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Articles 1 - 30 of 2381

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

High-Performance Self-Powered Uv Detector Based On Sno2-Tio2 Nanomace Arrays, Duo Chen, Lin Wei, Lingpan Meng, Yanxue Chen, Yufeng Tian, Shishen Yan, Liangmo Mei, Jun Jiao Dec 2018

High-Performance Self-Powered Uv Detector Based On Sno2-Tio2 Nanomace Arrays, Duo Chen, Lin Wei, Lingpan Meng, Yanxue Chen, Yufeng Tian, Shishen Yan, Liangmo Mei, Jun Jiao

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

Photoelectrochemical cell-typed self-powered UV detectors have attracted intensive research interest due to their low cost, simple fabrication process, and fast response. In this paper, SnO2-TiO2 nanomace arrays composed of SnO2 nanotube trunk and TiO2 nanobranches were prepared using soft chemical methods, and an environment-friendly self-powered UV photodetector using this nanostructure as the photoanode was assembled. Due to the synergistic effect of greatly accelerated electron-hole separation, enhanced surface area, and reduced charge recombination provided by SnO2-TiO2 nanomace array, the nanostructured detector displays an excellent performance over that based on bare SnO2 arrays. The impact of the growing time of TiO2 branches ...


Enhancing Value-Based Healthcare With Reconstructability Analysis: Predicting Cost Of Care In Total Hip Replacement, Cecily Corrine Froemke, Martin Zwick Nov 2018

Enhancing Value-Based Healthcare With Reconstructability Analysis: Predicting Cost Of Care In Total Hip Replacement, Cecily Corrine Froemke, Martin Zwick

Systems Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

Legislative reforms aimed at slowing growth of US healthcare costs are focused on achieving greater value per dollar. To increase value healthcare providers must not only provide high quality care, but deliver this care at a sustainable cost. Predicting risks that may lead to poor outcomes and higher costs enable providers to augment decision making for optimizing patient care and inform the risk stratification necessary in emerging reimbursement models. Healthcare delivery systems are looking at their high volume service lines and identifying variation in cost and outcomes in order to determine the patient factors that are driving this variation and ...


Predicting Time To Dementia Using A Quantitative Template Of Disease Progression, Murat Bilgel, Bruno Jedynak Nov 2018

Predicting Time To Dementia Using A Quantitative Template Of Disease Progression, Murat Bilgel, Bruno Jedynak

Portland Institute for Computational Science Publications

Introduction: Characterization of longitudinal trajectories of biomarkers implicated in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) in decades prior to clinical diagnosis is important for disease prevention and monitoring.

Methods: We used a multivariate Bayesian model to temporally align 1369 AD Neuroimaging Initiative participants based on the similarity of their longitudinal biomarker measures and estimated a quantitative template of the temporal evolution cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aβ1-42, p-tau181p, and t-tau, hippocampal volume, brain glucose metabolism, and cognitive measurements. We computed biomarker trajectories as a function of time to AD dementia, and predicted AD dementia onset age in a disjoint sample.

Results ...


The Dpg-Star Method, Leszek Demkowicz, Jay Gopalakrishnan, Brendan Keith Nov 2018

The Dpg-Star Method, Leszek Demkowicz, Jay Gopalakrishnan, Brendan Keith

Portland Institute for Computational Science Publications

This article introduces the DPG-star (from now on, denoted DPG*) finite element method. It is a method that is in some sense dual to the discontinuous Petrov– Galerkin (DPG) method. The DPG methodology can be viewed as a means to solve an overdetermined discretization of a boundary value problem. In the same vein, the DPG* methodology is a means to solve an underdetermined discretization. These two viewpoints are developed by embedding the same operator equation into two different saddle-point problems. The analyses of the two problems have many common elements. Comparison to othermethods in the literature round out the newly ...


