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Articles 1 - 30 of 3286

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Bonnet Carré Spillway Freshwater Transport And Corresponding Biochemical Properties In The Mississippi Bight, Sabrina M. Parra, Virginie Sanial, Adam D. Boyette, M. Kemal Cambazoglu, Inia M. Soto, Adam T. Greer, Luciano M. Chiaverano, Angie Hoover, Michael S. Dinniman Aug 2020

Bonnet Carré Spillway Freshwater Transport And Corresponding Biochemical Properties In The Mississippi Bight, Sabrina M. Parra, Virginie Sanial, Adam D. Boyette, M. Kemal Cambazoglu, Inia M. Soto, Adam T. Greer, Luciano M. Chiaverano, Angie Hoover, Michael S. Dinniman

CCPO Publications

Large freshwater pulses to coastal ecosystems change local hydrologic regimes and alter biogeochemical processes. The Mississippi Bight coastal ecosystem, located in the northern Gulf of Mexico shelf, is influenced by extensive freshwater inputs: the Mississippi River (MSR) and several smaller rivers to the east. Under river flood conditions, MSR waters flow through the Bonnet Carré Spillway (BCS) to relieve pressure on levees in New Orleans, Louisiana. In 2015, mild wintertime temperatures and heavy rainfall throughout the MSR watershed led to extreme flooding and prompted an unusually early BCS opening on January 10, 2016 for 23 days. This study examines the ...


Examining The Role Of Environmental Nonprofits In Shoreline Management For Coastal Resilience In Virginia, Taiwo Oguntuyo, Ogechukwu Agim, Ren-Neasha Blake, Juita-Elena Wie Yusuf, Marina Saitgalina, Michelle Covi Apr 2020

Examining The Role Of Environmental Nonprofits In Shoreline Management For Coastal Resilience In Virginia, Taiwo Oguntuyo, Ogechukwu Agim, Ren-Neasha Blake, Juita-Elena Wie Yusuf, Marina Saitgalina, Michelle Covi

College of Business (Strome) Posters

Environmental Nonprofits emerged over the years to attend to the environmental needs of communities and individuals, as well as address environmental issues that concern the public. These issues are usually those that have been neglected, given insufficient attention, or cannot be singularly handled by the government. In advocating for coastal resilience, environmental nonprofits have been identified in the literature as actors with critical roles in addressing coastal issues such as sea-level rise, flooding and shoreline management. In recent times, shoreline management has emerged as one of the foremost areas of focus expedient for the achievement of coastal resilience, and the ...


Npgreat: Hybrid Assembly Of Human Subtelomeres With The Use Of Nanopore And Linked-Read Datasets, Eleni Adam, Desh Ranjan, Harold Riethman Apr 2020

Npgreat: Hybrid Assembly Of Human Subtelomeres With The Use Of Nanopore And Linked-Read Datasets, Eleni Adam, Desh Ranjan, Harold Riethman

College of Sciences Posters

The telomeres are vitally important regions that are located at the tips of the chromosomes. Their dysfunction, caused by length shortening can lead to senescent cells, which in turn cause age-related diseases, including cancer. The subtelomeres, located next to the telomeres, possess the critical role of regulating the adjacent telomere lengths. Even after many years of research, human subtelomeres have proven to be very hard to assemble due to their morphology. In order to overcome these problems, the hybrid assembly method we develop utilizes two of the latest available types of data, which complement each other: Linked-Reads and ultralong Nanopore ...


D-Vine Copula Model For Dependent Binary Data, Huihui Lin, N. Rao Chaganty Apr 2020

D-Vine Copula Model For Dependent Binary Data, Huihui Lin, N. Rao Chaganty

College of Sciences Posters

High-dimensional dependent binary data are prevalent in a wide range of scientific disciplines. A popular method for analyzing such data is the Multivariate Probit (MP) model. But the MP model sometimes fails even within a feasible range of binary correlations, because the underlying correlation matrix of the latent variables may not be positive definite. In this research, we proposed pair copula models, assuming the dependence between the binary variables is first order autoregressive (AR(1))or equicorrelated structure. Also, when Archimediean copula is used, most paper converted Kendall Tau to corresponding copula parameter, there is no explicit function of Pearson ...


