Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Physical Sciences and Mathematics Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

University of Pennsylvania

Discipline
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 2899

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

A Demonstration Of The Infrared Activity Of Carbon Dioxide, Philip Sieg, William Berner, Peter Harnish, Philip C. Nelson Jan 2019

A Demonstration Of The Infrared Activity Of Carbon Dioxide, Philip Sieg, William Berner, Peter Harnish, Philip C. Nelson

Department of Physics Papers

Before they can talk meaningfully about anthropogenic climate change, students need to grasp basic principles of natural planetary climates, for example, the key role of trace atmospheric gases in setting surface temperature. We describe a dramatic demonstration that scales well for large audiences and that requires as little as ten classroom minutes to show the crucial difference between room air and carbon dioxide gas. Beyond its significance for public policy, the demonstration can serve as a springboard to motivate discussion of important physics concepts such as rotation and vibration spectra.


Colenda @ The University Of Pennsylvania: Using A Decoupled, Pluggable Architecture For Object Processing, Kate Lynch Sep 2018

Colenda @ The University Of Pennsylvania: Using A Decoupled, Pluggable Architecture For Object Processing, Kate Lynch

Scholarship at Penn Libraries

This poster details the architecture of the repository and the deliverables of the first major release of Colenda, the open-source repository software developed at Penn Libraries. Staff in Digital Library Development & Systems created Colenda, a long-term preservation ecosystem including Samvera, an open-source software framework for repository development, at its core. Colenda is a Samvera instance that provides materials-agnostic fuThis poster details the architecture of the repository and the deliverables of the first major release of Colenda, the open-source repository software developed at Penn Libraries. Staff in Digital Library Development & Systems created Colenda, a long-term preservation ecosystem including Samvera, an open-source ...


Reducing Pulse Oximetry False Alarms Without Missing Life-Threatening Events, Hung Nguyen, Sooyong Jang, Radoslav Ivanov, Christopher P. Bonafide, James Weimer, Insup Lee Sep 2018

Reducing Pulse Oximetry False Alarms Without Missing Life-Threatening Events, Hung Nguyen, Sooyong Jang, Radoslav Ivanov, Christopher P. Bonafide, James Weimer, Insup Lee

Departmental Papers (CIS)

Alarm fatigue has been increasingly recognized as one of the most significant problems in the hospital environment. One of the major causes is the excessive number of false physiologic monitor alarms. An underlying problem is the inefficient traditional threshold alarm system for physiologic parameters such as low blood oxygen saturation (SpO2). In this paper, we propose a robust classification procedure based on the AdaBoost algorithm with reject option that can identify and silence false SpO2 alarms, while ensuring zero misclassified clinically significant alarms. Alarms and vital signs related to SpO2 such as heart rate and pulse rate ...


From Photon To Neuron Chapter 16: Tunneling Of Photons And Electrons, Philip C. Nelson Aug 2018

From Photon To Neuron Chapter 16: Tunneling Of Photons And Electrons, Philip C. Nelson

Department of Physics Papers

This chapter extends Part III of the book From Photon to Neuron (Princeton Univ Press 2017). This preliminary version is made freely available as-is in the hope that it will be useful.


A Student’S Guide To Matlab For Physical Modeling, Philip C. Nelson, Tom Dodson Aug 2018

A Student’S Guide To Matlab For Physical Modeling, Philip C. Nelson, Tom Dodson

Department of Physics Papers

This tutorial aims to help you teach yourself enough of the Matlab􏱈 programming language to get started on physical modeling, and particularly the problems appearing in Physical Models of Living Systems (Nelson, 2015). This is not an official publication of The MathWorks, Inc. We attempt to maintain it, but no claim is made that every suggestion made here will work properly with future versions of Matlab.

This is a free online document. Code listings that appear in this document, errata, and more can be found online via http://www.physics.upenn.edu/biophys/PMLS/Student ; code can also be accessed ...


