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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Waste To Phosphorus: A Transdisciplinary Solution To P Recovery From Wastewater Based On The Triz Approach, Anna Jama-Rodzeńska, Andrzej Białowiec, Jacek A. Koziel, Józef Sowiński Jun 2021

Waste To Phosphorus: A Transdisciplinary Solution To P Recovery From Wastewater Based On The Triz Approach, Anna Jama-Rodzeńska, Andrzej Białowiec, Jacek A. Koziel, Józef Sowiński

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Phosphorus (P) is a limited yet essential resource. P cannot be replaced, but it can be recovered from waste. We proposed the TRIZ approach (Teoria reszenija izobretatielskich zadacz - Rus., Theory of Inventive Problem Solving - Eng.) to identify a feasible solution. We aimed at minimizing the environmental impact and, by eliminating contradictions, proposed viable technical solutions. P recovery can be more sustainable based on circular economy and 4Rs (reduction, recovery, reuse, and recycling). The TRIZ approach identified sewage sludge (SS) as waste with a large potential for P recovery (up to 90%). Successful selection and application of SS management and P ...


Designing And Testing Of A System For Aerosolization And Recovery Of Viable Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv): Theoretical And Engineering Considerations, Peiyang Li, Jacek A. Koziel, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman, Steven J. Hoff, Jianqiang Zhang, Ting-Yu Cheng, Wannarat Yim-Im, Myeongseong Lee, Baitong Chen, William S. Jenks May 2021

Designing And Testing Of A System For Aerosolization And Recovery Of Viable Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv): Theoretical And Engineering Considerations, Peiyang Li, Jacek A. Koziel, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman, Steven J. Hoff, Jianqiang Zhang, Ting-Yu Cheng, Wannarat Yim-Im, Myeongseong Lee, Baitong Chen, William S. Jenks

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infections cause significant economic losses to swine producers every year. Aerosols containing infectious PRRSV are an important route of transmission, and proper treatment of air could mitigate the airborne spread of the virus within and between barns. Previous bioaerosol studies focused on the microbiology of PRRSV aerosols; thus, the current study addressed the engineering aspects of virus aerosolization and collection. Specific objectives were to (1) build and test a virus aerosolization system, (2) achieve a uniform and repeatable aerosol generation and collection throughout all replicates, (3) identify and minimize sources of variation, and ...


Transient Electronics As Sustainable Systems: From Fundamentals To Applications, Reihaneh Jamshidi, Mehrnoosh Taghavimehr, Yuanfen Chen, Nicole Hashemi, Reza Montazami May 2021

Transient Electronics As Sustainable Systems: From Fundamentals To Applications, Reihaneh Jamshidi, Mehrnoosh Taghavimehr, Yuanfen Chen, Nicole Hashemi, Reza Montazami

Mechanical Engineering Publications

The unique attribute of transient technology is that it promotes the potential for the design and implementation of sustainable systems through their capability to fully or partially disintegrate after a predefined period of stable operation. Transient electronics have a wide range of potential applications as biomedical implants, environmental sensors, and hardware‐secured devices. Controlled disintegration of such systems without the need for harsh solvents is a step toward realizing green and sustainable electronics. In this short review, recent progress in the development of transient electronics is studied. First, an overview of the transient materials, both the substrate and electronic component ...


Inspection Of Electronics Components For Cryogenic Temperature Operation, Navaneeth Poonthottathil, Frank Krennrich, Amanda Weinstein, Jonathan Eisch, Leonard J. Bond, Dan Barnard, Zhan Zhang, Lucas Koester May 2021

Inspection Of Electronics Components For Cryogenic Temperature Operation, Navaneeth Poonthottathil, Frank Krennrich, Amanda Weinstein, Jonathan Eisch, Leonard J. Bond, Dan Barnard, Zhan Zhang, Lucas Koester

Aerospace Engineering Publications

Electronics operating at cryogenic temperatures play a critical role in future science experiments and space exploration programs. The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) uses a cold electronics system for data taking. Specifically, it utilizes custom-designed Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). The main challenge is that these circuits will be immersed in liquid Argon and that they need to function for 20+ years without any access. Ensuring quality is critical, and issues may arise due to thermal stress, packaging, and manufacturing-related defects: if undetected, these could lead to long-term reliability and performance problems. This paper reports an investigation into non-destructive evaluation ...


