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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Volleyball Overhead Swing Volume And Injury Frequency Over The Course Of A Season, Heather Wolfe, Katherine Poole, Alejandro G. Villasante Tezanos, Robert A. English, Timothy L. Uhl Feb 2019

Volleyball Overhead Swing Volume And Injury Frequency Over The Course Of A Season, Heather Wolfe, Katherine Poole, Alejandro G. Villasante Tezanos, Robert A. English, Timothy L. Uhl

Statistics Faculty Publications

Background: Overuse injuries are common in volleyball; however, few studies exist that quantify the workload of a volleyball athlete in a season. The relationship between workload and shoulder injury has not been extensively studied in women's collegiate volleyball athletes.

Hypothesis/Purpose: This study aims to quantify shoulder workloads by counting overhead swings during practice and matches. The purpose of the current study is to provide a complete depiction of typical overhead swings, serves, and hits, which occur in both practices and matches. The primary hypothesis was that significantly more swings will occur in practices compared to matches. The secondary ...


2018 Long-Term Summary Of Kentucky Forage Variety Trials, Gene L. Olson, S. Ray Smith, Jimmy C. Henning Jan 2019

2018 Long-Term Summary Of Kentucky Forage Variety Trials, Gene L. Olson, S. Ray Smith, Jimmy C. Henning

Forage Symposium at the Kentucky Cattlemen’s Convention

Forage crops occupy approximately 7 million acres in Kentucky. Forages provide a majority of the nutrition for beef, dairy, horse, goat, sheep, and wildlife in the state. In addition, forage crops play an environmentally friendly role in soil conservation, water quality, and air quality. There are over 60 forage species adapted to the climate and soil conditions of Kentucky. Only 10 to 12 of these species occupy the majority of the acreage, but within these species there is a tremendous variation in varieties.

This publication was developed to provide a user-friendly guide to choosing the best variety for producers based ...


Seismic Monitoring And Baseline Microseismicity In The Rome Trough, Eastern Kentucky, N. Seth Carpenter, Andrew S. Holcomb, Zhenming Wang, John B. Hickman, Edward W. Woolery Jan 2019

Seismic Monitoring And Baseline Microseismicity In The Rome Trough, Eastern Kentucky, N. Seth Carpenter, Andrew S. Holcomb, Zhenming Wang, John B. Hickman, Edward W. Woolery

Kentucky Geological Survey Report of Investigations

In the central and eastern United States, felt earthquakes likely triggered by fluid injection from oil and gas production or wastewater disposal have dramatically increased in frequency since the onset of the unconventional shale gas and oil boom. In the Rome Trough of eastern Kentucky, fracture stimulations and wastewater injection are ongoing and occur near areas of historical seismic activity. Unlike in surrounding and nearby states (Ohio, West Virginia, and Arkansas), in Kentucky, no seismic events related to subsurface fluid injections have been reported as felt or detected by regional seismic networks, including the Kentucky Seismic and Strong-Motion Network.

Oil ...


An Update Of Seismic Monitoring And Research In The Vicinity Of The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant: January 2013–December 2017, Zhenming Wang, Edward W. Woolery, N. Seth Carpenter Jan 2019

An Update Of Seismic Monitoring And Research In The Vicinity Of The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant: January 2013–December 2017, Zhenming Wang, Edward W. Woolery, N. Seth Carpenter

Kentucky Geological Survey Report of Investigations

From January 2013 to December 2017, the Kentucky Geological Survey monitored earthquakes and conducted research on seismic hazards in the vicinity of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, a former uranium enrichment facility, in western Kentucky. Fifteen earthquakes with magnitude greater than 3.0 occurred in the area during this period, and data were collected from the Central U.S. Seismic Observatory and the vertical seismic array at the gaseous diffusion plant. This monitoring improved our understanding of seismic-wave propagation through thick sediments and ground-motion site effects, as well as fault locations in the New Madrid Seismic Zone, ground-motion attenuation, and ...


