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Articles 1 - 30 of 2687

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

A Comparison Of The Localized Aviation Mos Program (Lamp) And Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (Taf) Accuracy For General Aviation, Douglas D. Boyd, Thomas A. Guinn Apr 2021

A Comparison Of The Localized Aviation Mos Program (Lamp) And Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (Taf) Accuracy For General Aviation, Douglas D. Boyd, Thomas A. Guinn

Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering

Background. For general aviation (GA) pilots, operations in instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) carry an elevated risk of a fatal accident. As to whether a general aviation flight can be safely undertaken, aerodrome-specific forecasts (TAF, LAMP) provide guidance. Although LAMP forecasts are more common for GA-frequented aerodromes, nevertheless, the FAA recommends that for such aerodromes (and for which a TAF is not issued) the airman uses the TAF generated for the geographically closest airport for pre-flight weather evaluation. Herein, for non-TAF-issuing airports, the LAMP (sLAMP) predictive accuracy for visual (VFR) and instrument (IFR) flight rules flight category was determined.

Method. sLAMP ...


Reginald Sutcliffe And The Invention Of Modern Weather Systems Science, Jonathan E. Martin Mar 2021

Reginald Sutcliffe And The Invention Of Modern Weather Systems Science, Jonathan E. Martin

Purdue University Press Book Previews

Despite being perhaps the foremost British meteorologist of the twentieth century, Reginald Sutcliffe has been understudied and underappreciated. His impact continues to this day every time you check the weather forecast. Reginald Sutcliffe and the Invention of Modern Weather Systems Science not only details Sutcliffe’s life and ideas, but it also illuminates the impact of social movements and the larger forces that propelled him on his consequential trajectory. Less than a century ago, a forecast of the weather tomorrow was considered a practical impossibility. This book makes the case that three important advances guided the development of modern dynamic ...


A Survey On Subsurface Signal Propagation, Usman Raza, Abdul Salam Dec 2020

A Survey On Subsurface Signal Propagation, Usman Raza, Abdul Salam

Faculty Publications

Wireless Underground Communication (WUC) is an emerging field that is being developed continuously. It provides secure mechanism of deploying nodes underground which shields them from any outside temperament or harsh weather conditions. This paper works towards introducing WUC and give a detail overview of WUC. It discusses system architecture of WUC along with the anatomy of the underground sensor motes deployed in WUC systems. It also compares Over-the-Air and Underground and highlights the major differences between the both type of channels. Since, UG communication is an evolving field, this paper also presents the evolution of the field along with the ...


Global Air Quality Trekkers: Nandi Clean Kitchen Study, Samantha Dykhuis, Stephanie Schiavo, Avalin Senefeld Oct 2020

Global Air Quality Trekkers: Nandi Clean Kitchen Study, Samantha Dykhuis, Stephanie Schiavo, Avalin Senefeld

Purdue Journal of Service-Learning and International Engagement

Indoor air pollution is a widespread environmental health challenge sub-Saharan Africa and is the leading cause of premature death in many sub-Saharan African countries. This pollution is primarily caused by the burning of biomass fuels inside an enclosed kitchen in order to provide heat for cooking. Global Air Quality Trekkers is an undergraduate engineering team within the EPICS department at Purdue that began in fall 2016. Our objective is to create a kitchen design that utilizes natural ventilation to mitigate the amount of air pollutants present in these kitchens, specifically in the Nandi community of Western Kenya. This year, our ...


Research Instrumentation Center (Ric), Ryan Hilger, Purdue University Office Of Research And Partnerships Oct 2020

Research Instrumentation Center (Ric), Ryan Hilger, Purdue University Office Of Research And Partnerships

University Research Core Facility Boilerplate Descriptions

No abstract provided.


Data Is Personal: We Should Treat It As Such, Kaleb Dunn Sep 2020

Data Is Personal: We Should Treat It As Such, Kaleb Dunn

Student Papers in Public Policy

The rise of the internet as a fact of daily life is the defining element of the modern age. Widespread use of the internet has fundamentally altered entire industries, and much of American life has migrated online. Dating is augmented by online dating; shopping by online shopping; television by internet streaming.

The digitization of American life has brought with it considerable benefits, including great convenience and innumerable efficiencies, but it has not come without a cost. Although there are many business models used by internet companies, many of the now-largest companies in the world have converged on one entity upon ...


Implement Multi-Factor Authentication On All Federal Systems Now, Megan Walsh Sep 2020

Implement Multi-Factor Authentication On All Federal Systems Now, Megan Walsh

Student Papers in Public Policy

The White House Office of Management and Budget recorded 31,107 information security incidents in fiscal year 2018. The most common attacks to gain access to a user’s login credentials were e-mail/phishing, web-based attack, and brute force entering of username/password combinations. Given this high number of incidents, strong reliance on computers for everyday business, and common attacks that target passwords, information security should be a priority for information technology administrators working in federal agencies.