Sulfur Dioxide From The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Satellite, Doug Cameron Apr 2020

Sulfur Dioxide From The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Satellite, Doug Cameron

College of Sciences Posters

The version 4.0 dataset from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment – Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) on SCISAT, released in March of 2019, has sulfur dioxide (SO2) volume mixing ratio (VMR) profiles as a routine data product. From this dataset, global SO2 distributions between the altitudes of 10.5 km and 23.5 km are analyzed. The global distribution of all SO2 VMR data by altitude is broken down into 30° and 5° latitude zones. Seasonality of the global SO2 distribution is explored. Volcanic SO2 plumes are isolated in the dataset and compared with extinction data from ...


Cylindrical Similarity Measurement For Helices In Medium-Resolution Cryo-Electron Microscopy Density Maps, Salim Sazzed, Peter Scheible, Maytha Alshammari, Willy Wriggers, Jing He Apr 2020

Cylindrical Similarity Measurement For Helices In Medium-Resolution Cryo-Electron Microscopy Density Maps, Salim Sazzed, Peter Scheible, Maytha Alshammari, Willy Wriggers, Jing He

College of Sciences Posters

Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) density maps at medium resolution (5-10 Å) reveal secondary structural features such as α-helices and β-sheets, but they lack the side chains details that would enable a direct structure determination. Among the more than 800 entries in the Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMDB) of medium-resolution density maps that are associated with atomic models, a wide variety of similarities can be observed between maps and models. To validate such atomic models and to classify structural features, a local similarity criterion, the F1 score, is proposed and evaluated in this study. The F1 score is theoretically normalized to a ...


A Critical Review Of The 15N2 Tracer Method To Measure Diazotrophic Production In Pelagic Ecosystems, Angelicque E. White, Julie Granger, Corday Seldon, Mary R. Gradoville, Lindsey Potts, Annie Bourbonnais, Robinson W. Fulweiler, Angela N. Knapp, Wiebke Mohr, Pia H. Moisander, Craig R. Tobias, Mathieu Caffin, Samuel T. Wilson, Mar Benavides, Sophie Bonnet, Margaret R. Mulholland, Bonnie X. Chang Apr 2020

A Critical Review Of The 15N2 Tracer Method To Measure Diazotrophic Production In Pelagic Ecosystems, Angelicque E. White, Julie Granger, Corday Seldon, Mary R. Gradoville, Lindsey Potts, Annie Bourbonnais, Robinson W. Fulweiler, Angela N. Knapp, Wiebke Mohr, Pia H. Moisander, Craig R. Tobias, Mathieu Caffin, Samuel T. Wilson, Mar Benavides, Sophie Bonnet, Margaret R. Mulholland, Bonnie X. Chang

OEAS Faculty Publications

Dinitrogen (N2) fixation is an important source of biologically reactive nitrogen (N) to the global ocean. The magnitude of this flux, however, remains uncertain, in part because N2 fixation rates have been estimated following divergent protocols and because associated levels of uncertainty are seldom reported—confounding comparison and extrapolation of rate measurements. A growing number of reports of relatively low but potentially significant rates of N2 fixation in regions such as oxygen minimum zones, the mesopelagic water column of the tropical and subtropical oceans, and polar waters further highlights the need for standardized methodological protocols for measurements ...


1d Fluid Model Of Rf-Excited Cold Atmospheric Plasmas In Helium With Air Gas Impurities, Yifan Liu, Dingxin Liu, Jishen Zhang, Bowen Sun, Aijun Yang, Michael G. Kong Apr 2020

1d Fluid Model Of Rf-Excited Cold Atmospheric Plasmas In Helium With Air Gas Impurities, Yifan Liu, Dingxin Liu, Jishen Zhang, Bowen Sun, Aijun Yang, Michael G. Kong

Bioelectrics Publications

Cold atmospheric plasmas (CAPs) in helium with air gas impurities (HeþAir for abbreviation) compromise the discharge stability of helium and the chemical reactivity of air, having great prospects for various applications such as plasma biomedicine. However, different kinds of reactive species are produced in HeþAir CAPs but only a few of them could be measured, and the plasma chemistry is so complex that the reported simulation models are simplified to a large extent, such as neglecting the space variation of CAPs by using a 0D model. As a result, much remains unknown for HeþAir CAPs, which hinders the development of ...


