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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Women Water Leaders In The Making: South Asian Water Leadership Programme On Climate Change, Sreenita Mondal, Mansee Bal Bhargava, Mélanie Robertson Mar 2021

Women Water Leaders In The Making: South Asian Water Leadership Programme On Climate Change, Sreenita Mondal, Mansee Bal Bhargava, Mélanie Robertson

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

The South Asia Consortium for Interdisciplinary Water Resources Studies (Saci- WATERs) a water policy research institute based in Hyderabad, India, launched the South Asian Water (SAWA) Leadership Programme on climate change in 2017. The SaciWATERs is hosting the programme in collaboration with four partner engineering institutes from four South Asian countries, and with funding support from the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada. This academic-oriented programme is aimed at facilitating the creation of a group of interdisciplinary women leaders in South Asia that share a common understanding of the crosscutting scientific and societal issues of water resource management. The four-year ...


Understanding Barriers And Challenges For Women’S Access To Water In Northern Rwanda, Megan Swanson, Helina Alvarez, Amber Sample, Brett Bruyere Mar 2021

Understanding Barriers And Challenges For Women’S Access To Water In Northern Rwanda, Megan Swanson, Helina Alvarez, Amber Sample, Brett Bruyere

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Clean drinking water and sanitation have been acknowledged as basic human needs and rights by the United Nations (UN) General Assembly. According to the UN, water must be sufficient, affordable, physically accessible, and safe in order to meet human needs. In this study, a survey and a Water Source Mapping participatory method were employed to investigate a sample of Rwandan women’s access to water. Two hundred and seven (207) women were surveyed regarding water use and access, and results were compared based on education levels and membership in income-earning cooperatives operated by a local organization, the Gorilla Guardians Village ...


Eleanor Allen: On A Mission To Provide Safe Water For Everyone, Forever, Wh2o Staff Mar 2021

Eleanor Allen: On A Mission To Provide Safe Water For Everyone, Forever, Wh2o Staff

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Eleanor Allen is a global water expert dedicated to helping millions of people access the safe and sustainable water and sanitation services needed to save lives, stay healthy, earn more money, and thrive. Eleanor is fiercely passionate about improving the state of the world with respect to water and sanitation. She has dedicated her career to this goal, first as a Peace Corps volunteer in the Dominican Republic, then as a consulting engineer (at CH2M/Jacobs and Arcadis), and now as the CEO of Water For People. Eleanor has lived and worked all over the world. As a professional civil ...


Using Participatory Design To Develop A Menstrual Hygiene Management Intervention: Designing Wash Up! Girl Talk In Zimbabwe, Kim Foulds, Alyson Moskowitz, Abby Bucuvalas, Morris Chidavaenzi, Albert Ndanga, Silindile Sibanda, Neckiot Kagodo, Charity Mvere, Nobuhle Mlotshwa, Peter Hynes, Margaret L. Schmitt, Allie Carney Mar 2021

Using Participatory Design To Develop A Menstrual Hygiene Management Intervention: Designing Wash Up! Girl Talk In Zimbabwe, Kim Foulds, Alyson Moskowitz, Abby Bucuvalas, Morris Chidavaenzi, Albert Ndanga, Silindile Sibanda, Neckiot Kagodo, Charity Mvere, Nobuhle Mlotshwa, Peter Hynes, Margaret L. Schmitt, Allie Carney

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Globally, as more girls transition from primary to secondary education, there is a new generation of girls who will have to manage their menses in school environments. Few schools are designed with girls’ menstrual hygiene management (MHM) needs in mind and many girls begin menstruating without knowing what is happening to them. This lack of knowledge about menstruation is associated with profound psychological and reproductive health issues. As such, school-based WASH interventions, especially those focused on MHM, can improve educational opportunities, promote lifelong health, and enhance the wellbeing of children and their families. In Zimbabwe, these global realities hold true ...


Addressing Women’S Sanitation-Related Safety Concerns In Slums Of Maharashtra, India, Mehul Banka, Pratima Joshi, Smita Kale Mar 2021

Addressing Women’S Sanitation-Related Safety Concerns In Slums Of Maharashtra, India, Mehul Banka, Pratima Joshi, Smita Kale

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Through this paper we explore women’s vulnerability during sanitation activities and the impact that household toilets have on women’s safety-related concerns. This study covers 4 cities in the state of Maharashtra– Pune, Pimpri- Chinchwad, Thane, and Kolhapur - where Shelter Associates has provided many slum households with toilets under its One Home One Toilet (OHOT) programme. A good part of the programme’s intention is to offer women an alternative to using their existing, inadequate public sanitation facilities, a problem that was highlighted during discussions with slum women themselves. Shelter Associates is a Maharashtra-based NGO established in 1993 that ...


