. Additionally, trehalose was found to be an effective ...


Monolayer Self-Assembly Of Monodisperse Nanocrystals At The Liquid-Air Interface, Di An May 2020

Monolayer Self-Assembly Of Monodisperse Nanocrystals At The Liquid-Air Interface, Di An

Master of Chemical Sciences Capstone Projects

The study of nanocrystals (NCs) self-assembly into monolayers have attracted significant interests, due to wide applications in sensors, catalysts, nanodevices and pattern transfer. Liquid-air interface self-assembly (LAISA) is a useful technique used for the monolayer fabrication. In this capstone project, a library of NCs is built for LAISA and binary superlattice study. Monodisperse iron oxide, gold and gadolinium fluoride NCs of various sizes were synthesized by modifying reported methods.9,10,20 The obtained NCs were characterized by TEM, SAXS, DLS and TGA, revealing their geometry, size and surface chemistry. The second part of this project is optimizing conditions of ...


Physics 516: Electromagnetic Phenomena (Spring 2020), Philip C. Nelson May 2020

Physics 516: Electromagnetic Phenomena (Spring 2020), Philip C. Nelson

Department of Physics Papers

These course notes are made publicly available in the hope that they will be useful. All reports of errata will be gratefully received. I will also be glad to hear from anyone who reads them, whether or not you find errors: pcn@upenn.edu.


Case Study: Verifying The Safety Of An Autonomous Racing Car With A Neural Network Controller, Radoslav Ivanov, Taylor J. Carpenter, James Weimer, Rajeev Alur, George Pappas, Insup Lee Apr 2020

Case Study: Verifying The Safety Of An Autonomous Racing Car With A Neural Network Controller, Radoslav Ivanov, Taylor J. Carpenter, James Weimer, Rajeev Alur, George Pappas, Insup Lee

Departmental Papers (CIS)

This paper describes a verification case study on an autonomous racing car with a neural network (NN) controller. Although several verification approaches have been recently proposed, they have only been evaluated on low-dimensional systems or systems with constrained environments. To explore the limits of existing approaches, we present a challenging benchmark in which the NN takes raw LiDAR measurements as input and outputs steering for the car. We train a dozen NNs using reinforcement learning (RL) and show that the state of the art in verification can handle systems with around 40 LiDAR rays. Furthermore, we perform real experiments to ...


Thin Dry Silicon Oxide Films Grown By Thermal Oxidation, Manisha Muduli, Hiromichi Yamamoto Mar 2020

Thin Dry Silicon Oxide Films Grown By Thermal Oxidation, Manisha Muduli, Hiromichi Yamamoto

Tool Data

Dry thermal oxidation is performed at 900, 950, 1000, and 1050 C in fused silica tube furnace (Sandvik) for 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200 min. The results are analyzed by both of Deal-Grove model and the method of Gerlach, Maser, and Saad. In the analysis using the Deal-Grove model, the parabolic rate constants are obtained to be 2.1, 7.0, 17.5, and 42.4 nm^2/min at 900, 950, 1000, and 1050 C, respectively, and the linear rate constants are acquired to be 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 nm/min at 900 ...


Evaluating W.A.S.H. (Water, Sanitation And Hygiene) Interventions In Rural Schools Of West Bengal, India, Akudo Ejelonu, Huiran Feng, Thomas Mckeon Mar 2020

Evaluating W.A.S.H. (Water, Sanitation And Hygiene) Interventions In Rural Schools Of West Bengal, India, Akudo Ejelonu, Huiran Feng, Thomas Mckeon

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Poor sanitation exacerbates adverse health outcomes such as infectious disease, diarrhea and childhood stunting. People of India suffer from disproportionately high rates of poor sanitation. Diarrheal diseases are preventable and better sanitation can reduce disease transmission through improved access to latrines, hygiene education and clean water. A significant concentration of behaviors related to poor sanitation occurring in India requires sustainability and an assessment of programs working towards improving water access, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). We assessed the health and environmental impact of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) such as Sarboday Sangha and Water for People which implemented WASH projects in about 141 ...