Equivalence Of Classical And Quantum Codes, Tefjol Pllaha Jan 2019

Equivalence Of Classical And Quantum Codes, Tefjol Pllaha

Theses and Dissertations--Mathematics

In classical and quantum information theory there are different types of error-correcting codes being used. We study the equivalence of codes via a classification of their isometries. The isometries of various codes over Frobenius alphabets endowed with various weights typically have a rich and predictable structure. On the other hand, when the alphabet is not Frobenius the isometry group behaves unpredictably. We use character theory to develop a duality theory of partitions over Frobenius bimodules, which is then used to study the equivalence of codes. We also consider instances of codes over non-Frobenius alphabets and establish their isometry groups. Secondly ...


Investigation Of Amyloid Β Oligomer Dissociation Mechanisms By Single Molecule Fluorescence Techniques, Hope Cook Abdalla Jan 2019

Investigation Of Amyloid Β Oligomer Dissociation Mechanisms By Single Molecule Fluorescence Techniques, Hope Cook Abdalla

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is currently considered the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease and places a large financial burden on society as healthcare resources are limited and the disease does not have a cure. Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by the presence of amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles; however current literature suggests Aβ oligomers are the main aggregating species leading to AD symptoms. Therefore, the underlying cause of Alzheimer’s, accumulation of amyloid beta, is currently being studied in hopes of developing treatment options. Our research aims at determining the mechanism and kinetics of Aβ oligomer dissociation into non-toxic ...


Refining The Onset Timing And Slip History Along The Northern Part Of The Teton Fault, Rachel Montague Hoar Jan 2019

Refining The Onset Timing And Slip History Along The Northern Part Of The Teton Fault, Rachel Montague Hoar

Theses and Dissertations--Earth and Environmental Sciences

A new apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) dataset from subvertical transects collected in the Teton and Gallatin Ranges in the Teton-Yellowstone region provides insight for the slip history and length of the Teton fault. Along the northernmost segment of the Teton fault, inverse thermal history modeling of AHe data from Eagles Rest Peak yield a ~9 Ma age for onset of fault slip. This age supports previous interpretations that Mount Moran may be the true center of the Teton fault. This refined interpretation coupled with lengthdisplacement fault scaling analysis and previous estimates of total fault displacement (~6 km) indicates that the ...


Non-Aqueous Redox Flow Batteries Including 3,7-Perfluoroalkylated Phenothiazine Derivatives, Susan A. Odom, Aman Preet Kaur, Corrine F. Elliott, Matthew D. Casselman Dec 2018

Non-Aqueous Redox Flow Batteries Including 3,7-Perfluoroalkylated Phenothiazine Derivatives, Susan A. Odom, Aman Preet Kaur, Corrine F. Elliott, Matthew D. Casselman

Chemistry Faculty Patents

A non-aqueous redox flow battery includes a negative electrode immersed in a first non-aqueous liquid electrolyte solution, a positive electrode immersed in a second nonaqueous liquid electrolyte solution, and a semi-permeable separator interposed between the negative and positive electrodes, wherein the second the non-aqueous liquid electrolyte solution comprises a compound of the formula...

To see the remainder of this abstract, please download this patent.


Overview Of The Kentucky Geological Survey No. 1 Hanson Aggregates Well, Carter County, Kentucky, J. Richard Bowersox, Stephen F. Greb, David C. Harris Nov 2018

Overview Of The Kentucky Geological Survey No. 1 Hanson Aggregates Well, Carter County, Kentucky, J. Richard Bowersox, Stephen F. Greb, David C. Harris

Kentucky Geological Survey Information Circular

The Kentucky Geological Survey drilled the No. 1 Hanson Aggregates well in northern Carter County, Ky., to assess the carbon dioxide storage capacity and confining intervals in the Middle Cambrian–Upper Ordovician section in the southern Appalachian Basin, north of the Rome Trough. The well was drilled to a total depth of 4,835 ft, penetrating the Mississippian–Middle Cambrian Paleozoic section and 120 ft of Neoproterozoic Grenville granite gneiss. Steel casing was cemented to the surface at 350 ft and 2,944 ft to isolate the deep wellbore from the near-surface aquifer and provide anchors for pressure-control equipment. Eight ...