Removing Racially Biased Algorithms In Policing, Andie Lee Sep 2020

Removing Racially Biased Algorithms In Policing, Andie Lee

Student Papers in Public Policy

Local police departments use algorithm-based programs to do police work and predict crime. Technology has created the police tactic of predictive crime prevention. Police work, however, requires social skills, assessment of the environment, and most importantly human interaction. Automated policing lacks these characteristics. Moreover, the algorithms used to make crime predictions and risk assessments have disproportionately affected minorities.


The Case For Online Ranked-Choice Voting, Rayyan Khan Sep 2020

The Case For Online Ranked-Choice Voting, Rayyan Khan

Student Papers in Public Policy

Maine was the first to embrace ranked-choice voting on a statewide level in 2018, using it for all state and general elections. Maine voters will be the first to use ranked-choice voting in a presidential election in 2020. This system differs from traditional voting in that voters rank candidates rather than choose just one. Supporters of ranked-choice voting tout it as a better model for accurately representing the values of the voting population; however, a study conducted in San Francisco details a potential shortfall referred to as “ballot fatigue” that the theoretically-ideal system may face as it struggles to deal ...


A Statistical Impulse Response Model Based On Empirical Characterization Of Wireless Underground Channel, Abdul Salam, Mehmet C. Vuran, Suat Irmak Sep 2020

A Statistical Impulse Response Model Based On Empirical Characterization Of Wireless Underground Channel, Abdul Salam, Mehmet C. Vuran, Suat Irmak

Faculty Publications

Wireless underground sensor networks (WUSNs) are becoming ubiquitous in many areas. The design of robust systems requires extensive understanding of the underground (UG) channel characteristics. In this paper, an UG channel impulse response is modeled and validated via extensive experiments in indoor and field testbed settings. The three distinct types of soils are selected with sand and clay contents ranging from $13\%$ to $86\%$ and $3\%$ to $32\%$, respectively. The impacts of changes in soil texture and soil moisture are investigated with more than $1,200$ measurements in a novel UG testbed that allows flexibility in soil moisture control. Moreover ...


Prerequisite Course Recommendation Based On Course Description And Students’ Grades, Haozhe Zhou Aug 2020

Prerequisite Course Recommendation Based On Course Description And Students’ Grades, Haozhe Zhou

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


Using Cold War-Era Satellite Imagery To Inform Historic Land Cover Classification, Nicholas Hamp-Adams Aug 2020

Using Cold War-Era Satellite Imagery To Inform Historic Land Cover Classification, Nicholas Hamp-Adams

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


Influence Of Atmospheric Circulation On Severe Flooding In The Atacama Desert, Jonathan Degraw Aug 2020

Influence Of Atmospheric Circulation On Severe Flooding In The Atacama Desert, Jonathan Degraw

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


Estimating Vehicular Traffic Intensity With Deep Learning And Semantic Segmentation, Logan Bradley-Trietsch Aug 2020

Estimating Vehicular Traffic Intensity With Deep Learning And Semantic Segmentation, Logan Bradley-Trietsch

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


A Differential Geometry-Based Machine Learning Algorithm For The Brain Age Problem, Justin Asher, Khoa Tan Dang, Maxwell Masters Aug 2020

A Differential Geometry-Based Machine Learning Algorithm For The Brain Age Problem, Justin Asher, Khoa Tan Dang, Maxwell Masters

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


Predicting Postoperative Delirium Risk For Intracranial Surgery: A Statistical Machine Learning Approach, Juliet Aygun, Alaina Bartfeld, Sahana Rayan Aug 2020

Predicting Postoperative Delirium Risk For Intracranial Surgery: A Statistical Machine Learning Approach, Juliet Aygun, Alaina Bartfeld, Sahana Rayan

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


High Wind Alerts: A System Created With Observations From The X-Band Teaching And Research Radar, Lauren Warner Aug 2020

High Wind Alerts: A System Created With Observations From The X-Band Teaching And Research Radar, Lauren Warner

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

Following the August 13, 2011, Indiana State Fair stage collapse tragedy, caused by a wind gust from an approaching thunderstorm, Purdue University enforced a wind speed restriction of 30 mph (13 m s-1) for tents at outdoor events. During these events, volunteers stand outside with handheld anemometers, measuring and reporting when the wind speeds exceed this limit. In this study, we report testing of a new system to automate high-wind alerts based on observations from a Doppler radar, the X-band Teaching and Research Radar (XTRRA), near Purdue’s campus. XTRRA scans over campus at low elevations approximately every 5 minutes ...