Effect Of A Near-Zero Magnetic Field On Development And Flight Of Oriental Armyworm (Mythimna Separata), Meng-Meng Yan, Lei Zhang, Yun-Xia Cheng, Thomas W. Sappington, Wei-Dong Pan, Xing-Fu Jiang May 2021

Effect Of A Near-Zero Magnetic Field On Development And Flight Of Oriental Armyworm (Mythimna Separata), Meng-Meng Yan, Lei Zhang, Yun-Xia Cheng, Thomas W. Sappington, Wei-Dong Pan, Xing-Fu Jiang

Entomology Publications

The geomagnetic field affects all living organisms on the Earth. In this study we investigated the developmental and behavioral effects of rearing Mythimna separata in a near-zero magnetic field (<500 nT) compared to the local geomagnetic field (approximately 50 µT). The near-zero magnetic field produced by a Helmholtz coil system significantly lengthened larval and pupal development durations, increased male longevity, and reduced pupal weight, female reproduction, and the relative expression level of the vitellogenin (Vg) gene in newly emerged females. Moreover, the near-zero magnetic field had a considerable negative effect on the mating ratio of M. separata adults. In addition, the moths in the near-zero magnetic field displayed less flight activity late in the night than those in the Earth's normal geomagnetic field, indicating that the flight rhythm of M. separata may be affected by the near-zero magnetic field. Reduction in magnetic field intensity may have negative effects on the development and flight of oriental armyworm, with consequent additional effects on its migration.


Mitigation Of Odor And Gaseous Emissions From Swine Barn With Uv-A And Uv-C Photocatalysis, Myeongseong Lee, Jacek A. Koziel, Wyatt Murphy, William S. Jenks, Baitong Chen, Peiyang Li, Chumki Banik May 2021

Mitigation Of Odor And Gaseous Emissions From Swine Barn With Uv-A And Uv-C Photocatalysis, Myeongseong Lee, Jacek A. Koziel, Wyatt Murphy, William S. Jenks, Baitong Chen, Peiyang Li, Chumki Banik

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

UV-A (ca. 365 nm wavelength, a.k.a. ‘black light’) photocatalysis has been investigated to comprehensively mitigate odor and selected air pollutants in the livestock environment. This study was conducted to confirm the performance of UV-A photocatalysis on the swine farm. The objectives of this research were to (1) scale-up of the UV-A photocatalysis treatment, (2) evaluate the mitigation of odorous gases from swine slurry pit, (3) test different UV sources, (4) evaluate the effect of particulate matter (PM) and (5) conduct preliminary economic analyses. We tested UV-A photocatalysis at a mobile laboratory-scale capable of treating ~0.2–0.8 ...


Evaluation Of Tio2 Based Photocatalytic Treatment Of Odor And Gaseous Emissions From Swine Manure With Uv-A And Uv-C, Myeongseong Lee, Jacek A. Koziel, Wyatt Murphy, William S. Jenks, Baitong Chen, Peiyang Li, Chumki Banik Apr 2021

Evaluation Of Tio2 Based Photocatalytic Treatment Of Odor And Gaseous Emissions From Swine Manure With Uv-A And Uv-C, Myeongseong Lee, Jacek A. Koziel, Wyatt Murphy, William S. Jenks, Baitong Chen, Peiyang Li, Chumki Banik

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

It is essential to mitigate gaseous emissions that result from poultry and livestock production to increase industry sustainability. Odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and greenhouse gases (GHGs) have detrimental effects on the quality of life in rural communities, the environment, and climate. This study’s objective was to evaluate the photocatalytic UV treatment of gaseous emissions of odor, odorous VOCs, NH3, and other gases (GHGs, O3—sometimes considered as by-products of UV treatment) from stored swine manure on a pilot-scale. The manure emissions were treated in fast-moving air using a ...