Activities And Classroom Demonstrations In Biological Physics: A Resource Document, Philip C. Nelson, William Berner Jul 2018

Activities And Classroom Demonstrations In Biological Physics: A Resource Document, Philip C. Nelson, William Berner

Department of Physics Papers

We give detailed recipes for a number of classroom demonstrations relevant to biological physics instruction. We developed them mainly for use in 2nd-3rd year undergraduate Physics courses. But you can (and we do) use them for primary school, through high school, up to PhD candidates. You adapt the words for each audience, but a phenomenon is a phenomenon.

We also outline a 1-hour introduction to Python for undergraduate scientific computing.

Finally we document some outcomes from courses taught at U Pennsylvania using these resources and others cited here. This material was presented at a workshop at the AAPT meeting in ...


From Photon To Neuron Chapter 15: Planetary Climates, Philip C. Nelson Jul 2018

From Photon To Neuron Chapter 15: Planetary Climates, Philip C. Nelson

Department of Physics Papers

This chapter extends Part III of the book From Photon to Neuron (Princeton Univ Press 2017). This preliminary version is made freely available as-is in the hope that it will be useful.


Computer Aided Clinical Trials For Implantable Cardiac Devices, Kuk Jin Jang, James Weimer, Houssam Abbas, Zhihao Jiang, Jackson Liang, Sanjay Dixit, Rahul Mangharam Jul 2018

Computer Aided Clinical Trials For Implantable Cardiac Devices, Kuk Jin Jang, James Weimer, Houssam Abbas, Zhihao Jiang, Jackson Liang, Sanjay Dixit, Rahul Mangharam

Real-Time and Embedded Systems Lab (mLAB)

In this paper we aim to answer the question, ``How can modeling and simulation of physiological systems be used to evaluate life-critical implantable medical devices?'' Clinical trials for medical devices are becoming increasingly inefficient as they take several years to conduct, at very high cost and suffer from high rates of failure. For example, the Rhythm ID Goes Head-to-head Trial (RIGHT) sought to evaluate the performance of two arrhythmia discriminator algorithms for implantable cardioverter defibrillators, Vitality 2 vs. Medtronic, in terms of time-to-first inappropriate therapy, but concluded with results contrary to the initial hypothesis - after 5 years, 2,000+ patients ...


Bandwidth Optimal Data/Service Delivery For Connected Vehicles Via Edges, Deepak Gangadharan, Oleg Sokolsky, Insup Lee, Baekgyu Kim, Chung-Wei Lin, Shinichi Shiraishi Jul 2018

Bandwidth Optimal Data/Service Delivery For Connected Vehicles Via Edges, Deepak Gangadharan, Oleg Sokolsky, Insup Lee, Baekgyu Kim, Chung-Wei Lin, Shinichi Shiraishi

Departmental Papers (CIS)

The paradigm of connected vehicles is fast gaining lot of attraction in the automotive industry. Recently, a lot of technological innovation has been pushed through to realize this paradigm using vehicle to cloud (V2C), infrastructure (V2I) and vehicle (V2V) communications. This has also opened the doors for efficient delivery of data/service to the vehicles via edge devices that are closer to the vehicles. In this work, we propose an optimization framework that can be used to deliver data/service to the connected vehicles such that a bandwidth cost objective is optimized. For the first time, we also integrate a ...


Comparison Between Silicon Nanopillars Prepared By Bosch Process And Metal Assisted Chemical Etching, Rimjhim Chaudhary May 2018

Comparison Between Silicon Nanopillars Prepared By Bosch Process And Metal Assisted Chemical Etching, Rimjhim Chaudhary

Protocols and Reports

Nanopillars fabricated by Metal Assisted Chemical Etching (MacEtch) wet-etch process have been compared with those by Bosch dry-etch process. The Bosch process in this study gave vertical nanopillars with smooth side walls, which was better than the typical Bosch process. However, the verticality of the nanopillars depended on the location within the wafer where they were etched. On the other hand, MacEtch process gave a very consistent feature from 100 to 1000 nm diameter using 20 nm thick Au film without an expensive etching tool. The present technical report discuss the difference between MacEtch and Bosch processes.


Data Challenges In Grouping Criminals By Past Behavior, Benjamin J. Blanco, Ayya A. Elzarka May 2018

Data Challenges In Grouping Criminals By Past Behavior, Benjamin J. Blanco, Ayya A. Elzarka

Wharton Research Scholars

No abstract provided.