Binary Neutron Star Mergers: Testing Ejecta Models For High Mass-Ratios, Allen Murray Aug 2020

Binary Neutron Star Mergers: Testing Ejecta Models For High Mass-Ratios, Allen Murray

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

Neutron stars are extremely dense stellar corpses which sometimes exist in orbiting pairs known as binary neutron star (BNS) systems. The mass ratio (q) of a BNS system is defined as the mass of the heavier neutron star divided by the mass of the lighter neutron star. Over time the neutron stars will inspiral toward one another and produce a merger event. Although rare, these events can be rich sources of observational data due to their many electromagnetic emissions as well as the gravitational waves they produce. The ability to extract physical information from such observations relies heavily on numerical ...


Comparison Of Machine Learning Models: Gesture Recognition Using A Multimodal Wrist Orthosis For Tetraplegics, Charlie Martin Aug 2020

Comparison Of Machine Learning Models: Gesture Recognition Using A Multimodal Wrist Orthosis For Tetraplegics, Charlie Martin

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

Many tetraplegics must wear wrist braces to support paralyzed wrists and hands. However, current wrist orthoses have limited functionality to assist a person’s ability to perform typical activities of daily living other than a small pocket to hold utensils. To enhance the functionality of wrist orthoses, gesture recognition technology can be applied to control mechatronic tools attached to a novel fabricated wrist brace. Gesture recognition is a growing technology for providing touchless human-computer interaction that can be particularly useful for tetraplegics with limited upper-extremity mobility. In this study, three gesture recognition models were compared—two dynamic time-warping models and ...


Literature Review: How U.S. Government Documents Are Addressing The Increasing National Security Implications Of Artificial Intelligence, Bert Chapman Jun 2020

Literature Review: How U.S. Government Documents Are Addressing The Increasing National Security Implications Of Artificial Intelligence, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Scholarship and Research

This article emphasizes the increasing importance of artificial intelligence (AI) in military and national security policy making. It seeks to inform interested individuals about the proliferation of publicly accessible U.S. government and military literature on this multifaceted topic. An additional objective of this endeavor is encouraging greater public awareness of and participation in emerging public policy debate on AI's moral and national security implications..


Congressional Committee Resources On Space Policy During The 115th Congress (2017-2018): Providing Context And Insight Into Us Government Space Policy, Bert Chapman May 2020

Congressional Committee Resources On Space Policy During The 115th Congress (2017-2018): Providing Context And Insight Into Us Government Space Policy, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Presentations

Article 1 of the US Constitution assigns the US Congress numerous responsibilities. These include creating new laws, revising existing laws, funding government programs, and conducting oversight of these programs' performance. Oversight of US Government agency space policy programs is executed by various congressional space policy committees including the House and Senate Science Committees, Armed Services, and Appropriations Committees. These committees conduct many public hearings on space policy, which invite expert witnesses to testify on US space policy programs and feature debate on the strengths and weaknesses of these programs. Documentation produced by these committees is widely available to the public ...


Zenneck Waves In Decision Agriculture: An Empirical Verification And Application In Em-Based Underground Wireless Power Transfer, Usman Raza, Abdul Salam May 2020

Zenneck Waves In Decision Agriculture: An Empirical Verification And Application In Em-Based Underground Wireless Power Transfer, Usman Raza, Abdul Salam

Faculty Publications

In this article, the results of experiments for the observation of Zenneck surface waves in sub GHz frequency range using dipole antennas are presented. Experiments are conducted over three different soils for communications distances of up to 1 m. This empirical analysis confirms the existence of Zenneck waves over the soil surface. Through the power delay profile (PDP) analysis, it has been shown that other subsurface components exhibit rapid decay as compared to the Zenneck waves. A potential application of the Zenneck waves for energy transmission in the area of decision agriculture is explored. Accordingly, a novel wireless through-the-soil power ...


On-Site And External Energy Harvesting In Underground Wireless, Usman Raza, Abdul Salam Apr 2020

On-Site And External Energy Harvesting In Underground Wireless, Usman Raza, Abdul Salam

Faculty Publications

Energy efficiency is vital for uninterrupted long-term operation of wireless underground communication nodes in the field of decision agriculture. In this paper, energy harvesting and wireless power transfer techniques are discussed with applications in underground wireless communications (UWC). Various external wireless power transfer techniques are explored. Moreover, key energy harvesting technologies are presented that utilize available energy sources in the field such as vibration, solar, and wind. In this regard, the Electromagnetic(EM)- and Magnetic Induction(MI)-based approaches are explained. Furthermore, the vibration-based energy harvesting models are reviewed as well. These energy harvesting approaches lead to design of an ...