Periodic Tabletalks: The Elements Never Go Out Of Style, Javier Vela, Emily A. Weiss Apr 2021

Periodic Tabletalks: The Elements Never Go Out Of Style, Javier Vela, Emily A. Weiss

Chemistry Publications

With the cancelation of the Spring ACS National meeting in 2020—and subsequent in-person meetings—because of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Division of Inorganic Chemistry (DIC) sought new ways to connect with its membership and continue to showcase the fantastic research carried out by inorganic chemists. The DIC executive committee thus initiated monthly Zoom webinars with two speakers each, typically one junior investigator and one more-established researcher, selected with input from each of the DIC subdivisions: Bioinorganic, Coordination, Solid-State, Organometallic, Nanoscience, and Sustainable Energy & Environment.


A Multiperiod Consensus-Based Transactive Energy System For Unbalanced Distribution Networks, Rui Cheng, Leigh Tesfatsion, Zhaoyu Wang Apr 2021

A Multiperiod Consensus-Based Transactive Energy System For Unbalanced Distribution Networks, Rui Cheng, Leigh Tesfatsion, Zhaoyu Wang

Economics Working Papers

This study develops a consensus-based transactive energy system design managed by an independent distribution system operator (DSO) for an unbalanced radial distribution network. The network is populated by welfare-maximizing customers with price-sensitive and fixed (non-price-sensitive) demands who make multiple successive power decisions during each real-time operating period OP. The DSO and customers engage in an iterative negotiation process in advance of each OP to determine retail price-to-go sequences for OP that align customer power decisions with network reliability constraints in a manner that respects customer privacy. The convergence properties of a dual decomposition algorithm developed to implement this negotiation process ...


Unveiling The Mechanism Of Phase And Morphology Selections During The Devitrification Of Al-Sm Amorphous Ribbon, Fanqiang Meng, Yang Sun, Feng Zhang, Bo Da, Cai-Zhuang Wang, Matthew J. Kramer, Kai-Ming Ho, Dongbai Sun Apr 2021

Unveiling The Mechanism Of Phase And Morphology Selections During The Devitrification Of Al-Sm Amorphous Ribbon, Fanqiang Meng, Yang Sun, Feng Zhang, Bo Da, Cai-Zhuang Wang, Matthew J. Kramer, Kai-Ming Ho, Dongbai Sun

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

The complex interplay between energetic and kinetic factors that governs the phase and morphology selections can originate at the earliest stage of crystallization in the amorphous parent phases. Because of the extreme difficulties in capturing the microscopic nucleation process, a detailed picture of how initial disordered structures affect the transformation pathway remains unclear. Here, we report the experimental observation of widely varying phase selection and grain size evolution during the devitrification of a homogeneous melt-spun glassy ribbon. Two different crystalline phases θ−Al5Sm and ɛ−Al60Sm11 are found to form in the different regions of the same metallic glass (MG ...


Biochar-Swine Manure Impact On Soil Nutrients And Carbon Under Controlled Leaching Experiment Using A Midwestern Mollisols, Chumki Banik, Jacek A. Koziel, Mriganka De, Darcy Bonds, Baitong Chen, Asheesh K. Singh, Mark A. Licht Apr 2021

Biochar-Swine Manure Impact On Soil Nutrients And Carbon Under Controlled Leaching Experiment Using A Midwestern Mollisols, Chumki Banik, Jacek A. Koziel, Mriganka De, Darcy Bonds, Baitong Chen, Asheesh K. Singh, Mark A. Licht

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Biochar application to the soil can improve soil quality and nutrient leaching loss from swine manure adapted soils. Our working hypothesis was that the biochar-incubated with manure could be a better soil amendment than conventional manure application. The manure-biochar application to the soil would decrease nutrient leaching from manure and increase plant-available nutrients. The study objectives were to 1) assess the physicochemical properties of the manure-biochar mixture after lab incubation and 2) evaluate the impact of biochar-treated swine manure on soil total C, N, and other major and minor nutrients in comparison to conventional manure application to soil. Three biochars ...