The 10th International Workshop On Modeling The Ocean (Iwmo 2018) In Santos, Brazil, June 25-28, 2018, Tal Ezer, Ricardo De Camargo, Clemente A. S. Tanajura, Fanghua Xu, Huijie Xue Apr 2020

The 10th International Workshop On Modeling The Ocean (Iwmo 2018) In Santos, Brazil, June 25-28, 2018, Tal Ezer, Ricardo De Camargo, Clemente A. S. Tanajura, Fanghua Xu, Huijie Xue

CCPO Publications

The 10th International Workshop on Modeling the Ocean (IWMO 2018) was hosted by the University of Sao Paulo and held on June 25–28, 2018, at the beautiful coastal city of Santos, Brazil. This old city was founded by the Portuguese in the 1500s and is known for its world’s longest beach garden, the Coffee Museum and the Pele Museum (featuring the famous football player and a local hero). Since the inaugural IWMO meeting in Taiwan in 2009, meetings were held in Asia, Europe, North America, and Australia, but this was the first meeting to be held in South ...


The Clas12 Software Framework And Event Reconstruction, V. Ziegler, N. A. Baltzell, F. Bossù, D. S. Carman, P. Chatanon, M. Contalbrigo, J. Newton, M. Ungaro Apr 2020

The Clas12 Software Framework And Event Reconstruction, V. Ziegler, N. A. Baltzell, F. Bossù, D. S. Carman, P. Chatanon, M. Contalbrigo, J. Newton, M. Ungaro

Physics Faculty Publications

We describe offline event reconstruction for the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer at 12 GeV (CLAS12), including an overview of the offline reconstruction framework and software tools, a description of the algorithms developed for the individual detector subsystems, and the overall approach for charged and neutral particle identification. We also present the scheme for data processing and the code management procedures.


Heavy Quark Expansion For Heavy-Light Light-Cone Operators, Shuai Zhao Apr 2020

Heavy Quark Expansion For Heavy-Light Light-Cone Operators, Shuai Zhao

Physics Faculty Publications

We generalize the celebrated heavy quark expansion to nonlocal QCD operators. By taking nonlocal heavy-light current on the light-cone as an example, we confirm that the collinear singularities are common between QCD operator and the corresponding operator in heavy quark effective theory (HQET), at the leading power of 1/M expansion. Based on a perturbative calculation in operator form at one-loop level, a factorization formula linking QCD and HQET operators is investigated and the matching coefficient is determined. The matching between QCD and HQET light-cone distribution amplitudes (LCDAs) as well as other momentum distributions of hadron can be derived as ...


Surface Elevation And Sedimentation Dynamics In The Ganges-Brahmaputra Tidal Delta Plain, Bangladesh: Evidence For Mangrove Adaptation To Human-Induced Tidal Amplification, Edwin J. Bomer, Carol A. Wilson, Richard Hale, Abu Naser Mohsin Hossain, F.M. Arifur Rahman Apr 2020

Surface Elevation And Sedimentation Dynamics In The Ganges-Brahmaputra Tidal Delta Plain, Bangladesh: Evidence For Mangrove Adaptation To Human-Induced Tidal Amplification, Edwin J. Bomer, Carol A. Wilson, Richard Hale, Abu Naser Mohsin Hossain, F.M. Arifur Rahman

OEAS Faculty Publications

In the Ganges-Brahmaputra (G-B) delta, periodic flooding of the land surface during the tidal cycle coupled with enormous sediment delivery during the monsoon promotes sediment accretion and surface elevation gain through time. However, over the past several decades, widespread embankment (“polder”) construction in the GB tidal delta plain has led to numerous environmental disturbances, including channel siltation and tide range amplification. While previous research indicates that rates of sediment accretion are relatively high in the G-B tidal delta plain, it remains unclear if and how surface elevation is maintaining pace with relative sea-level rise (RSLR) in this region. In this ...


A Halogen Bonding Perspective On Iodothyronine Deiodinase Activity, Eric S. Marsan, Craig A. Bayse Mar 2020

A Halogen Bonding Perspective On Iodothyronine Deiodinase Activity, Eric S. Marsan, Craig A. Bayse

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Iodothyronine deiodinases (Dios) are involved in the regioselective removal of iodine from thyroid hormones (THs). Deiodination is essential to maintain TH homeostasis, and disruption can have detrimental effects. Halogen bonding (XB) to the selenium of the selenocysteine (Sec) residue in the Dio active site has been proposed to contribute to the mechanism for iodine removal. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known disruptors of various pathways of the endocrine system. Experimental evidence shows PBDEs and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-BDEs) can inhibit Dio, while data regarding PCB inhibition are limited. These xenobiotics could inhibit Dio activity by competitively ...