All You Need To Know About Cybersecurity Ever! In 45 Minutes, Joe Beckman Mar 2020

All You Need To Know About Cybersecurity Ever! In 45 Minutes, Joe Beckman

Purdue Road School

This session will cover the information every local government official needs to know to keep their data safe from hackers.


Wireless Underground Communications In Sewer And Stormwater Overflow Monitoring: Radio Waves Through Soil And Asphalt Medium, Usman Raza, Abdul Salam Feb 2020

Wireless Underground Communications In Sewer And Stormwater Overflow Monitoring: Radio Waves Through Soil And Asphalt Medium, Usman Raza, Abdul Salam

Faculty Publications

Storm drains and sanitary sewers are prone to backups and overflows due to extra amount wastewater entering the pipes. To prevent that, it is imperative to efficiently monitor the urban underground infrastructure. The combination of sensors system and wireless underground communication system can be used to realize urban underground IoT applications, e.g., storm water and wastewater overflow monitoring systems. The aim of this article is to establish a feasibility of the use of wireless underground communications techniques, and wave propagation through the subsurface soil and asphalt layers, in an underground pavement system for storm water and sewer overflow monitoring ...


Internet Of Things For Sustainable Community Development: Introduction And Overview, Abdul Salam Jan 2020

Internet Of Things For Sustainable Community Development: Introduction And Overview, Abdul Salam

Faculty Publications

The two-third of the city-dwelling world population by 2050 poses numerous global challenges in the infrastructure and natural resource management domains (e.g., water and food scarcity, increasing global temperatures, and energy issues). The IoT with integrated sensing and communication capabilities has the strong potential for the robust, sustainable, and informed resource management in the urban and rural communities. In this chapter, the vital concepts of sustainable community development are discussed. The IoT and sustainability interactions are explained with emphasis on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and communication technologies. Moreover, IoT opportunities and challenges are discussed in the context of sustainable ...


Internet Of Things For Environmental Sustainability And Climate Change, Abdul Salam Jan 2020

Internet Of Things For Environmental Sustainability And Climate Change, Abdul Salam

Faculty Publications

Our world is vulnerable to climate change risks such as glacier retreat, rising temperatures, more variable and intense weather events (e.g., floods, droughts, and frosts), deteriorating mountain ecosystems, soil degradation, and increasing water scarcity. However, there are big gaps in our understanding of changes in regional climate and how these changes will impact human and natural systems, making it difficult to anticipate, plan, and adapt to the coming changes. The IoT paradigm in this area can enhance our understanding of regional climate by using technology solutions, while providing the dynamic climate elements based on integrated environmental sensing and communications ...


Internet Of Things In Agricultural Innovation And Security, Abdul Salam Jan 2020

Internet Of Things In Agricultural Innovation And Security, Abdul Salam

Faculty Publications

The agricultural Internet of Things (Ag-IoT) paradigm has tremendous potential in transparent integration of underground soil sensing, farm machinery, and sensor-guided irrigation systems with the complex social network of growers, agronomists, crop consultants, and advisors. The aim of the IoT in agricultural innovation and security chapter is to present agricultural IoT research and paradigm to promote sustainable production of safe, healthy, and profitable crop and animal agricultural products. This chapter covers the IoT platform to test optimized management strategies, engage farmer and industry groups, and investigate new and traditional technology drivers that will enhance resilience of the farmers to the ...


Internet Of Things For Water Sustainability, Abdul Salam Jan 2020

Internet Of Things For Water Sustainability, Abdul Salam

Faculty Publications

The water is a finite resource. The issue of sustainable withdrawal of freshwater is a vital concern being faced by the community. There is a strong connection between the energy, food, and water which is referred to as water-food-energy nexus. The agriculture industry and municipalities are struggling to meet the demand of water supply. This situation is particularly exacerbated in the developing countries. The projected increase in world population requires more fresh water resources. New technologies are being developed to reduce water usage in the field of agriculture (e.g., sensor guided autonomous irrigation management systems). Agricultural water withdrawal is ...


Internet Of Things For Sustainable Forestry, Abdul Salam Jan 2020

Internet Of Things For Sustainable Forestry, Abdul Salam

Faculty Publications

Forests and grasslands play an important role in water and air purification, prevention of the soil erosion, and in provision of habitat to wildlife. Internet of Things has a tremendous potential to play a vital role in the forest ecosystem management and stability. The conservation of species and habitats, timber production, prevention of forest soil degradation, forest fire prediction, mitigation, and control can be attained through forest management using Internet of Things. The use and adoption of IoT in forest ecosystem management is challenging due to many factors. Vast geographical areas and limited resources in terms of budget and equipment ...