Fractionation And Characterization Of Lignin Streams From Unique High-Lignin Content Endocarp Feedstocks, Wenqi Li, Kirtley Amos, Mi Li, Yunqiao Pu, Seth Debolt, Arthur J. Ragauskas, Jian Shi Nov 2018

Fractionation And Characterization Of Lignin Streams From Unique High-Lignin Content Endocarp Feedstocks, Wenqi Li, Kirtley Amos, Mi Li, Yunqiao Pu, Seth Debolt, Arthur J. Ragauskas, Jian Shi

Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Faculty Publications

Background: Lignin is a promising source of building blocks for upgrading to valuable aromatic chemicals and materials. Endocarp biomass represents a non-edible crop residue in an existing agricultural setting which cannot be used as animal feed nor soil amendment. With significantly higher lignin content and bulk energy density, endo-carps have significant advantages to be converted into both biofuel and bioproducts as compared to other biomass resources. Deep eutectic solvent (DES) is highly effective in fractionating lignin from a variety of biomass feedstocks with high yield and purity while at lower cost comparing to certain ionic liquids.

Results: In the present ...


Managing Risk In Grazing Operations, Christopher D. Teutsch, Kenneth H. Burdine Oct 2018

Managing Risk In Grazing Operations, Christopher D. Teutsch, Kenneth H. Burdine

Kentucky Grazing Conference

Risk is an inherent part of agricultural production systems. Crane and coworkers (2013) identified five primary areas of risk in grazing operations: 1) MARKETING risk, 2) PRODUCTION risk, 3) LEGAL risk, 4) HUMAN risk, and FINANCIAL risk. These types of risk are described in the accompanying publication entitled “Controlling Risk in Grazing-Based Production Systems” by J. Parsons. This article will discuss the risk associated with “production” in grazing systems, focusing specifically on managing drought in grass based production operations.


Keys To Optimizing Profitability In Cow-Calf Production -- Rooster's Beef, 3 Generations Of Farming & Beef, William Slaton, Becky Slaton Oct 2018

Keys To Optimizing Profitability In Cow-Calf Production -- Rooster's Beef, 3 Generations Of Farming & Beef, William Slaton, Becky Slaton

Kentucky Grazing Conference

Rooster's Beef ultimately began with our family farm -Rocky Bluff Farm - now owned by William and Becky Slaton. It is the cattle producer for our beef sold. The farm is named after two Natural Rock Formations on our property. We have several acres of pasture and including some wooded acres. With rotational grazing and intense management, we are able to have 65 cows in a spring calving group, 15 cows in a fall calving group, 3 bulls, 13 replacement heifers, unweaned calves and 12 calves on finisher feed. We also rent ground to raise and put up our own ...


Grass Finished Beef: Melding Production And Marketing [1], Michael Palmer, Stacie Palmer Oct 2018

Grass Finished Beef: Melding Production And Marketing [1], Michael Palmer, Stacie Palmer

Kentucky Grazing Conference

Palmer Farms Beef is a family farm near Murray KY, owned by Michael and Stacie Palmer. We produce, and retail around 40 beef per year.


Grass Finished Beef: Melding Production And Marketing [2], Todd Clark Oct 2018

Grass Finished Beef: Melding Production And Marketing [2], Todd Clark

Kentucky Grazing Conference

No abstract provided.


Turning Grass Into Cash With Small Ruminants, Kenneth Andries Oct 2018

Turning Grass Into Cash With Small Ruminants, Kenneth Andries

Kentucky Grazing Conference

As agriculture continues to change, it is important to consider sustainability before starting or expanding any enterprise. One critical factor in any animal agriculture enterprise is controlling feeding costs. Most research indicates feeding is the largest expenses in any livestock enterprise. However, nutrition is critical to overall productivity and the income of the enterprise. Because of this, producers need to find ways to improve nutrient availability while minimizing costs to optimize production and profitability for their livestock enterprise.


Grazing Dairies: Challenges And Opportunities, Howard Straub Iii Oct 2018

Grazing Dairies: Challenges And Opportunities, Howard Straub Iii

Kentucky Grazing Conference

No abstract provided.


