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Articles 1 - 30 of 2649

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

A Statistical Impulse Response Model Based On Empirical Characterization Of Wireless Underground Channel, Abdul Salam, Mehmet C. Vuran, Suat Irmak May 2020

A Statistical Impulse Response Model Based On Empirical Characterization Of Wireless Underground Channel, Abdul Salam, Mehmet C. Vuran, Suat Irmak

Faculty Publications

Wireless underground sensor networks (WUSNs) are becoming ubiquitous in many areas. The design of robust systems requires extensive understanding of the underground (UG) channel characteristics. In this paper, an UG channel impulse response is modeled and validated via extensive experiments in indoor and field testbed settings. The three distinct types of soils are selected with sand and clay contents ranging from $13\%$ to $86\%$ and $3\%$ to $32\%$, respectively. The impacts of changes in soil texture and soil moisture are investigated with more than $1,200$ measurements in a novel UG testbed that allows flexibility in soil moisture control. Moreover ...


Congressional Committee Resources On Space Policy During The 115th Congress (2017-2018): Providing Context And Insight Into Us Government Space Policy, Bert Chapman May 2020

Congressional Committee Resources On Space Policy During The 115th Congress (2017-2018): Providing Context And Insight Into Us Government Space Policy, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Presentations

Article 1 of the US Constitution assigns the US Congress numerous responsibilities. These include creating new laws, revising existing laws, funding government programs, and conducting oversight of these programs' performance. Oversight of US Government agency space policy programs is executed by various congressional space policy committees including the House and Senate Science Committees, Armed Services, and Appropriations Committees. These committees conduct many public hearings on space policy, which invite expert witnesses to testify on US space policy programs and feature debate on the strengths and weaknesses of these programs. Documentation produced by these committees is widely available to the public ...


Zenneck Waves In Decision Agriculture: An Empirical Verification And Application In Em-Based Underground Wireless Power Transfer, Usman Raza, Abdul Salam May 2020

Zenneck Waves In Decision Agriculture: An Empirical Verification And Application In Em-Based Underground Wireless Power Transfer, Usman Raza, Abdul Salam

Faculty Publications

In this article, the results of experiments for the observation of Zenneck surface waves in sub GHz frequency range using dipole antennas are presented. Experiments are conducted over three different soils for communications distances of up to 1 m. This empirical analysis confirms the existence of Zenneck waves over the soil surface. Through the power delay profile (PDP) analysis, it has been shown that other subsurface components exhibit rapid decay as compared to the Zenneck waves. A potential application of the Zenneck waves for energy transmission in the area of decision agriculture is explored. Accordingly, a novel wireless through-the-soil power ...


On-Site And External Energy Harvesting In Underground Wireless, Usman Raza, Abdul Salam Apr 2020

On-Site And External Energy Harvesting In Underground Wireless, Usman Raza, Abdul Salam

Faculty Publications

Energy efficiency is vital for uninterrupted long-term operation of wireless underground communication nodes in the field of decision agriculture. In this paper, energy harvesting and wireless power transfer techniques are discussed with applications in underground wireless communications (UWC). Various external wireless power transfer techniques are explored. Moreover, key energy harvesting technologies are presented that utilize available energy sources in the field such as vibration, solar, and wind. In this regard, the Electromagnetic(EM)- and Magnetic Induction(MI)-based approaches are explained. Furthermore, the vibration-based energy harvesting models are reviewed as well. These energy harvesting approaches lead to design of an ...


All You Need To Know About Cybersecurity Ever! In 45 Minutes, Joe Beckman Mar 2020

All You Need To Know About Cybersecurity Ever! In 45 Minutes, Joe Beckman

Purdue Road School

This session will cover the information every local government official needs to know to keep their data safe from hackers.