A Spacetime Dpg Method For The Wave Equation In Multiple Dimensions, Jay Gopalakrishnan, Paulina Sepúlveda Oct 2018

A Spacetime Dpg Method For The Wave Equation In Multiple Dimensions, Jay Gopalakrishnan, Paulina Sepúlveda

Portland Institute for Computational Science Publications

A spacetime discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin (DPG) method for the linear wave equation is presented. This method is based on a weak formulation that uses a broken graph space. The wellposedness of this formulation is established using a previously presented abstract framework. One of the main tasks in the verification of the conditions of this framework is proving a density result. This is done in detail for a simple domain in arbitrary dimensions. The DPG method based on the weak formulation is then studied theoretically and numerically. Error estimates and numerical results are presented for triangular, rectangular, tetrahedral, and hexahedral meshes of ...


Ecosystem Services And U.S. Stormwater Planning: An Approach For Improving Urban Stormwater Decisions, Todd K. Bendor, Vivek Shandas, Brian Miles, Kenneth Belt, Lydia Olander Oct 2018

Ecosystem Services And U.S. Stormwater Planning: An Approach For Improving Urban Stormwater Decisions, Todd K. Bendor, Vivek Shandas, Brian Miles, Kenneth Belt, Lydia Olander

Urban Studies and Planning Faculty Publications and Presentations

Green stormwater infrastructure (GI) is gaining traction as a viable complement to traditional “gray” infrastructure in cities across the United States. As cities struggle with decisions to replace deteriorating stormwater infrastructure in the face of looming issues such as population growth and climate change, GI may offer a costeffective, efficient, and sustainable approach. However, decision makers confront challenges when integrating GI within city plans, including uncertainties around GI capacity and maintenance, resistance to collaboration across city governance, increasingly inflexible financing, accounting practices that do not incorporate the multiple values of GI, and difficulties in incorporating ecological infrastructure into stormwater management ...


Patterns And Drivers Of Recent Disturbances Across The Temperate Forest Biome, Andreas Sommerfeld, Cornelius Senf, Brian Buma, Anthony W. D'Amato, Tiphaine Despres, Ignacio Díaz-Hormazábal, Shawn Fraver, Lee E. Frelich, Alvaro G. Gutiérrez, Sarah J. Hart, Brian J. Harvey, Hong S. He, Tomáš Hlásny, Andrés Holz, + Oct 2018

Patterns And Drivers Of Recent Disturbances Across The Temperate Forest Biome, Andreas Sommerfeld, Cornelius Senf, Brian Buma, Anthony W. D'Amato, Tiphaine Despres, Ignacio Díaz-Hormazábal, Shawn Fraver, Lee E. Frelich, Alvaro G. Gutiérrez, Sarah J. Hart, Brian J. Harvey, Hong S. He, Tomáš Hlásny, Andrés Holz, +

Geography Faculty Publications and Presentations

Increasing evidence indicates that forest disturbances are changing in response to global change, yet local variability in disturbance remains high. We quantified this considerable variability and analyzed whether recent disturbance episodes around the globe were consistently driven by climate, and if human influence modulates patterns of forest disturbance. We combined remote sensing data on recent (2001–2014) disturbances with in-depth local information for 50 protected landscapes and their surroundings across the temperate biome. Disturbance patterns are highly variable, and shaped by variation in disturbance agents and traits of prevailing tree species. However, high disturbance activity is consistently linked to warmer ...


Ideals, Big Varieties, And Dynamic Networks, Ian H. Dinwoodie Sep 2018

Ideals, Big Varieties, And Dynamic Networks, Ian H. Dinwoodie

Mathematics and Statistics Faculty Publications and Presentations

The advantage of using algebraic geometry over enumeration for describing sets related to attractors in large dynamic networks from biology is advocated. Examples illustrate the gains.