Towards Overhead-Free Interface Theory For Compositional Hierarchical Real-Time Systems, Jin Hyun Kim, Kygong Hoon Kim, Arvind Easwaran, Insup Lee May 2018

Towards Overhead-Free Interface Theory For Compositional Hierarchical Real-Time Systems, Jin Hyun Kim, Kygong Hoon Kim, Arvind Easwaran, Insup Lee

Technical Reports (CIS)

Much recent research has been conducted on compositional real-time scheduling framework as the framework becomes a useful fundamental theory for real-time OS-Hypervisor. Much recent research has been conducted on compositional real-time scheduling as the framework becomes a useful fundamental theory for real-time OS-Hypervisor. However, compositional frameworks suffer from abstraction overheads in composing components. In this paper, we classify the composition overheads into i) supply abstraction overhead associated with the supply from a resource provider, and ii) demand abstraction overhead associated with the component workload. Then, we provide sufficient conditions for each abstraction overhead to be eliminated. In addition, this paper ...


Credit Downgrade Threat As A Non-Regulatory Driver For Flood Risk Mitigation And Sea Level Rise Adaptation, John A. Miller May 2018

Credit Downgrade Threat As A Non-Regulatory Driver For Flood Risk Mitigation And Sea Level Rise Adaptation, John A. Miller

Master of Environmental Studies Capstone Projects

Federal policies and regulations with higher standards that respond to flood risk and sea level rise are being rolled back by the current administration. In that void, the threat of credit rating downgrades is expected to be a developing non-regulatory driver to future risk planning and adaptation. Several exposed communities have been downgraded due, in part, to their lost tax base from major disasters. As sea level rise manifests along the coasts, reducing property value, impacts on revenue will present new challenges in servicing debt. Credit rating agencies in the last few years have issued publications giving some notice on ...


Openice-Lite: Towards A Connectivity Platform For The Internet Of Medical Things, Radoslav Ivanov, Hung Nguyen, James Weimer, Oleg Sokolsky, Insup Lee May 2018

Openice-Lite: Towards A Connectivity Platform For The Internet Of Medical Things, Radoslav Ivanov, Hung Nguyen, James Weimer, Oleg Sokolsky, Insup Lee

Departmental Papers (CIS)

The Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) is poised to revolutionize medicine. However, medical device communication, coordination, and interoperability present challenges for IoMT applications due to safety, security, and privacy concerns. These challenges can be addressed by developing an open platform for IoMT that can provide guarantees on safety, security and privacy. As a first step, we introduce OpenICE-lite, a middleware for medical device interoperability that also provides security guarantees and allows other IoMT applications to view/analyze the data in real time. We describe two applications that currently utilize OpenICE-lite, namely (i) a critical pulmonary shunt predictor for infants during ...


Data Freshness Over-Engineering: Formulation And Results, Dagaen Golomb, Deepak Gangadharan, Sanjian Chen, Oleg Sokolsky, Insup Lee May 2018

Data Freshness Over-Engineering: Formulation And Results, Dagaen Golomb, Deepak Gangadharan, Sanjian Chen, Oleg Sokolsky, Insup Lee

Departmental Papers (CIS)

In many application scenarios, data consumed by real-time tasks are required to meet a maximum age, or freshness, guarantee. In this paper, we consider the end-to-end freshness constraint of data that is passed along a chain of tasks in a uniprocessor setting. We do so with few assumptions regarding the scheduling algorithm used. We present a method for selecting the periods of tasks in chains of length two and three such that the end-to-end freshness requirement is satisfied, and then extend our method to arbitrary chains. We perform evaluations of both methods using parameters from an embedded benchmark suite (E3S ...


Generic Formal Framework For Compositional Analysis Of Hierarchical Scheduling Systems, Jalil Boudjadar, Jin Hyun Kim, Linh Thi Xuan Phan, Insup Lee, Kim G. Larsen, Ulrik Nyman May 2018

Generic Formal Framework For Compositional Analysis Of Hierarchical Scheduling Systems, Jalil Boudjadar, Jin Hyun Kim, Linh Thi Xuan Phan, Insup Lee, Kim G. Larsen, Ulrik Nyman

Departmental Papers (CIS)

We present a compositional framework for the specification and analysis of hierarchical scheduling systems (HSS). Firstly we provide a generic formal model, which can be used to describe any type of scheduling system. The concept of Job automata is introduced in order to model job instantiation patterns. We model the interaction between different levels in the hierarchy through the use of state-based resource models. Our notion of resource model is general enough to capture multi-core architectures, preemptiveness and non-determinism.