Wireless Underground Communications In Sewer And Stormwater Overflow Monitoring: Radio Waves Through Soil And Asphalt Medium, Usman Raza, Abdul Salam Feb 2020

Wireless Underground Communications In Sewer And Stormwater Overflow Monitoring: Radio Waves Through Soil And Asphalt Medium, Usman Raza, Abdul Salam

Faculty Publications

Storm drains and sanitary sewers are prone to backups and overflows due to extra amount wastewater entering the pipes. To prevent that, it is imperative to efficiently monitor the urban underground infrastructure. The combination of sensors system and wireless underground communication system can be used to realize urban underground IoT applications, e.g., storm water and wastewater overflow monitoring systems. The aim of this article is to establish a feasibility of the use of wireless underground communications techniques, and wave propagation through the subsurface soil and asphalt layers, in an underground pavement system for storm water and sewer overflow monitoring ...


Performance Of Concrete Made With A Calcined Clay – Limestone-Portland Cement Exposed To Natural Conditions, Fernando Martirena, Ernesto Díaz, Dayran Rocha, Hamed Maraghechi, Karen Louise Scrivener Nov 2019

Performance Of Concrete Made With A Calcined Clay – Limestone-Portland Cement Exposed To Natural Conditions, Fernando Martirena, Ernesto Díaz, Dayran Rocha, Hamed Maraghechi, Karen Louise Scrivener

International Conference on Durability of Concrete Structures

This work presents the results of an investigation carried out to assess durability of concrete made with a calcined clay- limestone-Portland cement with 47% of clinker, hereafter named LC3, produced during an industrial trial in 2013. LC3 was used to cast concrete blocks and later expose them at a natural location at the northern coast of Cuba. Reference concrete was cast with Cuban Portland cement having 88% of clinker. Throughout three years (2015, 2016, 2017) concrete cores were systematically taken and the specimens were subjected to a testing program that included Formation factor, chloride profiling, surface resistivity, air permeability and ...


An Extensible Geospatial Data Framework (Geoedf) For Fair Science, Carol Song, Rajesh Kalyanam, Lan Zhao Nov 2019

An Extensible Geospatial Data Framework (Geoedf) For Fair Science, Carol Song, Rajesh Kalyanam, Lan Zhao

Purdue GIS Day

The growing urgency in dealing with the 21st century’s grand challenges associated with increasing population, food and water security, frequently occurring natural disasters, and changing climate demands innovative, collaborative, and multidisciplinary solutions for sustainability and resilience. However, scientific data, especially geospatial data, presents significant barriers to the effective access, use and sharing of data as they come in large volumes, from different sources, and with widely varying formats, resolutions, or annotation schemas that can differ among disciplines or even research groups. This presentation describes a recently funded NSF CSSI project to develop an open source, extensible geospatial data framework ...


Soil Erosion Analysis Of The Monroe County’S Watersheds In Indiana, Danielli De Melo Moura, Jie Shan Nov 2019

Soil Erosion Analysis Of The Monroe County’S Watersheds In Indiana, Danielli De Melo Moura, Jie Shan

Purdue GIS Day

This study was carried out to spatially predict the amount of soil loss (tons/ha/year ) of Monroe County’s watersheds using Geographic Information System (GIS). Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) was used to estimate potential soil losses by using information such as rainfall data for calculating the rainfall erosivity (R) , soil map for calculating the soil erodibility (K), digital elevation model for obtaining the topography factor (LS) and vegetation/cropland cover for calculating the cover management factor (C) and support practice factor (P). The result of the analysis depicted that the soil loss rate in Moroe’s watersheds ...


Read And Publish: What Can Libraries Expect?, Josh Horowitz Oct 2019

Read And Publish: What Can Libraries Expect?, Josh Horowitz

Charleston Library Conference

The author provides a publisher's perspective on the challenges and opportunities faced by a mid-sized society in navigating the current transition to open access licensing models.