Gps Constraints On Deformation In Northern Central America From 1999 To 2017, Part 1 – Time-Dependent Modelling Of Large Regional Earthquakes And Their Post-Seismic Effects, A. Ellis, Charles Demets, P. Briole, Beatriz Cosenza, Omar Flores, Shannon Graham, Marco Guzmán-Speziale, Douglas Hernandez, Vladimir Kostoglodov, Peter Lafemina, Neal Lord, Cécile Lasserre, Hélène Lyon-Caen, Manuel Rodriguez Maradiaga, Robert Mccaffrey, Enrique Molina, Jeffrey Rivera, Robert Rogers, Alejandra Staller Sep 2018

Gps Constraints On Deformation In Northern Central America From 1999 To 2017, Part 1 – Time-Dependent Modelling Of Large Regional Earthquakes And Their Post-Seismic Effects, A. Ellis, Charles Demets, P. Briole, Beatriz Cosenza, Omar Flores, Shannon Graham, Marco Guzmán-Speziale, Douglas Hernandez, Vladimir Kostoglodov, Peter Lafemina, Neal Lord, Cécile Lasserre, Hélène Lyon-Caen, Manuel Rodriguez Maradiaga, Robert Mccaffrey, Enrique Molina, Jeffrey Rivera, Robert Rogers, Alejandra Staller

Geology Faculty Publications and Presentations

We use continuous and campaign measurements from 215 GPS sites in northern Central America and southern Mexico to estimate coseismic and afterslip solutions for the 2009 Mw = 7.3 Swan Islands fault strike-slip earthquake and the 2012 Mw = 7.3 El Salvador and Mw = 7.4 Guatemala thrust-faulting earthquakes on the Middle America trench. Our simultaneous, time-dependent inversion of more than 350 000 daily GPS site positions gives the first jointly consistent estimates of the coseismic slips for all three earthquakes, their combined time-dependent post-seismic effects and secular station velocities corrected for both the coseismic and post-seismic deformation. Our geodetic ...


Using Strong Laser Fields To Produce Antihydrogen Ions, Christopher M. Keating Aug 2018

Using Strong Laser Fields To Produce Antihydrogen Ions, Christopher M. Keating

Dissertations and Theses

We provide estimates of both cross section and rate for the stimulated attachment of a second positron into the (1s2 1Se) state of the H+ ion using Ohmura and Ohmura's (1960 Phys. Rev. 118 154) effective range theory, Reiss's strong field approximation (1980 Phys. Rev. A 22, 1786), and the principle of detailed balancing. Our motivation for producing H+ ion include its potential to be used as an intermediate state in bringing antihydrogen to ultra-cold (sub-mK) temperatures required for a variety of studies, which include both spectroscopy and the probing of the gravitational interaction of ...


Using Wetlands To Prevent The Surface Accumulation Of Aphanizomenon Flos-Aquae From Upper Klamath Lake, Arick Christopher Rouhe Aug 2018

Using Wetlands To Prevent The Surface Accumulation Of Aphanizomenon Flos-Aquae From Upper Klamath Lake, Arick Christopher Rouhe

Dissertations and Theses

The ability to regulate buoyancy (sinking and floating) using cellular gas vesicles is a unique characteristic that allows many common bloom-forming cyanobacteria to accumulate at water surfaces and dominate systems. Typical control and management strategies include nutrient manipulation and phosphorus reduction, which are effective but do not reduce the advantage of buoyancy control. Since buoyancy control is based upon a mechanism that is driven by photosynthesis along with environmental conditions that trigger vesicle formation and ion exchange, buoyancy regulation can be influenced by manipulating extracellular conditions. In this study I manipulated extracellular conditions using wetland water and additions of potassium ...


Waste Stream And Green Purchasing Analysis At Bonneville Lock And Dam, Alexander Bienko Aug 2018

Waste Stream And Green Purchasing Analysis At Bonneville Lock And Dam, Alexander Bienko

Master of Environmental Management Project Reports

The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District, has jurisdiction on three locks and four dams in the Columbia River basin. These sites “contribute to a water resource management system that provides flood risk management, power generation, water quality improvement, fish and wildlife habitat and recreation on the Columbia River and some of its tributaries”. The Bonneville Lock and Dam (Bonneville Project) site lies on the Columbia River approximately 40 miles east from Portland, Oregon. Portions of the site have been declared a National Historic Landmark, from its origins in President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal program ...