Pushing Forward In The Changing Water Sector: An Interview With Kishia L. Powell, Coo, Dc Water, Abigail Drabick Mar 2021

Pushing Forward In The Changing Water Sector: An Interview With Kishia L. Powell, Coo, Dc Water, Abigail Drabick

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Kishia Powell is a licensed Professional Engineer in the District of Columbia, Virginia and Maryland. She holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Civil Engineering from Morgan State University’s Clarence M. Mitchell, Jr. School of Engineering. Currently, Powell is Chief Operating Officer at DC Water, where she manages 80% of the water authority’s resources. With over 22 years of experience, Kishia Powell sheds light on the value of water, her experience as a leader and a woman in the water utilities industry, the COVID-19 pandemic, and climate change in this interview with The Journal of Gender and Water ...


Here, There, And Everywhere: The Problem With Microplastics In Water And What Women Scientists Are Doing To Solve It, Pamela Lazos Mar 2021

Here, There, And Everywhere: The Problem With Microplastics In Water And What Women Scientists Are Doing To Solve It, Pamela Lazos

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Plastics — ubiquitous material we cannot seem to live without — are everywhere, but sadly we cannot live with plastics either, at least not peaceably, especially when you consider there will be more plastics in the ocean than fish by 2050. In the intervening years, the photodegradation of plastic resulting in microplastics pollution will be an even bigger problem, affecting every living creature in the ocean, and by extrapolation, mankind. The choices we make and the steps we take to combat the overabundance of plastics in our environment will dictate not just the next 30 years, but the fate of the world ...


Brianna Huber On Women In Leadership, Her2o™, And The Future Of Water, Wh2o Staff Mar 2021

Brianna Huber On Women In Leadership, Her2o™, And The Future Of Water, Wh2o Staff

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Brianna is both the founder/executive director of Her 2O™ and director of Water Filtration at a municipal drinking water utility. She achieves her primary goal of #buildingthefutureofwater by focusing on four important facets of the water industry: women in water, internships & mentoring, smart water & analytics, and emergency management. Her 2O™ is an international 501c3 nonprofit with the vision of women equitably involved in water management in every corner of the globe. This transcript provides an interview with Brianna about her inspirational journey in the water sector.


Facing Rural Water Insecurities: Adapting Gendered Indigenous Approaches In Ondo State, Nigeria, Paul Awoniyi Mar 2021

Facing Rural Water Insecurities: Adapting Gendered Indigenous Approaches In Ondo State, Nigeria, Paul Awoniyi

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

The participation of women in water management is critical for households and for safeguarding the health and hygiene of rural women and men, especially in Africa and around the world. This paper argues that the knowledge around gender- based water management among rural dwellers is still underrepresented and provides the rationale for this study. Qualitative methods were used to examine the approaches in rural water management and their impact on women and their livelihoods through interviews, narratives, and the respondents’ everyday experiences. Significant findings from this study revealed that the indigenous participation of women in water management at individual households ...


Overcoming Barriers To Women’S Participation In Water Supply Through Innovative Technology, Gillian Winkler, Nisha Chakravarty Mar 2021

Overcoming Barriers To Women’S Participation In Water Supply Through Innovative Technology, Gillian Winkler, Nisha Chakravarty

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Research from the global development sector repeatedly shows that convenient access to safe water improves women’s quality of life. Similarly, digital technology is increasingly highlighted as an essential component for increasing women’s educational, economic, and civic opportunities—yet a gender divide exists. As digital technology becomes more prevalent in managing effective and reliable safe water services, the water sector has the opportunity to both create new channels for women to engage with technology and use technology to make safe water supply more responsive to women’s needs. In this article, we will explore how technology is deployed within ...


Contributions Of The Women Groups Of West Bengal, India For Solving Rural Water Challenges, Mina Das Mar 2021

Contributions Of The Women Groups Of West Bengal, India For Solving Rural Water Challenges, Mina Das

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Poor rural communities suffer from many socio-economic issues; however, the availability of clean and safe water is the fundamental challenge amongst all other hindrances confronted by these communities. This article focuses on the non-profit organization, Nishtha (meaning dedication) and their intervention in women empowerment for better water accessibility in rural communities of West Bengal, India. The paper will further highlight the so-called “rural ignorant women’s endeavour” in innovative thought and strategy to protect their own families and the community. The article also discusses Nishtha’s intervention during water crises and disasters using a participatory approach involving women.