Data Curation Workshop: Tips And Tools For Today, Matthew M. Benzing Oct 2019

Data Curation Workshop: Tips And Tools For Today, Matthew M. Benzing

Charleston Library Conference

The current state of research data is like a disorganized photo collection: a mix of formats scattered across different media without a lot of authority control. That is changing as the need to make data available to researchers across the world is becoming recognized. Researchers know that their data needs to be maintained and made accessible, but often they do not have the time or the inclination to get involved in all of the details. This provides an excellent opportunity for librarians. Data curation is the process of preparing data to be made available in a repository with the goal ...


Growing Local: The Role Of Urban Gardening In Fostering Food Security, Sustainability, And Community, Franklin Wagner, Lindsey Payne Oct 2019

Growing Local: The Role Of Urban Gardening In Fostering Food Security, Sustainability, And Community, Franklin Wagner, Lindsey Payne

Purdue Journal of Service-Learning and International Engagement

The downtown center of Lafayette, Indiana is situated in a food desert where access to healthy, nutritious food can be limited. Urban gardens are an effective way to increase access to healthy alternatives while also providing a number of benefits to the surrounding area, including opportunities for community growth, education, and physical activity. In summer 2016, researchers from Purdue University collaborated with Lafayette’s GrowLocal Urban Gardens Network (GrowLocal) to perform a baseline analysis of the current community gardening initiatives, and explore the possibilities for expansion, development, and future community involvement through urban gardening.

Both qualitative and quantitative data collection ...


Across The Atlantic: Service-Learning In Spain And Morocco, Lauren Ward Oct 2019

Across The Atlantic: Service-Learning In Spain And Morocco, Lauren Ward

Purdue Journal of Service-Learning and International Engagement

Purdue provides many activities in service-learning each year, and though they are varied experiences, many of the same lessons can be learned. I had the opportunity to participate in two service-learning study abroad trips while at Purdue- the first to Spain and Morocco, and the second to Haiti. While on these trips, I was involved in projects that seemed very different. In Morocco, my group taught high school students about the history of mathematics during the Islamic Golden Age and how mathematics is utilized in Purdue research. In Haiti, I worked with my teammates to teach water sanitation and storage ...


Weather Courtyard: Reflections On Interactive Stem Learning Spaces, Ryan Day Oct 2019

Weather Courtyard: Reflections On Interactive Stem Learning Spaces, Ryan Day

Purdue Journal of Service-Learning and International Engagement

In this article, the author discusses his experiences in service-oriented engineering developing an interactive weather station for DCES students. Day details this process and the lessons learned over the course of the project development, as well as the project’s influence on his aspirations for a career in civil and environmental engineering. To provide substantive takeaways from the project, he concludes by reviewing the benefits of interactive STEM learning spaces in the instructional environment and links them to the impacts of the weather station project on the community.


An Animal-Assisted Intervention Study In The Nursing Home: Lessons Learned, Lonneke G. J. A. Schuurmans, Inge Noback, Jos M. G. A. Schols, Marie-Jose Enders-Slegers Sep 2019

An Animal-Assisted Intervention Study In The Nursing Home: Lessons Learned, Lonneke G. J. A. Schuurmans, Inge Noback, Jos M. G. A. Schols, Marie-Jose Enders-Slegers

People and Animals: The International Journal of Research and Practice

AAI studies in the nursing home pose a specific set of challenges. In this article the practical and ethical issues encountered during a Dutch psychogeriatric nursing home AAI study are addressed with the aim of sharing our experiences for future researchers as well as AAI practitioners in general.

In our study we compared three groups of clients with dementia who participated in group sessions of either visiting dog teams, visiting FurReal Friend robot animals, or visiting students (control group) and monitored the effect on social interaction and neuropsychiatric symptoms through video analysis and questionnaires. We encountered the following four categories ...


Fracture Networks On Mars: Preservation Of Surface And Subsurface Environments At Mawrth Vallis, Phoebe Kinzelman Aug 2019

Fracture Networks On Mars: Preservation Of Surface And Subsurface Environments At Mawrth Vallis, Phoebe Kinzelman

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

Mawrth Vallis is an outflow channel on Mars that cuts through some of the planet’s most ancient terrains, which contain many different types of fractures. The ExoMars rover mission will search for biosignatures on Mars, and this site was proposed as one of the two final candidate landing sites for the rover. A biosignature is any object that shows evidence of past or present life. Fracture networks are a high priority for the mission because they might contain minerals precipitated by fluid interaction, and these minerals could trap and preserve biosignatures, critical for our understanding of ancient processes. In ...