Entanglement Entropy, Dualities, And Deconfinement In Gauge Theories, Mohamed M. Anber, Benjamin J. Kolligs Aug 2018

Entanglement Entropy, Dualities, And Deconfinement In Gauge Theories, Mohamed M. Anber, Benjamin J. Kolligs

Portland Institute for Computational Science Publications

Computing the entanglement entropy in confining gauge theories is often accompanied by puzzles and ambiguities. In this work we show that compactifying the theory on a small circle S 1/L evades these difficulties. In particular, we study Yang-Mills theory on R3×S 1/L with double-trace deformations or adjoint fermions and hold it at temperatures near the deconfinement transition. This theory is dual to a multi-component (electric-magnetic) Coulomb gas that can be mapped either to an XY-spin model with Zp symmetry-preserving perturbations or dual Sine-Gordon model. The entanglement entropy of the dual SineGordon model exhibits an extremum ...


Electron Backscatter Diffraction (Ebsd) Study Of Seven Heavily Metamorphosed Chondrites: Deformation Systematics And Variations In Pre-Shock Temperature And Post-Shock Annealing, Alexander M. Ruzicka, Richard C. Hugo Aug 2018

Electron Backscatter Diffraction (Ebsd) Study Of Seven Heavily Metamorphosed Chondrites: Deformation Systematics And Variations In Pre-Shock Temperature And Post-Shock Annealing, Alexander M. Ruzicka, Richard C. Hugo

Geology Faculty Publications and Presentations

We used electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) methods to study the crystallography of olivine and other minerals in seven heavily metamorphosed (petrographic type 6 or 6/7) but variably shocked ordinary chondrites from the H (Kernouvé, Portales Valley), L (Leedey, Bruderheim, Morrow County, Park) and LL (Miller Range (MIL) 99301) groups. MIL 99301 contains a large clast that was analyzed separately. Mesoscale (EBSD) data support and extend inferences based on microscale (TEM) observations and provide good evidence that chondrites were shock-deformed at different temperatures and were variably annealed (sintered) after deformation. Various EBSD deformation intensity metrics adequately and quantitatively represent olivine ...


Dynamics Of Magma Recharge And Mixing At Mount Hood Volcano, Oregon -- Insights From Enclave-Bearing Lavas, Molly Kathryn Ellowitz Jul 2018

Dynamics Of Magma Recharge And Mixing At Mount Hood Volcano, Oregon -- Insights From Enclave-Bearing Lavas, Molly Kathryn Ellowitz

Dissertations and Theses

Magma recharge events and subsequent mixing processes are understood to precede volcanic eruptions. Textural evidence of intrusion of hot, mafic magma into a cooler, rheologically locked silicic magma is commonplace. Solidified "blobs" of injected magma, called enclaves, are evidence of magma mixing, but the petrological and mechanical conditions during their formation are debated. Mount Hood, Oregon consistently erupts andesite bearing compositionally similar enclaves. These enclaves are evidence of mingling and mixing of two magmas. However, due to the compositional similarity between enclave and host lava (e.g. ~1-5 wt.% difference in SiO2), it is unclear whether the preserved enclaves ...


Investigation Of The Acoustic Response Of A Confined Mesoscopic Water Film Utilizing A Combined Atomic Force Microscope And Shear Force Microscope Technique, Monte Allen Kozell Jul 2018

Investigation Of The Acoustic Response Of A Confined Mesoscopic Water Film Utilizing A Combined Atomic Force Microscope And Shear Force Microscope Technique, Monte Allen Kozell

Dissertations and Theses

An atomic force microscopy beam-like cantilever is combined with an electrical tuning fork to form a shear force probe that is capable of generating an acoustic response from the mesoscopic water layer under ambient conditions while simultaneously monitoring force applied in the normal direction and the electrical response of the tuning fork shear force probe. Two shear force probes were designed and fabricated. A gallium ion beam was used to deposit carbon as a probe material. The carbon probe material was characterized using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy. The probes were experimentally validated by demonstrating the ...