Considerations For Making A Profit With Stocker Cattle, Jeff Lehmkuhler Oct 2018

Considerations For Making A Profit With Stocker Cattle, Jeff Lehmkuhler

Kentucky Grazing Conference

The southeast is home to more than 7.3 million beef cows (USDA 2018). At an estimated 80% weaning rate and 20% heifer retention, the southeast region would be expected to produce more than 4.6 million feeder calves that would go to market in 2018. The cow-calf industry in the region provides an opportunity for the stocker and backgrounding operations to co-exist. Much of the land in the region is best suited for forage and pasture production, which at the current moment, provides a low cost feed for adding pounds to light weight feeder cattle. Yet, the stocker and ...


Measuring Profitability In Grazing Operations, Kenneth H. Burdine Oct 2018

Measuring Profitability In Grazing Operations, Kenneth H. Burdine

Kentucky Grazing Conference

When producers make investments in extending their grazing season, they do so in order to obtain an economic benefit. These benefits usually include a reduction in the number of days that stored feed (typically hay) is fed, an increase in carry capacity or stocking rate, or an increase in production level (rates of gain, weaning weights, etc). While all of these are potential benefits of improved grazing systems, a reduction in winter feeding days is often the simplest way to start. When the grazing season is extended, winter feeding days are reduced, and this cost savings can be weighed against ...


Foreword And Conference Information [2018], S. Ray Smith, Christopher D. Teutsch Oct 2018

Foreword And Conference Information [2018], S. Ray Smith, Christopher D. Teutsch

Kentucky Grazing Conference

No abstract provided.


Liquid Phenothiazine Catholytes For Non-Aqueous Redox Flow Batteries, Susan A. Odom, Matthew D. Casselman, Aman Preet Kaur Oct 2018

Liquid Phenothiazine Catholytes For Non-Aqueous Redox Flow Batteries, Susan A. Odom, Matthew D. Casselman, Aman Preet Kaur

Chemistry Faculty Patents

Highly soluble, liquid phenothiazines containing methoxy-terminated ether and oligoether substituents are disclosed with high diffusion coefficients and robust performance in electrochemical measurements, which can be synthesized in one step from commercially-available starting materials, thereby circumventing previous synthetic limitations.


Photocatalytic Activity: Experimental Features To Report In Heterogeneous Photocatalysis, Md. Ariful Hoque, Marcelo I. Guzman Oct 2018

Photocatalytic Activity: Experimental Features To Report In Heterogeneous Photocatalysis, Md. Ariful Hoque, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Heterogeneous photocatalysis is a prominent area of research with major applications in solar energy conversion, air pollution mitigation, and removal of contaminants from water. A large number of scientific papers related to the photocatalysis field and its environmental applications are published in different journals specializing in materials and nanomaterials. However, many problems exist in the conception of papers by authors unfamiliar with standard characterization methods of photocatalysts as well as with the procedures needed to determine photocatalytic activities based on the determination of “apparent quantum efficiencies” within a wavelength interval or “apparent quantum yields” in the case of using monochromatic ...


Structural Evolution And Petroleum Potential Of A Cambrian Intracratonic Rift System: Mississippi Valley Graben, Rough Creek Graben, And Rome Trough, John B. Hickman, David C. Harris Sep 2018

Structural Evolution And Petroleum Potential Of A Cambrian Intracratonic Rift System: Mississippi Valley Graben, Rough Creek Graben, And Rome Trough, John B. Hickman, David C. Harris

Kentucky Geological Survey Report of Investigations

Drilling and geophysical data demonstrate that the Mississippi Valley Graben, Rough Creek Graben, and Rome Trough are fault-bounded structures filled with as much as 27,000 ft of Cambrian sediments. Data including stratigraphic tops from 1,764 wells, 106 seismic profiles, aeromagnetic and gravity surveys, and mapped surface geology at a scale of 1:24,000 were used to study seven stratigraphic packages across parts of Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, and Tennessee. Detailed analysis of the thickness patterns of these stratigraphic packages was used to interpret the locations and timing of movement along major fault systems in the study ...


An Overview Of Dynamic Heterogeneous Oxidations In The Troposphere, Elizabeth A. Pillar-Little, Marcelo I. Guzman Sep 2018

An Overview Of Dynamic Heterogeneous Oxidations In The Troposphere, Elizabeth A. Pillar-Little, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Due to the adverse effect of atmospheric aerosols on public health and their ability to affect climate, extensive research has been undertaken in recent decades to understand their sources and sinks, as well as to study their physical and chemical properties. Atmospheric aerosols are important players in the Earth’s radiative budget, affecting incoming and outgoing solar radiation through absorption and scattering by direct and indirect means. While the cooling properties of pure inorganic aerosols are relatively well understood, the impact of organic aerosols on the radiative budget is unclear. Additionally, organic aerosols are transformed through chemical reactions during atmospheric ...