Climatological Changes: Meteorological Parameters Affecting The Spatial Redistribution Of U.S. Tornadoes, Ashley Dicks Aug 2019

Climatological Changes: Meteorological Parameters Affecting The Spatial Redistribution Of U.S. Tornadoes, Ashley Dicks

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

Climatological changes in the environments of key meteorological parameters that affect Significant Tornado Days (SigTorDs) have been determined for two active tornado regions defined as Box α and Box β, centered, respectively, over Oklahoma and Alabama and their respective environs. The North American Regional Reanalysis data was selected for 1980–2013, providing two successive 17-year periods corresponding to the last 34 years of previous research findings that focused on the aforementioned regions. This data record also corresponds to an increasing surface air temperature trend for the continental United States. Period I (1980–1996) and Period II (1997–2013) defined the ...


Subsurface Mimo: A Beamforming Design In Internet Of Underground Things For Digital Agriculture Applications, Abdul Salam Aug 2019

Subsurface Mimo: A Beamforming Design In Internet Of Underground Things For Digital Agriculture Applications, Abdul Salam

Faculty Publications

In underground (UG) multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO), the transmit beamforming is used to focus energy in the desired direction. There are three different paths in the underground soil medium through which the waves propagates to reach at the receiver. When the UG receiver receives a desired data stream only from the desired path, then the UG MIMO channel becomes three path (lateral, direct, and reflected) interference channel. Accordingly, the capacity region of the UG MIMO three path interference channel and degrees of freedom (multiplexing gain of this MIMO channel requires careful modeling). Therefore, expressions are required for the degree of ...


Peppytides, Dave Zwicky May 2019

Peppytides, Dave Zwicky

2019 Symposium on Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Lightning talk for Symposium on Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETD) at Purdue University on May 23, 2019.


Smiler: Consistent And Usable Saliency Model Implementations, Toni Kunic, Calden Wloka, John K. Tsotsos May 2019

Smiler: Consistent And Usable Saliency Model Implementations, Toni Kunic, Calden Wloka, John K. Tsotsos

MODVIS Workshop

The Saliency Model Implementation Library for Experimental Research (SMILER) is a new software package which provides an open, standardized, and extensible framework for maintaining and executing computational saliency models. This work drastically reduces the human effort required to apply saliency algorithms to new tasks and datasets, while also ensuring consistency and procedural correctness for results and conclusions produced by different parties. At its launch SMILER already includes twenty three saliency models (fourteen models based in MATLAB and nine supported through containerization), and the open design of SMILER encourages this number to grow with future contributions from the community. The project ...


Is The Selective Tuning Model Of Visual Attention Still Relevant?, John K. Tsotsos May 2019

Is The Selective Tuning Model Of Visual Attention Still Relevant?, John K. Tsotsos

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


The Fluid Representations Of Networks Estimating Liquid Viscosity, Jan Jaap R. Van Assen, Shin'ya Nishida, Roland W. Fleming May 2019

The Fluid Representations Of Networks Estimating Liquid Viscosity, Jan Jaap R. Van Assen, Shin'ya Nishida, Roland W. Fleming

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Towards Human Retinal Cones Spatial Distribution Modeling, Matteo Paolo Lanaro, Hélène Perrier, David Coeurjolly, Victor Ostromoukhov, Alessandro Rizzi May 2019

Towards Human Retinal Cones Spatial Distribution Modeling, Matteo Paolo Lanaro, Hélène Perrier, David Coeurjolly, Victor Ostromoukhov, Alessandro Rizzi