In-Situ Gold-Ceria Nanoparticles: Superior Optical Fluorescence Quenching Sensor For Dissolved Oxygen, Nader Shehata, Ishac Kandas, Effat Samir Feb 2020

In-Situ Gold-Ceria Nanoparticles: Superior Optical Fluorescence Quenching Sensor For Dissolved Oxygen, Nader Shehata, Ishac Kandas, Effat Samir

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

Cerium oxide (ceria) nanoparticles (NPs) have been proved to be an efficient optical fluorescent material through generating visible emission (~530 nm) under violet excitation. This feature allowed ceria NPs to be used as an optical sensor via the fluorescence quenching Technique. In this paper, the impact of in-situ embedded gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) inside ceria nanoparticles was studied. Then, gold–ceria NPs were used for sensing dissolved oxygen (DO) in aqueous media. It was observed that both fluorescence intensity and lifetime were changed due to increased concentration of DO. Added gold was found to enhance the sensitivity of ceria to ...


A Pre-Industrial Sea-Level Rise Hotspot Along The Atlantic Coast Of North America, W. R. Gehrels, Sönke Dangendorf, N. L. M. Barlow, M. H. Saher, A. J. Long, P. L. Woodworth, C. G. Piecuch, K. Berk Feb 2020

A Pre-Industrial Sea-Level Rise Hotspot Along The Atlantic Coast Of North America, W. R. Gehrels, Sönke Dangendorf, N. L. M. Barlow, M. H. Saher, A. J. Long, P. L. Woodworth, C. G. Piecuch, K. Berk

CCPO Publications

The Atlantic coast of North America north of Cape Hatteras has been proposed as a “hotspot” of late 20th century sea‐level rise. Here we test, using salt‐marsh proxy sea‐level records, if this coast experienced enhanced sea‐level rise over earlier multidecadal‐centennial periods. While we find in agreement with previous studies that 20th century rates of sea‐level change were higher compared to rates during preceding centuries, rates of 18th century sea‐level rise were only slightly lower, suggesting that the “hotspot” is a reoccurring feature for at least three centuries. Proxy sea‐level records from North ...


Organic Sulfur: A Spatially Variable And Understudied Component Of Marine Organic Matter, Krista Longnecker, Lisa Oswald, Melissa C. Kido Soule, Gregory A. Cutter, Elizabeth B. Kujawinski Feb 2020

Organic Sulfur: A Spatially Variable And Understudied Component Of Marine Organic Matter, Krista Longnecker, Lisa Oswald, Melissa C. Kido Soule, Gregory A. Cutter, Elizabeth B. Kujawinski

OEAS Faculty Publications

Sulfur (S) is a major heteroatom in organic matter. This project evaluated spatial variability in the concentration and molecular-level composition of organic sulfur along gradients of depth and latitude. We measured the concentration of total organic sulfur (TOS) directly from whole seawater. Our data reveal high variability in organic sulfur, relative to established variability in total organic carbon or nitrogen. The deep ocean contained significant amounts of organic sulfur, and the concentration of TOS in North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) decreased with increasing age while total organic carbon remained stable. Analysis of dissolved organic matter extracts by ultrahigh resolution mass ...


Mesoscopic Methods In Engineering And Science, Christian Jansen, Manfred Krafczyk, Li-Shi Luo Jan 2020

Mesoscopic Methods In Engineering And Science, Christian Jansen, Manfred Krafczyk, Li-Shi Luo

Mathematics & Statistics Faculty Publications

(First paragraph) Matter, conceptually classified into fluids and solids, can be completely described by the microscopic physics of its constituent atoms or molecules. However, for most engineering applications a macroscopic or continuum description has usually been sufficient, because of the large disparity between the spatial and temporal scales relevant to these applications and the scales of the underlying molecular dynamics. In this case, the microscopic physics merely determines material properties such as the viscosity of a fluid or the elastic constants of a solid. These material properties cannot be derived within the macroscopic framework, but the qualitative nature of the ...