Future Leader In Sustainable Enterprise — Prescilla Awino, Akudo Ejelonu Mar 2020

Future Leader In Sustainable Enterprise — Prescilla Awino, Akudo Ejelonu

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Prescilla is a trainer and a mentor of teenagers and young adolescent women. She successfully managed the Girls Leadership and Advocacy Series (GALS Kenya), a Program of Women Campaign International (WCI). WCI is a Philadelphia based non-profit organization that empowers women globally to actively participate in civil society, political leadership, economic development and peace building.


Menstrual Health And Hygiene Management And Wash In Urban Slums: Gaps In The Evidence And Recommendations, Sarah J. Goddard Mph, Mia, Marni Sommer Drph, Msn, Rn Mar 2020

Menstrual Health And Hygiene Management And Wash In Urban Slums: Gaps In The Evidence And Recommendations, Sarah J. Goddard Mph, Mia, Marni Sommer Drph, Msn, Rn

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

The rapid urbanization and development of megacities across many low- and middle-income countries creates new challenges in global health; this is particularly true for women and girls who are disproportionately affected by poor urban planning, inadequate sanitation infrastructure, and limited access to water. Urban slums serve to reinforce many gendered inequalities, as reflected in poor sexual and reproductive health outcomes and various other health and wellbeing indicators. Women and adolescent girls in urban slums are particularly vulnerable in relation to their experiences of menstruation, given the limited access they may have to safe, private spaces with water for changing, washing ...


Barriers And Bias: Women In Water Utilities Are Breaking Them All, Swati Hegde Mar 2020

Barriers And Bias: Women In Water Utilities Are Breaking Them All, Swati Hegde

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Around the world, women are the mainstays of society, from raising children to supporting families to caring for the needy. In developing countries, they are also usually responsible for collecting and providing water for the family. In doing so, their time, health, safety, education and income are compromised. Outdated and undisputed social norms create the biases that force women to bear the responsibility to secure and distribute water, thereby creating barriers to women’s advancement in educational opportunities and significantly reducing income-earning potential. Similarly, in the developed world, outdated social norms create biases and barriers in the water industry that ...


Good Mums: A Gender Equality Perspective On The Constructions Of The Mother In Handwashing Campaigns, Sue Cavill, Chelsea Huggett Mar 2020

Good Mums: A Gender Equality Perspective On The Constructions Of The Mother In Handwashing Campaigns, Sue Cavill, Chelsea Huggett

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

The first part of this paper provides a brief overview of the framing of women in hygiene interventions. The following section provides a review of the literature on best practices for handwashing and hygiene, as framed by discourses on the good mother. The goal of this paper is to illustrate how promotional approaches are targeting mothers to change handwashing and hygiene behavior, and to contrast such interventions with the possibility of more gender transformative approaches. We argue that women don’t always implement the handwashing practices they would prefer. This is clearly not due to laziness and thoughtlessness, and it ...


Gender Contribution In Household Management Of Water And Its Impact On Residents Of Dholak Basti (Slum) In Haldwani City Of India, Yashi Gupta, Riyan Habeeb, Manya Singh, Anvita Pandey, Vishal Singh, Elizabeth Barker Mar 2020

Gender Contribution In Household Management Of Water And Its Impact On Residents Of Dholak Basti (Slum) In Haldwani City Of India, Yashi Gupta, Riyan Habeeb, Manya Singh, Anvita Pandey, Vishal Singh, Elizabeth Barker

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

The paper explores water and gender sensitivity in one of the slum areas of Haldwani City, one of the fastest growing and least studied cities of Uttarakhand. The study is intended to contextualise the analysis of household water management and role of gender with respect to water management in the city. First, a city-wide ward wise analysis was conducted to identify wards with low socio-economic profile and high illiteracy based on Census of India, 2011 data and analysed spatially in Geographical Information System (GIS). The spatial analysis was followed by primary surveys in one of the identified wards and statistical ...