Hydrogeological And Preliminary Wetland Delineation Assessments Of Peatland On North Side Of Camel's Hump Farm, Bethlehem, Pa, Michelle Barakat May 2018

Hydrogeological And Preliminary Wetland Delineation Assessments Of Peatland On North Side Of Camel's Hump Farm, Bethlehem, Pa, Michelle Barakat

Master of Science in Applied Geosciences Project Designs

On the north side of Camel’s Hump and south of Monocacy Creek in Bethlehem, PA lies a spring-fed peatland that was referred to as the “Detweiler peat deposit” and described as having about 4.5 feet of peat over clay, glacial till, and decomposed gneiss and limestone in Miller (1925). Today, part of this peatland is located on the property of Friends of Johnston, Inc. who, along with federal officials, require an understanding of the peatland hydrology and boundaries to aid in the implementation of a storm water management plan upstream of the wetland. Although the peatland will only ...


Physics 516: Electromagnetic Phenomena (Spring 2018), Philip C. Nelson Apr 2018

Physics 516: Electromagnetic Phenomena (Spring 2018), Philip C. Nelson

Department of Physics Papers

These course notes are made publicly available in the hope that they will be useful. All reports of errata will be gratefully received. I will also be glad to hear from anyone who reads them, whether or not you find errors: pcn@upenn.edu.


Data-Driven Model Predictive Control Using Random Forests For Building Energy Optimization And Climate Control, Francesco Smarra, Achin Jain, Tullio De Rubeis, Dario Ambrosini, Alessandro D'Innocenzo, Rahul Mangharam Apr 2018

Data-Driven Model Predictive Control Using Random Forests For Building Energy Optimization And Climate Control, Francesco Smarra, Achin Jain, Tullio De Rubeis, Dario Ambrosini, Alessandro D'Innocenzo, Rahul Mangharam

Real-Time and Embedded Systems Lab (mLAB)

Model Predictive Control (MPC) is a model-based technique widely and successfully used over the past years to improve control systems performance. A key factor prohibiting the widespread adoption of MPC for complex systems such as buildings is related to the difficulties (cost, time and effort) associated with the identification of a predictive model of a building. To overcome this problem, we introduce a novel idea for predictive control based on historical building data leveraging machine learning algorithms like regression trees and random forests. We call this approach Data-driven model Predictive Control (DPC), and we apply it to three different case ...


Data-Driven Switched Affine Modeling For Model Predictive Control, Francesco Smarra, Achin Jain, Rahul Mangharam, Alessandro D'Innocenzo Apr 2018

Data-Driven Switched Affine Modeling For Model Predictive Control, Francesco Smarra, Achin Jain, Rahul Mangharam, Alessandro D'Innocenzo

Real-Time and Embedded Systems Lab (mLAB)

Model Predictive Control (MPC) is a well-consolidated technique to design optimal control strategies, leveraging the capability of a mathematical model to predict the system’s behavior over a predictive horizon. However, building physics-based models for large-scale systems, such as buildings and process control, can be cost and time prohibitive. To overcome this problem we propose in this paper a methodology to exploit machine learning techniques (i.e. regression trees and random forests) in order to build a state-space switched affine dynamical model of a large scale system only using historical data. Finite Receding Horizon Control (RHC) setup using control-oriented data-driven ...


Surface Roughness Dependence Of Inkjet Printing Of Ag Nanoparticles, Ming Yuan Chuang Apr 2018

Surface Roughness Dependence Of Inkjet Printing Of Ag Nanoparticles, Ming Yuan Chuang

Protocols and Reports

This report describes dependence of the inkjet printing on the surface roughness of normal PI film, ultra-smooth PI film, and polished Si wafer. The printing line width and LER are discussed by the line spreading constraint due to the limited volume of the droplet, vaporization of the solvent by the substrate temperature, the contact angle of the ink, and the surface roughness of the substrate. It is also shown that the minimum line width of ~21um is achieved on the Si wafer. Furthermore, the optimization of the substrate temperature for sintering of Ag nanoparticle is discussed.