Interactive Effects Of The Co2 Enrichment And Nitrogen Supply On The Biomass Accumulation, Gas Exchange Properties, And Mineral Elements Concentrations In Cucumber Plants At Different Growth Stages, Xun Li, Jinlong Dong, Nazim S. Gruda, Wenying Chu, Zengqiang Duan Jan 2020

Interactive Effects Of The Co2 Enrichment And Nitrogen Supply On The Biomass Accumulation, Gas Exchange Properties, And Mineral Elements Concentrations In Cucumber Plants At Different Growth Stages, Xun Li, Jinlong Dong, Nazim S. Gruda, Wenying Chu, Zengqiang Duan

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

The concentration changes of mineral elements in plants at different CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) and nitrogen (N) supplies and the mechanisms which control such changes are not clear. Hydroponic trials on cucumber plants with three [CO2] (400, 625, and 1200 µmol mol−1) and five N supply levels (2, 4, 7, 14, and 21 mmol L−1) were conducted. When plants were in high N supply, the increase in total biomass by elevated [CO2] was 51.7% and 70.1% at the seedling and initial fruiting stages, respectively. An increase in net photosynthetic rate (Pn) by more ...


Antibiotic Drug Nanocarriers For Probing Of Multidrug Abc Membrane Transporter Of Bacillus Subtilis, Pavan Kumar Cherukuri, Preeyaporn Songkiatisak, Feng Ding, Jeam-Michel Jault, Xiao-Hong Nancy Xu Jan 2020

Antibiotic Drug Nanocarriers For Probing Of Multidrug Abc Membrane Transporter Of Bacillus Subtilis, Pavan Kumar Cherukuri, Preeyaporn Songkiatisak, Feng Ding, Jeam-Michel Jault, Xiao-Hong Nancy Xu

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Multidrug membrane transporters can extrude a wide range of substrates, which cause multidrug resistance and ineffective treatment of diseases. In this study, we used three different sized antibiotic drug nanocarriers to study their size-dependent inhibitory effects against Bacillus subtilis. We functionalized 2.4 ± 0.7, 13.0 ± 3.1, and 92.6 ± 4.4 nm silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) with a monolayer of 11-amino-1-undecanethiol and covalently linked them with antibiotics (ofloxacin, Oflx). The labeling ratios of antibiotics with NPs are 8.6 × 102, 9.4 × 103, and 6.5 × 105 Oflx molecules per NP, respectively. We designed ...


Tunable-Focus Liquid Lens Through Charge Injection, Shizhi Qian, Wenxiang Shi, Huai Zheng, Zhaohui Liu Jan 2020

Tunable-Focus Liquid Lens Through Charge Injection, Shizhi Qian, Wenxiang Shi, Huai Zheng, Zhaohui Liu

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

Liquid lenses are the simplest and cheapest optical lenses, and various studies have been conducted to develop tunable-focus liquid lenses. In this study, a simple and easily implemented method for achieving tunable-focus liquid lenses was proposed and experimentally validated. In this method, charges induced by a corona discharge in the air were injected into dielectric liquid, resulting in “electropressure” at the interface between the air and the liquid. Through a 3D-printed U-tube structure, a tunable-focus liquid lens was fabricated and tested. Depending on the voltage, the focus of the liquid lens can be adjusted in large ranges (−∞ to −9 mm ...


Deepmag+ : Sniffing Mobile Apps In Magnetic Field Through Deep Learning, Rui Ning, Cong Wang, Chunsheng Xin, Jiang Li, Hongyi Wu Jan 2020

Deepmag+ : Sniffing Mobile Apps In Magnetic Field Through Deep Learning, Rui Ning, Cong Wang, Chunsheng Xin, Jiang Li, Hongyi Wu

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

This paper reports a new side-channel attack to smartphones using the unrestricted magnetic sensor data. We demonstrate that attackers can effectively infer the Apps being used on a smartphone with an accuracy of over 80%, through training a deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN). Various signal processing strategies have been studied for feature extractions, including a tempogram based scheme. Moreover, by further exploiting the unrestricted motion sensor to cluster magnetometer data, the sniffing accuracy can increase to as high as 98%. To mitigate such attacks, we propose a noise injection scheme that can effectively reduce the App sniffing accuracy to only ...