A New Functional-Logic Compiler For Curry: Sprite, Sergio Antoy, Andy Jost Jul 2018

A New Functional-Logic Compiler For Curry: Sprite, Sergio Antoy, Andy Jost

Computer Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

We introduce a new native code compiler for Curry codenamed Sprite. Sprite is based on the Fair Scheme, a compilation strategy that provides instructions for transforming declarative, non-deterministic programs of a certain class into imperative, deterministic code. We outline salient features of Sprite, discuss its implementation of Curry programs, and present benchmarking results. Sprite is the first-to-date operationally complete implementation of Curry. Preliminary results show that ensuring this property does not incur a significant penalty.


Epa-Rimm-V: Efficient Rootkit Detection For Virtualized Environments, Tejaswini Ajay Vibhute Jul 2018

Epa-Rimm-V: Efficient Rootkit Detection For Virtualized Environments, Tejaswini Ajay Vibhute

Dissertations and Theses

The use of virtualized environments continues to grow for efficient utilization of the available compute resources. Hypervisors virtualize the underlying hardware resources and allow multiple Operating Systems to run simultaneously on the same infrastructure. Since the hypervisor is installed at a higher privilege level than the Operating Systems in the software stack it is vulnerable to rootkits that can modify the environment to gain control, crash the system and even steal sensitive information. Thus, runtime integrity measurement of the hypervisor is essential. The currently proposed solutions achieve the goal by relying either partially or entirely on the features of the ...


Volcanic Glass As A Paleoenvironmental Proxy: Comparing Preparation Methods On Ashes From The Lee Of The Cascade Range In Oregon, Usa, Tessa Boe Carlson Jul 2018

Volcanic Glass As A Paleoenvironmental Proxy: Comparing Preparation Methods On Ashes From The Lee Of The Cascade Range In Oregon, Usa, Tessa Boe Carlson

Dissertations and Theses

Deuterium ratios (δD) of hydrated volcanic glass have been used to reconstruct paleoenvironments, although the reliability and proper sample preparation protocol have been debated. In this study, hydrated volcanic ash samples from the lee of the Cascades were prepared using two separate methods. Method 1 involves sonicating and rinsing samples with hydrochloric acid (HCl) followed by hand-selection of glass shards (125-212µm). Method 2 requires hydrochloric acid (HCl) and hydrofluoric acid (HF) abrasion as well as heavy liquid separation of shards (70-150µm). Method 2 produced more consistent results with decreased intra-replicate variability in both water content (-0.92 wt. %) and ...


Mooring Impacts On Zostera Marina Meadows And Associated Epifauna In Nantucket Harbor, Massachusetts, Usa, Andrew Wright Mccandless Jul 2018

Mooring Impacts On Zostera Marina Meadows And Associated Epifauna In Nantucket Harbor, Massachusetts, Usa, Andrew Wright Mccandless

Dissertations and Theses

Seagrass ecosystems are some of the most productive in the world and provide a variety of ecosystem services but are facing global decline chiefly due to anthropogenic disturbance. Mechanical disturbances to seagrass meadows from anchoring, propeller scars, and mooring scars result in losses or damage to both shoots and the underlying rhizome. I conducted a literature synthesis on the extent of, recovery from, and ecological impacts of these mechanical disturbances to seagrass meadows. The literature suggests that anchoring damage tends to be worst in deeper water where larger vessels anchor and can cause large (>100m2) loss per anchoring and ...


Effects Of Substrate Depth And Precipitation Characteristics On Stormwater Retention By Two Green Roofs In Portland Or, Isaac Schultz, David Sailor, Olyssa Starry Jul 2018

Effects Of Substrate Depth And Precipitation Characteristics On Stormwater Retention By Two Green Roofs In Portland Or, Isaac Schultz, David Sailor, Olyssa Starry

University Honors College Faculty Publication and Presentations

Study Region: This study took place in Portland Oregon, a city of over 600,000 residents located in the Willamette Valley in the state of Oregon in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Portland experiences a temperate climate with Mediterranean features. Study Focus: Runoff patterns from two extensive green roofs with substrate depths of 75 and 125 mm, situated on a 5000 square meter retail store, were compared over a one year period. Precipitation, irrigation, and storm water discharge were continuously monitored and the performance of the green roofs for storm water control was investigated in detail. New ...