Amigos Por Agua, Pamela J. Lazos Mar 2020

Amigos Por Agua, Pamela J. Lazos

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

The role of non-profit organizations in outfitting the developing world with clean water has become more extensive as the world’s population grows, especially in places such as Nicaragua, the second poorest country in the western hemisphere. Nicaraguans suffer high rates of kidney disease, respiratory illnesses and parasites as a result of water borne diseases. NGOs such as Amigos for Christ are stepping in to fill the void in Chinandega where the local government lacks the financial wherewithal to provide a basic WASH infrastructure to its inhabitants. It is the goal of Amigos for Christ to bring water to every ...


Calibrated Prediction With Covariate Shift Via Unsupervised Domain Adaptation, Sangdon Park, Osbert Bastani, James Weimer, Insup Lee Mar 2020

Calibrated Prediction With Covariate Shift Via Unsupervised Domain Adaptation, Sangdon Park, Osbert Bastani, James Weimer, Insup Lee

Departmental Papers (CIS)

Reliable uncertainty estimates are an important tool for helping autonomous agents or human decision makers understand and leverage predictive models. However, existing approaches to estimating uncertainty largely ignore the possibility of covariate shift—i.e., where the real-world data distribution may differ from the training distribution. As a consequence, existing algorithms can overestimate certainty, possibly yielding a false sense of confidence in the predictive model. We propose an algorithm for calibrating predictions that accounts for the possibility of covariate shift, given labeled examples from the training distribution and unlabeled examples from the real-world distribution. Our algorithm uses importance weighting to ...


Pac Confidence Sets For Deep Neural Networks Via Calibrated Prediction, Sangdon Park, Osbert Bastani, Nikolai Matni, Insup Lee Feb 2020

Pac Confidence Sets For Deep Neural Networks Via Calibrated Prediction, Sangdon Park, Osbert Bastani, Nikolai Matni, Insup Lee

Departmental Papers (CIS)

We propose an algorithm combining calibrated prediction and generalization bounds from learning theory to construct confidence sets for deep neural networks with PAC guarantees---i.e., the confidence set for a given input contains the true label with high probability. We demonstrate how our approach can be used to construct PAC confidence sets on ResNet for ImageNet, a visual object tracking model, and a dynamics model for the half-cheetah reinforcement learning problem.


Synthesis Of Au-Ag Alloy Nanoparticles And Characterization Of Nanoparticle-Anthracene Hybrid Materials, Xiang Zhou Jan 2020

Synthesis Of Au-Ag Alloy Nanoparticles And Characterization Of Nanoparticle-Anthracene Hybrid Materials, Xiang Zhou

Master of Chemical Sciences Capstone Projects

In this work, the optical properties of Au-Ag alloys with an anthracene ligand grafter to their surfaces was examined. Structurally and chemically homogeneous Au-Ag alloy NPs were synthesized by a seed-mediated method with the Ag precursor reduced and grown onto the prepared Au seeds. The alloy NPs were formed after inter-diffusion of Au and Ag and protected using oleylamine. Functionalization of the metal NPs with the anthracene-incorporated ligands was conducted via a simple ligand exchange protocol. The morphological information and chemical composition of the resulting NPs were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. The plasmonic ...


A Sustainability Assessment Of The Solarize Philly Program, Samanvitha Danda Jan 2020

A Sustainability Assessment Of The Solarize Philly Program, Samanvitha Danda

Master of Environmental Studies Capstone Projects

Solar energy is known as a green and clean source of energy and programs such as the Solarize Philly promote its use so people can enjoy its benefits. However, one cannot overlook the fact that producing electricity via solar panels produces emissions at various stages along the life cycle. In this paper, a sustainability analysis of the Solarize Philly program was carried out with aims to quantify and depict the environmental and monetary costs and benefits of the program as a whole and to its individual customers. The analysis includes a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to estimate the environmental impact ...