Historical Trends In Air Temperature, Precipitation, And Runoff Of A Plateau Inland River Watershed In North China, Along Zhang, Ruizhong Gao, Xixi Wang, Tingxi Liu, Lijing Fang Jan 2020

Historical Trends In Air Temperature, Precipitation, And Runoff Of A Plateau Inland River Watershed In North China, Along Zhang, Ruizhong Gao, Xixi Wang, Tingxi Liu, Lijing Fang

Civil & Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications

Understanding historical trends in temperature, precipitation, and runoff is important but incomplete for developing adaptive measures to climate change to sustain fragile ecosystems in cold and arid regions, including the Balagaer River watershed on the Mongolian Plateau of northeast China. The objective of this study was to detect such trends in this watershed from 1959 to 2017. The detection was accomplished using a Mann-Kendall sudden change approach at annual and seasonal time scales. The results indicated that the abrupt changes in temperature preceded that in either runoff or precipitation; these abrupt changes occurred between 1970 and 2004. Significant (α = 0 ...


Modeling Iron And Light Controls On The Summer Phaeocystis Antarctica Bloom In The Amundsen Sea Polynya, Hilde Oliver, Pierre St-Laurent, Robert M. Sherrell, Patricia L. Yaeger Jan 2020

Modeling Iron And Light Controls On The Summer Phaeocystis Antarctica Bloom In The Amundsen Sea Polynya, Hilde Oliver, Pierre St-Laurent, Robert M. Sherrell, Patricia L. Yaeger

CCPO Publications

Of all the Antarctic coastal polynyas, the Amundsen Sea Polynya is the most productive per unit area. Observations from the 2010-2011 Amundsen Sea Polynya International Research Expedition (ASPIRE) revealed that both light and iron can limit the growth of phytoplankton (Phaeocystis antarctica), but how these controls manifest over the bloom season is poorly understood, especially with respect to their climate sensitivity. Using a 1-D biogeochemical model, we examine the influence of light and iron limitation on the phytoplankton bloom and vertical carbon flux at 12 stations representing different bloom stages within the polynya. Model parameters are determined by Bayesian optimization ...


Vertical Processes And Resolution Impact Ice Shelf Basal Melting: A Multi-Model Study, David E. Gwyther, Kazuya Kusahara, Xylar S. Asay-Davis, Michael S. Dinniman, Benjamin K. Galton-Fenzi Jan 2020

Vertical Processes And Resolution Impact Ice Shelf Basal Melting: A Multi-Model Study, David E. Gwyther, Kazuya Kusahara, Xylar S. Asay-Davis, Michael S. Dinniman, Benjamin K. Galton-Fenzi

CCPO Publications

Understanding ice shelf–ocean interaction is fundamental to projecting the Antarctic ice sheet response to a warming climate. Numerical ice shelf–ocean models are a powerful tool for simulating this interaction, yet are limited by inherent model weaknesses and scarce observations, leading to parameterisations that are unverified and unvalidated below ice shelves. We explore how different models simulate ice shelf–ocean interaction using the 2nd Ice Shelf–Ocean Model Intercomparison Project (ISOMIP+) framework. Vertical discretisation and resolution of the ocean model are shown to have a significant effect on ice shelf basal melt rate, through differences in the distribution of ...


Question 1: Plowing Snow; Question 2: Wasted Food, Larry Weinstein Jan 2020

Question 1: Plowing Snow; Question 2: Wasted Food, Larry Weinstein

Physics Faculty Publications

[Extracted from the article] How much snow is shoveled or plowed in the U.S. in a typical winter? How much food is wasted at school cafeterias every year in the U.S.? For more Fermi questions and answers, see Guesstimation 2.0: Solving Today's Problems on the Back of a Napkin, by Lawrence Weinstein (Princeton University Press, 2012).


Deep Equatorial Pacific Ocean Oxygenation And Atmospheric Co2 Over The Last Ice Age, Franco Marcantonio, Ryan Hostak, Jennifer E. Hertzberg, Matthew W. Schmidt Jan 2020

Deep Equatorial Pacific Ocean Oxygenation And Atmospheric Co2 Over The Last Ice Age, Franco Marcantonio, Ryan Hostak, Jennifer E. Hertzberg, Matthew W. Schmidt

OEAS Faculty Publications

Ventilation of carbon stored in the deep ocean is thought to play an important role in atmospheric CO2 increases associated with Pleistocene deglaciations. The presence of this respired carbon has been recorded by an array of paleoceanographic proxies from various locations across the global ocean. Here we present a new sediment core from the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP) Ocean spanning the last 180,000 years and reconstruct high-resolution 230Th-derived fluxes of 232Th and excess barium, along with redox-sensitive uranium concentrations to examine past variations in dust delivery, export productivity, and bottom-water oxygenation, respectively. Our bottom-water oxygenation record is compared ...