Effects Of The Affordable Care Act On Health Care Access And Self-Assessed Health After 3 Years, Charles Courtemanche, James Marton, Benjamin Ukert, Aaron Yelowitz, Daniela Zapata Sep 2018

Effects Of The Affordable Care Act On Health Care Access And Self-Assessed Health After 3 Years, Charles Courtemanche, James Marton, Benjamin Ukert, Aaron Yelowitz, Daniela Zapata

Economics Faculty Publications

Using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we examine the causal impact of the Affordable Care Act on health-related outcomes after 3 years. We estimate difference-in-difference-in-differences models that exploit variation in treatment intensity from 2 sources: (1) local area prereform uninsured rates from 2013 and (2) state participation in the Medicaid expansion. Including the third postreform year leads to 2 important insights. First, gains in health insurance coverage and access to care from the policy continued to increase in the third year. Second, an improvement in the probability of reporting excellent health emerged in the third year, with ...


What You Don’T See, Brent Sturlaugson Sep 2018

What You Don’T See, Brent Sturlaugson

Architecture Faculty Publications

Follow the supply chains of architecture and you’ll find not just product manufacturers but also environmental polluters and elusive networks of financial power and political influence.


Engineered Nanoparticles Interact With Nutrients To Intensify Eutrophication In A Wetland Ecosystem Experiment, Marie Simonin, Benjamin P. Colman, Steven M. Anderson, Ryan S. King, Matthew T. Ruis, Astrid Avellan, Christina M. Bergemann, Brittany G. Perrotta, Nicholas K. Geitner, Mengchi Ho, Belen De La Barrera, Jason M. Unrine, Gregory V. Lowry, Curtis J. Richardson, Mark R. Wiesner, Emily S. Bernhardt Sep 2018

Engineered Nanoparticles Interact With Nutrients To Intensify Eutrophication In A Wetland Ecosystem Experiment, Marie Simonin, Benjamin P. Colman, Steven M. Anderson, Ryan S. King, Matthew T. Ruis, Astrid Avellan, Christina M. Bergemann, Brittany G. Perrotta, Nicholas K. Geitner, Mengchi Ho, Belen De La Barrera, Jason M. Unrine, Gregory V. Lowry, Curtis J. Richardson, Mark R. Wiesner, Emily S. Bernhardt

Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Publications

Despite the rapid rise in diversity and quantities of engineered nanomaterials produced, the impacts of these emerging contaminants on the structure and function of ecosystems have received little attention from ecologists. Moreover, little is known about how manufactured nanomaterials may interact with nutrient pollution in altering ecosystem productivity, despite the recognition that eutrophication is the primary water quality issue in freshwater ecosystems worldwide. In this study, we asked two main questions: (1) To what extent do manufactured nanoparticles affect the biomass and productivity of primary producers in wetland ecosystems? (2) How are these impacts mediated by nutrient pollution? To address ...


Enhanced Acidity Of Acetic And Pyruvic Acids On The Surface Of Water, Alexis J. Eugene, Elizabeth A. Pillar, Agustín J. Colussi, Marcelo I. Guzman Aug 2018

Enhanced Acidity Of Acetic And Pyruvic Acids On The Surface Of Water, Alexis J. Eugene, Elizabeth A. Pillar, Agustín J. Colussi, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Understanding the acid–base behavior of carboxylic acids on aqueous interfaces is a fundamental issue in nature. Surface processes involving carboxylic acids such as acetic and pyruvic acids play roles in (1) the transport of nutrients through cell membranes, (2) the cycling of metabolites relevant to the origin of life, and (3) the photooxidative processing of biogenic and anthropogenic emissions in aerosols and atmospheric waters. Here, we report that 50% of gaseous acetic acid and pyruvic acid molecules transfer a proton to the surface of water at pH 2.8 and 1.8 units lower than their respective acidity constants ...