Physical Models Of Living Systems Chapter 12: Single Particle Reconstruction In Cryo-Electron Microscopy, Philip C. Nelson Nov 2019

Physical Models Of Living Systems Chapter 12: Single Particle Reconstruction In Cryo-Electron Microscopy, Philip C. Nelson

Department of Physics Papers

This chapter extends Part III of the book Physical Models of Living Systems (WH Freeman 2015). This preliminary version is made freely available as-is in the hope that it will be useful.


Fabrication Of Organic Thin Film Transistors Using Inkjet Printing Of Pedot:Pss, Sourajit Das, Akshaya Venkatakrishnan, Hiromichi Yamamoto, George Patrick Watson Nov 2019

Fabrication Of Organic Thin Film Transistors Using Inkjet Printing Of Pedot:Pss, Sourajit Das, Akshaya Venkatakrishnan, Hiromichi Yamamoto, George Patrick Watson

Protocols and Reports

An Organic Thin Film Transistors (OTFT) using poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) is fabricated using a Fuji film Dimatix Inkjet printer, and successfully shows the characteristics of field effect transistor as a result of optimization of the inkjet printing condition. The V-I characteristics of the two devices also satisfy the fundamental property of transistors that wider is the channel length, smaller is the drain current. Another significant property is observed that the higher gate voltage induces the higher drain current as it allows larger carrier concentration in the channel region.


Progress Report Ii: Fabrication Of Nanopores In Silicon Nitride Membrane Using Self-Assembly Of Ps-B-Pmma: Nanopore Pattern Transfer To The Si Substrate, Kodai Watanabe, Unnati Joshi, Hiromichi Yamamoto Oct 2019

Progress Report Ii: Fabrication Of Nanopores In Silicon Nitride Membrane Using Self-Assembly Of Ps-B-Pmma: Nanopore Pattern Transfer To The Si Substrate, Kodai Watanabe, Unnati Joshi, Hiromichi Yamamoto

Protocols and Reports

The asymmetric PS(46k)-b-PMMA(21k) film was spin-coated on a neutral brush layer grafted onto a Spin-On-Glass (SOG) layer on the aluminum oxide layer on a Si substrate. An aluminum oxide layer was used as a hard mask. The PS-b-PMMA film was annealed at 190 degree C under vacuum for 3 days, so that the ~20 nm diameter nanopores in the film was successfully prepared as a result of self-assembly. The nanopores in the PS-b-PMMA film were able to be transferred to the Si substrate by CF4 etching through the SOG and aluminum oxide layers, although the etching was ...


Detecting Security Leaks In Hybrid Systems With Information Flow Analysis, Luan Viet Nguyen, Gautam Mohan, James Weimer, Oleg Sokolsky, Insup Lee, Rajeev Alur Oct 2019

Detecting Security Leaks In Hybrid Systems With Information Flow Analysis, Luan Viet Nguyen, Gautam Mohan, James Weimer, Oleg Sokolsky, Insup Lee, Rajeev Alur

Departmental Papers (CIS)

Information flow analysis is an effective way to check useful security properties, such as whether secret information can leak to adversaries. Despite being widely investigated in the realm of programming languages, information-flow- based security analysis has not been widely studied in the domain of cyber-physical systems (CPS). CPS provide interesting challenges to traditional type-based techniques, as they model mixed discrete-continuous behaviors and are usually expressed as a composition of state machines. In this paper, we propose a lightweight static analysis methodology that enables information security properties for CPS models.We introduce a set of security rules for hybrid automata that ...