Tournament And Non-Tournament Anglers Have Little Effect On A Largemouth Bass Population Compared To Natural Mortality, Andrea Sylvia, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Michael J. Weber Apr 2021

Tournament And Non-Tournament Anglers Have Little Effect On A Largemouth Bass Population Compared To Natural Mortality, Andrea Sylvia, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Michael J. Weber

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Popularity of bass Micropterus spp. catch and release and tournament angling during the past decade has resulted in increased potential for these activities to induce population level effects. Understanding capture rates and mortality sources relative to total population mortality is essential to focus of management. We conducted monthly electrofishing, solicited nontournament angler tag returns, and censused largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides tournaments at Brushy Creek Lake, IA, USA from April 2015 to June 2018. We used a multistate mark-recapture model to evaluate the effects of air temperature, water temperature, tournament bass per angler, and tournament initial mortality on non-tournament and tournament ...


Mitigation Of Acute Ammonia Emissions With Biochar During Swine Manure Agitation Before Pump-Out: Proof-Of-The-Concept, Baitong Chen, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec, Myeongseong Lee, Hantian Ma, Samuel C. O'Brien, Peiyang Li, Zhanibek Meiirkhanuly, Robert C. Brown Apr 2021

Mitigation Of Acute Ammonia Emissions With Biochar During Swine Manure Agitation Before Pump-Out: Proof-Of-The-Concept, Baitong Chen, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec, Myeongseong Lee, Hantian Ma, Samuel C. O'Brien, Peiyang Li, Zhanibek Meiirkhanuly, Robert C. Brown

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Ammonia (NH3) emissions from animal agriculture can cause eutrophication of water ecosystems and are precursors to secondary particulate matter (PM2.5). NH3 emissions from stored swine manure represent nutrient loss affecting the fertilizing value of manure. The short-term emission bursts occur when farmers agitate manure before emptying storage and fertilizing fields. There is no proven technology to mitigate gaseous emissions during agitation, while the hazards of acute releases (e.g., H2S) are well-known. Biochar mitigates NH3 emissions from manure over the long-term. The objective of this research was to evaluate the mitigation of acute NH3 emissions during/after agitation. Two ...


Towards A Framework For Certification Of Reliable Autonomous Systems, Michael Fisher, Viviana Mascardi, Kristin Yvonne Rozier, Bernd-Holger Schlingloff, Michael Winikoff, Neil Yorke-Smith Apr 2021

Towards A Framework For Certification Of Reliable Autonomous Systems, Michael Fisher, Viviana Mascardi, Kristin Yvonne Rozier, Bernd-Holger Schlingloff, Michael Winikoff, Neil Yorke-Smith

Aerospace Engineering Publications

A computational system is called autonomous if it is able to make its own decisions, or take its own actions, without human supervision or control. The capability and spread of such systems have reached the point where they are beginning to touch much of everyday life. However, regulators grapple with how to deal with autonomous systems, for example how could we certify an Unmanned Aerial System for autonomous use in civilian airspace? We here analyse what is needed in order to provide verified reliable behaviour of an autonomous system, analyse what can be done as the state-of-the-art in automated verification ...


Designing The Teachactive Feedback Dashboard: A Human Centered Approach, Dana Alzoubi, Jameel Kelley, Evrim Baran, Stephen B. Gilbert, Shan Jiang, Aliye Karabulut Apr 2021

Designing The Teachactive Feedback Dashboard: A Human Centered Approach, Dana Alzoubi, Jameel Kelley, Evrim Baran, Stephen B. Gilbert, Shan Jiang, Aliye Karabulut

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Posters

Effective facilitation of active learning is key to enhancing student engagement in engineering classrooms. Instructors need opportunities for frequent observation, feedback, and reflection on the use of their active learning strategies, yet there are no validated automated approaches available. We address this need by designing a feedback dashboard, TEACHActive, that leverages classroom analytics from an automated sensing observation system. The TEACHActive dashboard provides feedback on the in-class implementation of various active learning strategies in engineering classrooms. In this poster, we present the initial phases of a human-centered dashboard design process. The human-centered design (HCD) approach includes techniques such as, creating ...