Irrigation In Agriculture: A Driver Of Social Differentiation And An Empowering Livelihood Option For Rural Women, Laura Imburgia, Henny Osbahr, Sarah Cardey, Janet Momsen Mar 2021

Irrigation In Agriculture: A Driver Of Social Differentiation And An Empowering Livelihood Option For Rural Women, Laura Imburgia, Henny Osbahr, Sarah Cardey, Janet Momsen

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

This paper presents empirical evidence on issues of gender roles, agricultural livelihoods, and social differentiation in communal small-scale irrigation studied in Ethiopia and Argentina. Findings revealed that irrespective of the cultural setting, many women in irrigation remain constrained by structural inequalities regarding access to secure, reliable and affordable irrigation water. These constraints are driven by entrenched power dynamics, social relations and wealth handicaps. These findings contrast with long-standing efforts to devise agricultural policies aimed at reducing gender asymmetries and improving conditions for women in agriculture. In this paper, the case for strengthening irrigation as an empowering livelihood option for rural ...


Community Effort For Drinking Water Management Near India- China Border At Jamak Village District Uttarkashi, Uttarakhand, India, Kamlesh Gururani Mar 2021

Community Effort For Drinking Water Management Near India- China Border At Jamak Village District Uttarkashi, Uttarakhand, India, Kamlesh Gururani

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

In Uttarakhand, drinking water is a major problem and a burning issue for the last decade. Many natural springs that dotted the hillside have been damaged due to the climate conditions and other unplanned or illegal activities such as deforestation and human-made forest fires have affected spring catchments, resulting in reduced discharge from springs. To tackle this major problem of drinking water security, the community of mountain village Jamak, district Uttarkashi came together for community-led drinking water supply by adopting participatory planning and ownership. The village community’s participation and ownership improved the village’s drinking water situation, and villagers ...


Physical Models Of Living Systems 2nd Ed, New Chapter: Demographic Variation In Epidemic Spread, Philip C. Nelson Dec 2020

Physical Models Of Living Systems 2nd Ed, New Chapter: Demographic Variation In Epidemic Spread, Philip C. Nelson

Department of Physics Papers

This chapter extends the first edition of Physical Models of Living Systems (WH Freeman 2015). This preliminary version is made freely available as-is in the hope that it will be useful.


Inkjet Printing Of Graphene, Lauren Hoang, Hiromichi Yamamoto, Yeonjoon Suh, George Patrick Watson Dec 2020

Inkjet Printing Of Graphene, Lauren Hoang, Hiromichi Yamamoto, Yeonjoon Suh, George Patrick Watson

Protocols and Reports

The optimization of inkjet printing graphene using a Fujifilm Dimatix Inkjet printer, is described in this study. The number of printing passes were varied, and relatively uniform lines were obtained. The printing parameter considerations and optimized printing parameters for graphene are also discussed.


Verifying The Safety Of Autonomous Systems With Neural Network Controllers, Radoslav Ivanov, Taylor J. Carpenter, James Weimer, Rajeev Alur, George Pappas, Insup Lee Dec 2020

Verifying The Safety Of Autonomous Systems With Neural Network Controllers, Radoslav Ivanov, Taylor J. Carpenter, James Weimer, Rajeev Alur, George Pappas, Insup Lee

Departmental Papers (CIS)

This paper addresses the problem of verifying the safety of autonomous systems with neural network (NN) controllers. We focus on NNs with sigmoid/tanh activations and use the fact that the sigmoid/tanh is the solution to a quadratic differential equation. This allows us to convert the NN into an equivalent hybrid system and cast the problem as a hybrid system verification problem, which can be solved by existing tools. Furthermore, we improve the scalability of the proposed method by approximating the sigmoid with a Taylor series with worst-case error bounds. Finally, we provide an evaluation over four benchmarks, including ...


Physical Models Of Living Systems 2nd Ed, New Chapter: Random Walks On An Energy Landscape, Philip C. Nelson Dec 2020

Physical Models Of Living Systems 2nd Ed, New Chapter: Random Walks On An Energy Landscape, Philip C. Nelson

Department of Physics Papers

This chapter extends the first edition of Physical Models of Living Systems (WH Freeman 2015). This preliminary version is made freely available as-is in the hope that it will be useful.