Overhead-Aware Deployment Of Runtime Monitors, Teng Zhang, Greg Eakman, Insup Lee, Oleg Sokolsky Oct 2019

Overhead-Aware Deployment Of Runtime Monitors, Teng Zhang, Greg Eakman, Insup Lee, Oleg Sokolsky

Departmental Papers (CIS)

One important issue needed to be handled when applying runtime verification is the time overhead introduced by online monitors. According to how monitors are deployed with the system to be monitored, the overhead may come from the execution of monitoring logic or asynchronous communication. In this paper, we present a method for deciding how to deploy runtime monitors with awareness of minimizing the overhead. We first propose a parametric model to estimate the overhead given the prior knowledge on the distribution of incoming events and the time cost of sending a message and executing monitoring logic. Then, we will discuss ...


A Retrospective Look At The Monitoring And Checking (Mac) Framework, Sampath Kannan, Moonzoo Kim, Insup Lee, Oleg Sokolsky, Mahesh Viswanathan Oct 2019

A Retrospective Look At The Monitoring And Checking (Mac) Framework, Sampath Kannan, Moonzoo Kim, Insup Lee, Oleg Sokolsky, Mahesh Viswanathan

Departmental Papers (CIS)

The Monitoring and Checking (MaC) project gave rise to a framework for runtime monitoring with respect to formally specified properties, which later came to be known as runtime verification. The project also built a pioneering runtime verification tool, Java-MaC, that was an instantiation of the approach to check properties of Java programs. In this retrospective, we discuss decisions made in the design of the framework and summarize lessons learned in the course of the project.


Summary: Insuring High Risks Fairly, Protecting Individuals Against Flood Losses, Howard Kunreuther Sep 2019

Summary: Insuring High Risks Fairly, Protecting Individuals Against Flood Losses, Howard Kunreuther

Wharton PPI B-School for Public Policy Seminar Summaries

The National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) encompasses issues of risk transparency and fairness. There is general agreement that floodplain residents need to know their risk-based insurance premium-and with that information, how to make their homes safer and thus make flood insurance more affordable. In this B-School Seminar, Professor Howard Kunreuther focused on the importance of accurate mapping of flood risk, how to encourage investment in cost effective mitigation measures, and ways to deal with fairness and affordability in designing a flood insurance program for the future.


The Rise Of Renewable Energy In The Mena Region: An Investigation Into The Policies Governing Energy Resources, Farah Abdelrahim Sep 2019

The Rise Of Renewable Energy In The Mena Region: An Investigation Into The Policies Governing Energy Resources, Farah Abdelrahim

Social Impact Research Experience (SIRE)

This paper explores the various policies and legislative frameworks regarding renewable energy in place throughout the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), with a specific focus on two representative countries: Egypt and the United Arab Emirates. Through compiling information from past literature covering renewable energy policies in general, the history of hydrocarbons in the Middle East, and the steadily growing presence of renewables in the area, and combining that information with primary research through meetings and interviews with individuals throughout the different stages of the renewable energy market, this paper arrives at recommendations regarding the future of renewable energy production ...


Solving The ‘Wicked Problem’ Of China’S Environmental Future: Cautious Optimism In The Face Of Unprecedented Threats, Jamison Maley Sep 2019

Solving The ‘Wicked Problem’ Of China’S Environmental Future: Cautious Optimism In The Face Of Unprecedented Threats, Jamison Maley

Master of Environmental Studies Capstone Projects

China’s global position as an exporter of inexpensive, low-value goods has been sustained by a coal-fired growth model whose devastating environmental and social consequences are only recently being acknowledged properly by party leadership. A systematic review and analysis has been conducted of the most current academic literature addressing China’s environmental challenges. A sizeable amount of research (around 360 publications) was amassed in this pursuit, covering not only China’s environment, but also related governmental, economic, and social factors. The author has defined China's environmental future as a 'wicked problem', which creates two allowances by default. First, it ...