Joint Rate Control And Demand Balancing For Electric Vehicle Charging, Fanxin Kong, Xue Liu, Insup Lee Apr 2018

Joint Rate Control And Demand Balancing For Electric Vehicle Charging, Fanxin Kong, Xue Liu, Insup Lee

Departmental Papers (CIS)

Charging stations have become indispensable infrastructure to support the rapid proliferation of electric vehicles (EVs). The operational scheme of charging stations is crucial to satisfy the stability of the power grid and the quality of service (QoS) to EV users. Most existing schemes target either of the two major operations: charging rate control and demand balancing. This partial focus overlooks the coupling relation between the two operations and thus causes the degradation on the grid stability or customer QoS. A thoughtful scheme should manage both operations together. A big challenge to design such a scheme is the aggregated uncertainty caused ...


Parameter Invariant Monitoring For Signal Temporal Logic, Nima Roohi, Ramneet Kaur, James Weimer, Oleg Sokolsky, Insup Lee Apr 2018

Parameter Invariant Monitoring For Signal Temporal Logic, Nima Roohi, Ramneet Kaur, James Weimer, Oleg Sokolsky, Insup Lee

Departmental Papers (CIS)

Signal Temporal Logic (STL) is a prominent specification formalism for real-time systems, and monitoring these specifications, specially when (for different reasons such as learning) behavior of systems can change over time, is quite important. There are three main challenges in this area: (1) full observation of system state is not possible due to noise or nuisance parameters, (2) the whole execution is not available during the monitoring, and (3) computational complexity of monitoring continuous time signals is very high. Although, each of these challenges has been addressed by different works, to the best of our knowledge, no one has addressed ...


Cyber-Physical System Checkpointing And Recovery, Fanxin Kong, Meng Xu, James Weimer, Oleg Sokolsky, Insup Lee Apr 2018

Cyber-Physical System Checkpointing And Recovery, Fanxin Kong, Meng Xu, James Weimer, Oleg Sokolsky, Insup Lee

Departmental Papers (CIS)

Transitioning to more open architectures has been making Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) vulnerable to malicious attacks that are beyond the conventional cyber attacks. This paper studies attack-resilience enhancement for a system under emerging attacks in the environment of the controller. An effective way to address this problem is to make system state estimation accurate enough for control regardless of the compromised components. This work follows this way and develops a procedure named CPS checkpointing and recovery, which leverages historical data to recover failed system states. Specially, we first propose a new concept of physical-state recovery. The essential operation is defined as ...


Logsafe: Secure And Scalable Data Logger For Iot Devices, Hung Nguyen, Radoslav Ivanov, Linh T.X. Phan, Oleg Sokolsky, James Weimer, Insup Lee Apr 2018

Logsafe: Secure And Scalable Data Logger For Iot Devices, Hung Nguyen, Radoslav Ivanov, Linh T.X. Phan, Oleg Sokolsky, James Weimer, Insup Lee

Departmental Papers (CIS)

As devices in the Internet of Things (IoT) increase in number and integrate with everyday lives, large amounts of personal information will be generated. With multiple discovered vulnerabilities in current IoT networks, a malicious attacker might be able to get access to and misuse this personal data. Thus, a logger that stores this information securely would make it possible to perform forensic analysis in case of such attacks that target valuable data. In this paper, we propose LogSafe, a scalable, fault-tolerant logger that leverages the use of Intel Software Guard Extensions (SGX) to store logs from IoT devices efficiently and ...