Physics 516: Electromagnetic Phenomena (Spring 2020), Philip C. Nelson Dec 2020

Physics 516: Electromagnetic Phenomena (Spring 2020), Philip C. Nelson

Department of Physics Papers

These course notes are made publicly available in the hope that they will be useful. All reports of errata will be gratefully received. I will also be glad to hear from anyone who reads them, whether or not you find errors: pcn@upenn.edu.


Stress In Silicon Oxide Thin Films Grown By Dry Thermal Oxidation, Manisha Muduli, Hiromichi Yamamoto Nov 2020

Stress In Silicon Oxide Thin Films Grown By Dry Thermal Oxidation, Manisha Muduli, Hiromichi Yamamoto

Protocols and Reports

Dry thermal oxidation is performed at 900, 950, 1000, and 1050 C in fused silica tube furnace (Sandvik)for 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200 min. The properties of the thin-films such as refractive index and stress arestudied in this paper. Refractive indexes of the thin-films are obtained using ellipsometer and decreasesfrom 1.78 to 1.46 as the film thickness increases.Stress of the thin-films is theoretically calculated,experimentally measured and then compared.Stress is calculated theoretically using Stoney’s stressequation and Goklaney’s stress equations. Stress is measured experimentally using the profilometer. Ex-perimentally measured stress and refractive indexes ...


Compositional Probabilistic Analysis Of Temporal Properties Over Stochastic Detectors, Ivan Ruchkin, Oleg Sokolsky, James Weimer, Tushar Hedaoo, Insup Lee Nov 2020

Compositional Probabilistic Analysis Of Temporal Properties Over Stochastic Detectors, Ivan Ruchkin, Oleg Sokolsky, James Weimer, Tushar Hedaoo, Insup Lee

Departmental Papers (CIS)

Run-time monitoring is a vital part of safety-critical systems. However, early-stage assurance of monitoring quality is currently limited: it relies either on complex models that might be inaccurate in unknown ways, or on data that would only be available once the system has been built. To address this issue, we propose a compositional framework for modeling and analysis of noisy monitoring systems. Our novel 3-value detector model uses probability spaces to represent atomic (non-composite) detectors, and it composes them into a temporal logic-based monitor. The error rates of these monitors are estimated by our analysis engine, which combines symbolic probability ...


Progress Report Iii: Fabrication Of Nanopores In Silicon Nitride Membranes Using Electron-Beam Lithography, Mingxuan Ma, Hiromichi Yamamoto Sep 2020

Progress Report Iii: Fabrication Of Nanopores In Silicon Nitride Membranes Using Electron-Beam Lithography, Mingxuan Ma, Hiromichi Yamamoto

Protocols and Reports

This report describes the fabrication of a long-range orderly nanopore structure in free-standing siliconnitride membranes using electron-beam lithography (EBL). The parameter setting and challenges of eachstep are discussed.


Can Mixed Ligand And Catalytic Solvent Effects Transform Single Electron Transfer Living Radical Polymerization (Set-Lrp) Into A Commercializable Process?, Devendra Surendrakumar Maurya Aug 2020

Can Mixed Ligand And Catalytic Solvent Effects Transform Single Electron Transfer Living Radical Polymerization (Set-Lrp) Into A Commercializable Process?, Devendra Surendrakumar Maurya

Master of Chemical Sciences Capstone Projects

Currently most of the SET-LRP and ATRP techniques uses tris(2-dimethylaminoethyl)amine (Me6-TREN) as ligand which is 80 time more expensive than its precursor tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (TREN). TREN is much less expensive than Me6-TREN but at the same time is much less efficient, thus limiting the commercial applications of SET-LRP and ATRP mediated by TREN.1-6 In this work the efficiency of TREN was increased via two mechanisms: (i) the mixed ligand effect, (ii) the catalytic effect of solvent. Me6-TREN and TREN mixed ligand effect was studied in programed “biphasic” mixtures of the ...


Middle School Students And Climate Change: Assessing Attitudes And Emotions, Beth Mark Jul 2020

Middle School Students And Climate Change: Assessing Attitudes And Emotions, Beth Mark

Master of Environmental Studies Capstone Projects

While it is common knowledge that the majority of American adults hold a variety of strong and polarized beliefs and attitudes about climate change, much less is known about how American youth are thinking and feeling about this topic. This information gap is significant, because attitudes and beliefs formed in childhood (particularly during early adolescence) have a profound impact on future behaviors. Feelings, emotional responses, matter for two reasons. One, emotions significantly influence the openness and ability to learn about the science of climate change. Two, once learned, the science of climate change itself can evoke strong and often distressing ...