A Genome-Wide Association Study Of Cocaine Use Disorder Accounting For Phenotypic Heterogeneity And Gene–Environment Interaction, Jiangwen Sun, Henry R. Kranzler, Joel Gelernter, Jinbo Bi Jan 2020

A Genome-Wide Association Study Of Cocaine Use Disorder Accounting For Phenotypic Heterogeneity And Gene–Environment Interaction, Jiangwen Sun, Henry R. Kranzler, Joel Gelernter, Jinbo Bi

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Background: Phenotypic heterogeneity and complicated gene-environment interplay in etiology are among the primary factors that hinder the identification of genetic variants associated with cocaine use disorder. Methods: To detect novel genetic variants associated with cocaine use disorder, we derived disease traits with reduced phenotypic heterogeneity using cluster analysis of a study sample (n = 9965). We then used these traits in genome-wide association tests, performed separately for 2070 African Americans and 1570 European Americans, using a new mixed model that accounted for the moderating effects of 5 childhood environmental factors. We used an independent sample (918 African Americans, 1382 European Americans ...


Gabapentin Drug Misuse Signals: A Pharmacovigilance Assessment Using The Fda Adverse Event Reporting System, Rachel Vickers-Smith, Jiangwen Sun, Richard J. Charnigo, Michelle R. Lofwall, Sharon L. Walsh, Jennifer R. Havens Jan 2020

Gabapentin Drug Misuse Signals: A Pharmacovigilance Assessment Using The Fda Adverse Event Reporting System, Rachel Vickers-Smith, Jiangwen Sun, Richard J. Charnigo, Michelle R. Lofwall, Sharon L. Walsh, Jennifer R. Havens

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Background: Although there have been increasing reports of intentional gabapentin misuse, epidemiological evidence for the phenomenon is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are pharmacovigilance abuse signals for gabapentin.

Methods: Using FDA Adverse Events Reporting System reports from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2015, we calculated pharmacovigilance signal measures (i.e., reporting odds ratio, proportional reporting ratio, information component, and empirical Bayes geometric mean) for abuse-related adverse event (AR-AE)-gabapentin pairs. Loglinear modeling assessed the frequency of concurrent reporting of abuse-related and abusespecific AEs (AS-AEs) associated with gabapentin. Findings were compared to a positive ...


Extreme Ultraviolet Quasar Colours From Galex Observations Of The Sdss Dr14q Catalogue, Daniel E. Vanden Berk, Sarah C. Wesolowski, Mary J. Yeckley, Joseph M. Marcinik, Jean M. Quashnock, Lawrence M. Machia, Jian Wu Jan 2020

Extreme Ultraviolet Quasar Colours From Galex Observations Of The Sdss Dr14q Catalogue, Daniel E. Vanden Berk, Sarah C. Wesolowski, Mary J. Yeckley, Joseph M. Marcinik, Jean M. Quashnock, Lawrence M. Machia, Jian Wu

Computer Science Faculty Publications

The rest-frame far to extreme ultraviolet (UV) colour–redshift relationship has been constructed from data on over 480,000 quasars carefully cross-matched between SDSS Data Release 14 and the final GALEX photometric catalogue. UV matching and detection probabilities are given for all the quasars, including dependencies on separation, optical brightness, and redshift. Detection limits are also provided for all objects. The UV colour distributions are skewed redward at virtually all redshifts, especially when detection limits are accounted for. The median GALEX far-UV minus near-UV (FUV − NUV) colour–redshift relation is reliably determined up to z ≈ 2.8, corresponding to rest-frame ...


Outlier Profiles Of Atomic Structures Derived From X-Ray Crystallography And From Cryo-Electron Microscopy, Lin Chen, Jing He, Angelo Facchiano Jan 2020

Outlier Profiles Of Atomic Structures Derived From X-Ray Crystallography And From Cryo-Electron Microscopy, Lin Chen, Jing He, Angelo Facchiano

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Background: As more protein atomic structures are determined from cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) density maps, validation of such structures is an important task. Methods: We applied a histogram-based outlier score (HBOS) to six sets of cryo-EM atomic structures and five sets of X-ray atomic structures, including one derived from X-ray data with better than 1.5 Å resolution. Cryo-EM data sets contain structures released by December 2016 and those released between 2017 and 2019, derived from resolution ranges 0–4 Å and 4–6 Å respectively. Results: The distribution of HBOS values in five sets of X-ray structures show that HBOS ...