Runtime Verification Of Parametric Properties Using Smedl, Teng Zhang, Ramneet Kaur, Insup Lee, Oleg Sokolsky Sep 2019

Runtime Verification Of Parametric Properties Using Smedl, Teng Zhang, Ramneet Kaur, Insup Lee, Oleg Sokolsky

Departmental Papers (CIS)

Parametric properties are typical properties to be checked in runtime verification (RV). As a common technique for parametric monitoring, trace slicing divides an execution trace into a set of sub traces which are checked against non-parametric base properties. An efficient trace slicing algorithm is implemented in MOP. Another RV technique, QEA further allows for nested use of universal and existential quantification over parameters. In this paper, we present a methodology for parametric monitoring using the RV framework SMEDL. Trace slicing algorithm in MOP can be expressed by execution of a set of SMEDL monitors. Moreover, the semantics of nested quantifiers ...


Thriving Cybersecurity Professionals: Building A Resilient Workforce And Psychological Safety In The Federal Government, Rephael Houston Aug 2019

Thriving Cybersecurity Professionals: Building A Resilient Workforce And Psychological Safety In The Federal Government, Rephael Houston

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Cybersecurity professionals in the federal government work on complex problems in organizations where they have multiple competing roles. In addition, the gap between workers with cyber skills and job openings means that current cybersecurity professionals must carry a heavy load. Combined, this can lead to stress that has negative consequences for their well-being. Positive psychology can help address this, particularly through enhancing positive experiences, leveraging character strengths, developing resilience skills, and building psychological safety. Resilience skills help cybersecurity professionals increase capacity their capacity to deal with uncertainty and build strong teams. Psychological safety supports and environment of innovation and professional ...


Selective Hydrogen Bonding As A Driving Force For Nanoparticle Self-Assembly, Haoyun Zhang Jul 2019

Selective Hydrogen Bonding As A Driving Force For Nanoparticle Self-Assembly, Haoyun Zhang

Master of Chemical Sciences Capstone Projects

Self-assembly techniques have long been used to generate novel materials with interesting optical, magnetic, electronic, and catalytic properties. This project aimed to generate the ligands capable of co-assembling catalytically active metal Pd and the suitable substrates (Fe3O4, CeO2). Such a system is desirable for high catalytic activities which are attained from large metal/substrate contact surface area. The ligands are expected to tune the metal/substrate ratio through self-assembly to maximum the contact area. To achieve such system, this research focused on the synthesis of suitable hydrogen bonding ligands that have a functional group capable of binding the corresponding nanoparticle ...


Uncomplicating The Business Of Repositories, Kate Lynch, Emily Morton-Owens Jun 2019

Uncomplicating The Business Of Repositories, Kate Lynch, Emily Morton-Owens

Scholarship at Penn Libraries

In this presentation, we discuss how our library runs our repository in production to meet the needs of our “business” as efficiently as possible. We have an interest in limiting the number of digital platforms we manage, for the purposes of sustainability and efficiency, but we must also consider how well a general platform can meet specific user needs.

A governance group of administrators, in conference with stakeholders and developers, seeks to find the best way to accommodate each collection or functional need, with an eye to minimizing technical complexity, offering stakeholders self-serve options when possible, and maintaining a single ...


Mapping Manuscript Migrations: Digging Into Data For The History And Provenance Of Medieval And Renaissance Manuscripts, Toby Burrows, Eero Hyvönen, Lynn Ransom, Hanno Wijsman May 2019

Mapping Manuscript Migrations: Digging Into Data For The History And Provenance Of Medieval And Renaissance Manuscripts, Toby Burrows, Eero Hyvönen, Lynn Ransom, Hanno Wijsman

Manuscript Studies

Mapping Manuscript Migrations is a new two-year project funded by the Trans-Atlantic Platform in the fourth round of its Digging into Data Challenge. The project is a collaboration between four international partners: the University of Oxford, the University of Pennsylvania, the Institut de recherche et d’histoire des textes (IRHT) in Paris, and Aalto University in Helsinki.

The project aims to combine data from various different sources to enable the large-scale analysis of the history and provenance of medieval and Renaissance manuscripts.