Triacetin Enhances Levels Of Acrolein, Formaldehyde Hemiacetals, And Acetaldehyde In Electronic Cigarette Aerosols, Shawna Vreeke, David H. Peyton, Robert Strongin Jul 2018

Triacetin Enhances Levels Of Acrolein, Formaldehyde Hemiacetals, And Acetaldehyde In Electronic Cigarette Aerosols, Shawna Vreeke, David H. Peyton, Robert Strongin

Chemistry Faculty Publications and Presentations

The health effects of inhaled electronic cigarette (ecigarette) flavoring compounds are largely unknown. Earlier reports of their chemical reactivity have been conflicting, with some claiming, for example, that the degradation of flavoring chemicals in e-cigarettes to aldehydes is statistically insignificant. It is thus important to understand how these molecules react to afford enhanced aerosol products. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the origin of formaldehyde, acrolein, and acetaldehyde in e-cigarettes that contain the popular additive, triacetin (TA). By using 13C labeling and a combination of 1H NMR and 13C NMR, we were able to identify that ester ...


A Cyber-Physical System Framework For Early Detection Of Paroxysmal Diseases, Zuxing Gu, Yu Jiang, Min Zhou, Xiaoyu Song, Lui Sha Jul 2018

A Cyber-Physical System Framework For Early Detection Of Paroxysmal Diseases, Zuxing Gu, Yu Jiang, Min Zhou, Xiaoyu Song, Lui Sha

Computer Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

Paroxysmal diseases of inpatients are globally recognized as one of the top challenges in medicine. Poor clinical outcomes are primarily caused by delayed recognition, especially due to diverse clinical diagnostic criteria with complex manifestations, irregular episodes, and already overloaded clinical activities. With the proliferation of measuring devices and increased computational capabilities, cyber-physical characterization plays an increasingly important role in many domains to provide enabling technologies. This paper presents a cyber-physical system (CPS) framework to assist physicians in making earlier diagnoses of paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity based on existing medical knowledge. We propose a configurable diagnostic knowledge model to characterize clinical criteria ...


Controls On Deuterium Excess Across Asia, John Bershaw Jul 2018

Controls On Deuterium Excess Across Asia, John Bershaw

Geology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Deuterium excess (d-excess) is a second-order stable isotope parameter measured in meteoric water to understand both the source of precipitation and the evolution of moisture during transport. However, the interpretation of d-excess patterns in precipitation is often ambiguous, as changes in moisture source and processes during vapor transport both affect d-excess in non-unique ways. This is particularly true in Asia where continental moisture travels a long distance across diverse environments from unique moisture sources before falling as precipitation. Here, I analyzed published d-excess records from meteoric water throughout Asia to better characterize what influences d-excess values. I conclude that, (1 ...


Using Transboundary Wildfire Exposure Assessments To Improve Fire Management Programs: A Case Study In Greece, Palaiologos Palaiologou, Alan A. Ager, Max Nielsen-Pincus, Cody Evers, Kostas Kalabokidis Jul 2018

Using Transboundary Wildfire Exposure Assessments To Improve Fire Management Programs: A Case Study In Greece, Palaiologos Palaiologou, Alan A. Ager, Max Nielsen-Pincus, Cody Evers, Kostas Kalabokidis

Environmental Science and Management Faculty Publications and Presentations

Numerous catastrophic wildfires in Greece have demonstrated that relying on fire suppression as the primary risk-management strategy is inadequate and that existing wildfire-risk governance needs to be re-examined. In this research, we used simulation modelling to assess the spatial scale of wildfire exposure to communities and cultural monuments in Chalkidiki, Greece. The study area typifies many areas in Greece in terms of fire regimes, ownership patterns and fire-risk mitigation. Fire-transmission networks were built to quantify connectivity among land tenures and populated places. We found that agricultural and unmanaged wildlands are key land categories that transmit fire exposure to other land ...