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Selecting Maximally-Predictive Deep Features To Explain What Drives Fixations In Free-Viewing, Matthias Kümmerer, Thomas S.A. Wallis, Matthias Bethge May 2019

Selecting Maximally-Predictive Deep Features To Explain What Drives Fixations In Free-Viewing, Matthias Kümmerer, Thomas S.A. Wallis, Matthias Bethge

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Recovering Depth From Stereo Without Using Any Oculomotor Information, Tadamasa Sawada May 2019

Recovering Depth From Stereo Without Using Any Oculomotor Information, Tadamasa Sawada

MODVIS Workshop

The human visual system uses binocular disparity to perceive depth within 3D scenes. It is commonly assumed that the visual system needs oculomotor information about the relative orientation of the two eyes to perceive depth on the basis of binocular disparity. The necessary oculomotor information can be obtained from an efference copy of the oculomotor signals, or from a 2D distribution of the vertical disparity, specifically, from the vertical component of binocular disparity. It is known that oculomotor information from the efference copy and from the vertical disparity distribution can affect the perception of depth based on binocular disparity. But ...


Mental Geometry For Estimating Relative 3d Size, Akihito Maruya, Qasim Zaidi Dr. May 2019

Mental Geometry For Estimating Relative 3d Size, Akihito Maruya, Qasim Zaidi Dr.

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


The Challenge For Vision Of Fluctuating Real-World Illumination, David H. Foster May 2019

The Challenge For Vision Of Fluctuating Real-World Illumination, David H. Foster

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


A Cooperative Overlay Approach At The Physical Layer Of Cognitive Radio For Digital Agriculture, Abdul Salam, Umit Karabiyik May 2019

A Cooperative Overlay Approach At The Physical Layer Of Cognitive Radio For Digital Agriculture, Abdul Salam, Umit Karabiyik

Faculty Publications

In digital agriculture, the cognitive radio technology is being envisaged as solution to spectral shortage problems by allowing agricultural cognitive users to co-exist with noncognitive users in the same spectrum on the field. Cognitive radios increase system capacity and spectral efficiency by sensing the spectrum and adapting the transmission parameters. This design requires a robust, adaptable and flexible physical layer to support cognitive radio functionality. In this paper, a novel physical layer architecture for cognitive radio based on cognition, cooperation, and cognitive interference avoidance has been developed by using power control for digital agriculture applications. The design is based on ...


Twitter And Disasters: A Social Resilience Fingerprint, Benjamin A. Rachunok, Jackson B. Bennett, Roshanak Nateghi May 2019

Twitter And Disasters: A Social Resilience Fingerprint, Benjamin A. Rachunok, Jackson B. Bennett, Roshanak Nateghi

Purdue University Libraries Open Access Publishing Support Fund

Understanding the resilience of a community facing a crisis event is critical to improving its adaptive capacity. Community resilience has been conceptualized as a function of the resilience of components of a community such as ecological, infrastructure, economic, and social systems, etc. In this paper, we introduce the concept of a “resilience fingerprint” and propose a multi-dimensional method for analyzing components of community resilience by leveraging existing definitions of community resilience with data from the social network Twitter. Twitter data from 14 events are analyzed and their resulting resilience fingerprints computed. We compare the fingerprints between events and show that ...


Urban Underground Infrastructure Monitoring Iot: The Path Loss Analysis, Abdul Salam, Syed Shah Apr 2019

Urban Underground Infrastructure Monitoring Iot: The Path Loss Analysis, Abdul Salam, Syed Shah

Faculty Publications

The extra quantities of wastewater entering the pipes can cause backups that result in sanitary sewer overflows. Urban underground infrastructure monitoring is important for controlling the flow of extraneous water into the pipelines. By combining the wireless underground communications and sensor solutions, the urban underground IoT applications such as real time wastewater and storm water overflow monitoring can be developed. In this paper, the path loss analysis of wireless underground communications in urban underground IoT for wastewater monitoring has been presented. It has been shown that the communication range of up to 4 kilometers can be achieved from an underground ...