A Simple Method Of Coil Design, M. Rawlik, A. Eggenberger, J. Krempel, Christopher Crawford, K. Kirch, F. M. Piegsa, G. Quéméner Aug 2018

A Simple Method Of Coil Design, M. Rawlik, A. Eggenberger, J. Krempel, Christopher Crawford, K. Kirch, F. M. Piegsa, G. Quéméner

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

In this article, we present a method to design a coil producing an arbitrarily shaped magnetic field by restricting the path of the coil's wires to a regular grid. The solution is then found by a simple least squares minimum. We discuss practical applications, in particular, in the active magnetic field stabilization system of the neutron electric dipole moment experiment at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Villigen, Switzerland. We also publish the software implementation of the method.


Managing Herbicide Resistance: Listening To The Perspectives Of Practitioners. Procedures For Conducting Listening Sessions And An Evaluation Of The Process, Jill Schroeder, Michael Barrett, David R. Shaw, Amy B. Asmus, Harold Coble, David Ervin, Raymond A. Jussaume Jr., Micheal D. K. Owen, Ian Burke, Cody F. Creech, A. Stanley Culpepper, William S. Curran, Darrin M. Dodds, Todd A. Gaines, Jeffrey L. Gunsolus, Bradley D. Hanson, Prashant Jha, Annie E. Klodd, Andrew R. Kniss, Ramon G. Leon, Sandra Mcdonald, Don W. Morishita, Brian J. Schutte, Christy L. Sprague, Phillip W. Stahlman, Larry E. Steckel, Mark J. Vangessel Aug 2018

Managing Herbicide Resistance: Listening To The Perspectives Of Practitioners. Procedures For Conducting Listening Sessions And An Evaluation Of The Process, Jill Schroeder, Michael Barrett, David R. Shaw, Amy B. Asmus, Harold Coble, David Ervin, Raymond A. Jussaume Jr., Micheal D. K. Owen, Ian Burke, Cody F. Creech, A. Stanley Culpepper, William S. Curran, Darrin M. Dodds, Todd A. Gaines, Jeffrey L. Gunsolus, Bradley D. Hanson, Prashant Jha, Annie E. Klodd, Andrew R. Kniss, Ramon G. Leon, Sandra Mcdonald, Don W. Morishita, Brian J. Schutte, Christy L. Sprague, Phillip W. Stahlman, Larry E. Steckel, Mark J. Vangessel

Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Publications

Seven half-day regional listening sessions were held between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide-resistance management. The objective of the listening sessions was to connect with stakeholders and hear their challenges and recommendations for addressing herbicide resistance. The coordinating team hired Strategic Conservation Solutions, LLC, to facilitate all the sessions. They and the coordinating team used in-person meetings, teleconferences, and email to communicate and coordinate the activities leading up to each regional listening session. The agenda was the same across all sessions and included small-group discussions followed by reporting ...


A Programme For Risk Assessment And Minimisation Of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Developed For Vedolizumab Clinical Trials, Asit Parikh, Kristin Stephens, Eugene Major, Irving Fox, Catherine Milch, Serap Sankoh, Michael H. Lev, James M. Provenzale, Jesse Shick, Mark Patti, Megan Mcauliffe, Joseph R. Berger, David B. Clifford Aug 2018

A Programme For Risk Assessment And Minimisation Of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Developed For Vedolizumab Clinical Trials, Asit Parikh, Kristin Stephens, Eugene Major, Irving Fox, Catherine Milch, Serap Sankoh, Michael H. Lev, James M. Provenzale, Jesse Shick, Mark Patti, Megan Mcauliffe, Joseph R. Berger, David B. Clifford

Neurology Faculty Publications

Introduction Over the past decade, the potential for drug-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) has become an increasingly important consideration in certain drug development programmes, particularly those of immunomodulatory biologics. Whether the risk of PML with an investigational agent is proven (e.g. extrapolated from relevant experience, such as a class effect) or merely theoretical, the serious consequences of acquiring PML require careful risk minimisation and assessment. No single standard for such risk minimisation exists. Vedolizumab is a recently developed monoclonal antibody to α4β7 integrin. Its clinical development necessitated a dedicated PML risk minimisation assessment as part of a global preapproval ...