Biological Physics Student Edition 2020: Chapter 1, Philip C. Nelson May 2020

Biological Physics Student Edition 2020: Chapter 1, Philip C. Nelson

Department of Physics Papers

Chapter 1: What the Ancients Knew


Biological Physics Student Edition 2020: Contents And Prefaces, Philip C. Nelson May 2020

Biological Physics Student Edition 2020: Contents And Prefaces, Philip C. Nelson

Department of Physics Papers

Brief Contents; Detailed Contents; To the Student; To the Instructor


Formation Of Nanoparticles For The Oral Delivery Of Small Molecules By Flash Nanoprecipitation, Jing Zhi Lo May 2020

Formation Of Nanoparticles For The Oral Delivery Of Small Molecules By Flash Nanoprecipitation, Jing Zhi Lo

Master of Chemical Sciences Capstone Projects

Nanoparticles have shown considerable potential in many biological applications including drug delivery, bio-imaging, and medical diagnostics. Specifically, the development of nanoparticle-based drug formulations holds opportunities to improve the dissolution rate and oral availability of poorly water-soluble drugs. The goal of this project is to improve oral bioavailability of a small molecule drug (“G-1”) through the formation of nanoparticles using the flash nanoprecipitation (FNP) process. Interestingly, “G-1” formed ~80 nm particles that are electrostatically stabilized without the use of stabilizing polymers and concentration as high as 160 mg/mL of “G-1” formed nanoparticles. Additionally, trehalose was found to be an effective ...


Monolayer Self-Assembly Of Monodisperse Nanocrystals At The Liquid-Air Interface, Di An May 2020

Monolayer Self-Assembly Of Monodisperse Nanocrystals At The Liquid-Air Interface, Di An

Master of Chemical Sciences Capstone Projects

The study of nanocrystals (NCs) self-assembly into monolayers have attracted significant interests, due to wide applications in sensors, catalysts, nanodevices and pattern transfer. Liquid-air interface self-assembly (LAISA) is a useful technique used for the monolayer fabrication. In this capstone project, a library of NCs is built for LAISA and binary superlattice study. Monodisperse iron oxide, gold and gadolinium fluoride NCs of various sizes were synthesized by modifying reported methods.9,10,20 The obtained NCs were characterized by TEM, SAXS, DLS and TGA, revealing their geometry, size and surface chemistry. The second part of this project is optimizing conditions of ...


Optimization Of The Synthesis Of Bnm-Iii-170 Bis-Tfa Salt, Hung-Ching Chen May 2020

Optimization Of The Synthesis Of Bnm-Iii-170 Bis-Tfa Salt, Hung-Ching Chen

Master of Chemical Sciences Capstone Projects

There has been growing interest for small molecule CD4 mimetic compounds due to their capability to inhibit the HIV-1 entry and possibility to eradicate infected cells in livings. Certain experiments also prove that a lead compound, BNM-III-170 (+)-1, developed in the laboratory has direct antiviral effect and could sensitize HIV-infected cells toward Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity (ADCC). An efficient and scalable process synthesis for the HIV-1 entry inhibitor BNM-III-170 bis-TFA salt (+)-1 is described herein for further investigations. The synthesis employs a state-of-the-art dynamic-kinetic resolution (DKR) both to generate the stereogenicity and significantly reduce the number of chromatographic separations throughout the ...


The Opioid Crisis And Life Expectancy In The U.S., Gabriel Lozano May 2020

The Opioid Crisis And Life Expectancy In The U.S., Gabriel Lozano

Joseph Wharton Scholars

Since the 1990s, when opioids started to be grossly over-prescribed, almost 450,000 people have died as a direct result of opioid abuse in the United States. This study analyzes the role the opioid crisis has in the decreasing life expectancy in the United States, a troubling trend given the enormous and growing national healthcare expenditure. Employing a multiple decrement model and national life expectancy tables, this paper removes the opioid-related mortality and develops a new life expectancy model. The actuarial analysis of the observed and estimated life expectancies reveals the impact of opioid-related deaths: overall, U.S persons are ...


Assessing Risk Of Contaminant Migration On Environment And Coastal Communities Due To Hurricanes, Meighan Long May 2020

Assessing Risk Of Contaminant Migration On Environment And Coastal Communities Due To Hurricanes, Meighan Long

Master of Science in Applied Geosciences Project Designs

No abstract provided.