Context-Aware Detection In Medical Cyber-Physical Systems, Radoslav Ivanov, James Weimer, Insup Lee Apr 2018

Context-Aware Detection In Medical Cyber-Physical Systems, Radoslav Ivanov, James Weimer, Insup Lee

Departmental Papers (CIS)

This paper considers the problem of incorporating context in medical cyber-physical systems (MCPS) applications for the purpose of improving the performance of MCPS detectors. In particular, in many applications additional data could be used to conclude that actual measurements might be noisy or wrong (e.g., machine settings might indicate that the machine is improperly attached to the patient); we call such data context. The first contribution of this work is the formal definition of context, namely additional information whose presence is associated with a change in the measurement model (e.g., higher variance). Given this formulation, we developed the ...


Multi-Mode Virtualization For Soft Real-Time Systems, Haoran Li, Meng Xu, Chong Li, Chenyang Lu, Christopher Gill, Linh T.X. Phan, Insup Lee, Oleg Sokolsky Apr 2018

Multi-Mode Virtualization For Soft Real-Time Systems, Haoran Li, Meng Xu, Chong Li, Chenyang Lu, Christopher Gill, Linh T.X. Phan, Insup Lee, Oleg Sokolsky

Departmental Papers (CIS)

Real-time virtualization is an emerging technology for embedded systems integration and latency-sensitive cloud applications. Earlier real-time virtualization platforms require offline configuration of the scheduling parameters of virtual machines (VMs) based on their worst-case workloads, but this static approach results in pessimistic resource allocation when the workloads in the VMs change dynamically. Here, we present Multi-Mode-Xen (M2-Xen), a real-time virtualization platform for dynamic real-time systems where VMs can operate in modes with different CPU resource requirements at run-time. M2-Xen has three salient capabilities: (1) dynamic allocation of CPU resources among VMs in response to their mode changes, (2) overload avoidance at ...


Learning And Control Using Gaussian Processes, Achin Jain, Truong X Nghiem, Manfred Morari, Rahul Mangharam Feb 2018

Learning And Control Using Gaussian Processes, Achin Jain, Truong X Nghiem, Manfred Morari, Rahul Mangharam

Real-Time and Embedded Systems Lab (mLAB)

Building physics-based models of complex physical systems like buildings and chemical plants is extremely cost and time prohibitive for applications such as real-time optimal control, production planning and supply chain logistics. Machine learning algorithms can reduce this cost and time complexity, and are, consequently, more scalable for large-scale physical systems. However, there are many practical challenges that must be addressed before employing machine learning for closed-loop control. This paper proposes the use of Gaussian Processes (GP) for learning control-oriented models: (1) We develop methods for the optimal experiment design (OED) of functional tests to learn models of a physical system ...


Real-Time Decision Policies With Predictable Performance, Houssam Abbas, Rajeev Alur, Konstantinos Mamouras, Rahul Mangharam, Alena Rodionova Jan 2018

Real-Time Decision Policies With Predictable Performance, Houssam Abbas, Rajeev Alur, Konstantinos Mamouras, Rahul Mangharam, Alena Rodionova

Real-Time and Embedded Systems Lab (mLAB)

As methods and tools for Cyber-Physical Systems grow in capabilities and use, one-size-fits-all solutions start to show their limitations. In particular, tools and languages for programming an algorithm or modeling a CPS that are specific to the application domain are typically more usable, and yield better performance, than general-purpose languages and tools. In the domain of cardiac arrhythmia monitoring, a small, implantable medical device continuously monitors the patient's cardiac rhythm and delivers electrical therapy when needed. The algorithms executed by these devices are streaming algorithms, so they are best programmed in a streaming language that allows the programmer to ...


Bridging The Disclosure Gap: Investor Perspectives On Environmental, Social, & Governance (Esg) Disclosures, Visvesh Sridharan Jan 2018

Bridging The Disclosure Gap: Investor Perspectives On Environmental, Social, & Governance (Esg) Disclosures, Visvesh Sridharan

Master of Environmental Studies Capstone Projects

The corporate sector and the investment community are key players towards achieving sustainable development. By measuring and disclosing the economic as well as social and environmental impacts, companies can work towards this goal. Investors on the other hand are increasingly looking to integrate ESG metrics into their investment analyses for improved decision making, enabling them to minimize risks and maximize returns over the long-term. Sustainability reporting, as an enabler, is an essential tool that can guide the corporate sector to meet investor expectations on ESG metrics. However, there continues to be a disparity between what is being reported and what ...