Preliminary Results Of Bayesian Networks And Reconstructability Analysis Applied To The Electric Grid, Marcus Harris, Martin Zwick Jul 2018

Preliminary Results Of Bayesian Networks And Reconstructability Analysis Applied To The Electric Grid, Marcus Harris, Martin Zwick

Systems Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

Reconstructability Analysis (RA) is an analytical approach developed in the systems community that combines graph theory and information theory. Graph theory provides the structure of relations (model of the data) between variables and information theory characterizes the strength and the nature of the relations. RA has three primary approaches to model data: variable based (VB) models without loops (acyclic graphs), VB models with loops (cyclic graphs) and state-based models (nearly always cyclic, individual states specifying model constraints). These models can either be directed or neutral. Directed models focus on a single response variable whereas neutral models focus on all relations ...


Reconstructability & Dynamics Of Elementary Cellular Automata, Martin Zwick Jul 2018

Reconstructability & Dynamics Of Elementary Cellular Automata, Martin Zwick

Systems Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

Reconstructability analysis (RA) is a method to determine whether a multivariate relation, defined set- or information-theoretically, is decomposable with or without loss into lower ordinality relations. Set-theoretic RA (SRA) is used to characterize the mappings of elementary cellular automata. The decomposition possible for each mapping w/o loss is a better predictor than the λ parameter (Walker & Ashby, Langton) of chaos, & non-decomposable mappings tend to produce chaos. SRA yields not only the simplest lossless structure but also a vector of losses for all structures, indexed by parameter τ. These losses are analogous to transmissions in information-theoretic RA (IRA). IRA captures ...


Introduction To Reconstructability Analysis, Martin Zwick Jul 2018

Introduction To Reconstructability Analysis, Martin Zwick

Systems Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

This talk will introduce Reconstructability Analysis (RA), a data modeling methodology deriving from the 1960s work of Ross Ashby and developed in the systems community in the 1980s and afterwards. RA, based on information theory and graph theory, is a member of the family of methods known as ‘graphical models,’ which also include Bayesian networks and log-linear techniques. It is designed for exploratory modeling, although it can also be used for confirmatory hypothesis testing. RA can discover high ordinality and nonlinear interactions that are not hypothesized in advance. Its conceptual framework illuminates the relationships between wholes and parts, a subject ...


Beyond Spatial Autocorrelation: A Novel Approach Using Reconstructability Analysis, David Percy, Martin Zwick Jul 2018

Beyond Spatial Autocorrelation: A Novel Approach Using Reconstructability Analysis, David Percy, Martin Zwick

Systems Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

Raster data are digital representations of spatial phenomena that are organized into rows and columns that typically have the same dimensions in each direction. They are used to represent image data at any scale. Common raster data are medical images, satellite data, and photos generated by modern smartphones.
Satellites capture reflectance data in specific bands of wavelength that correspond to red, green, blue, and often some infrared and thermal bands. These composite vectors can then be classified into actual land use categories such as forest or water using automated techniques. These classifications are verified on the ground using hand-held sensors ...


Steady States And Transport Processes In Urban Ozone Balances, M. A. K. Khalil Jul 2018

Steady States And Transport Processes In Urban Ozone Balances, M. A. K. Khalil

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

Core chemical theory is combined with transport processes and local emissions to study the validity of commonly made assumptions regarding steady states to interpret urban and regional ozone data. It is shown that photo-stationary states of NO and NO2 cannot exist in urban areas or polluted regions in addition to the lack of such a state for ozone. Calculations in published papers, which make the assumption of a photo-stationary state for NO and NO2, or ozone, are likely to be inaccurate by unacceptable amounts. The Leighton Ratio is re-interpreted to show how it incorporates both the peroxy radical and transport ...