Protein-Assisted Scalable Mechanochemical Exfoliation Of Few-Layer Biocompatible Graphene Nanosheets, Deepak-George Thomas, Steven De-Alwis, Shalabh Gupta, Vitalij K. Pecharsky, Deyny Mendivelso-Perez, Reza Montazami, Emily A. Smith, Nicole N. Hashemi Mar 2021

Protein-Assisted Scalable Mechanochemical Exfoliation Of Few-Layer Biocompatible Graphene Nanosheets, Deepak-George Thomas, Steven De-Alwis, Shalabh Gupta, Vitalij K. Pecharsky, Deyny Mendivelso-Perez, Reza Montazami, Emily A. Smith, Nicole N. Hashemi

Mechanical Engineering Publications

A facile method to produce few-layer graphene (FLG) nanosheets is developed using protein-assisted mechanical exfoliation. The predominant shear forces that are generated in a planetary ball mill facilitate the exfoliation of graphene layers from graphite flakes. The process employs a commonly known protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), which not only acts as an effective exfoliation agent but also provides stability by preventing restacking of the graphene layers. The latter is demonstrated by the excellent long-term dispersibility of exfoliated graphene in an aqueous BSA solution, which exemplifies a common biological medium. The development of such potentially scalable and toxin-free methods is ...


Agent-Based Computational Economics: Overview And Brief History, Leigh Tesfatsion Mar 2021

Agent-Based Computational Economics: Overview And Brief History, Leigh Tesfatsion

Economics Working Papers

Scientists seek to understand how real-world systems work. Models devised for scientific purposes must always simplify reality. However, scientists should be permitted to tailor these simplifications to purposes at hand; they should not be forced to distort reality in specific predetermined ways in order to apply a modeling approach. Adherence to this modeling precept was a key goal motivating my development of Agent-Based Computational Economics (ACE), a variant of agent-based modeling characterized by seven specific modeling principles. This perspective provides an overview of ACE and a brief history of its development.


Testing Identifying Assumptions In Bivariate Probit Models, Santiago Acerenza, Otávio Bartalotti, Desire Kedagni Mar 2021

Testing Identifying Assumptions In Bivariate Probit Models, Santiago Acerenza, Otávio Bartalotti, Desire Kedagni

Economics Working Papers

This paper focuses on the bivariate probit model's identifying
assumptions: joint normality of errors, instrument exogeneity, and relevance conditions. First, we develop novel sharp testable equalities that can detect all possible observable violations of the assumptions. Second, we propose an easy-to-implement testing procedure for the model's validity based on feasible testable implications using existing inference methods for intersection bounds. The test achieves correct empirical size for moderately sized samples and performs well in detecting violations of the conditions in Monte Carlo simulations. Finally, we provide researchers with a road map on what to do when the bivariate probit ...


Discovery Of A Weak Topological Insulating State And Van Hove Singularity In Triclinic Rhbi2, Kyungchan Lee, Gunnar F. Lange, Lin-Lin Wang, Brinda Kuthanazhi, Thais V. Trevisan, Na Hyun Jo, Benjamin Schrunk, Peter P. Orth, Robert-Jan Slager, Paul C. Canfield, Adam Kaminski Mar 2021

Discovery Of A Weak Topological Insulating State And Van Hove Singularity In Triclinic Rhbi2, Kyungchan Lee, Gunnar F. Lange, Lin-Lin Wang, Brinda Kuthanazhi, Thais V. Trevisan, Na Hyun Jo, Benjamin Schrunk, Peter P. Orth, Robert-Jan Slager, Paul C. Canfield, Adam Kaminski

Physics and Astronomy Publications

Time reversal symmetric (TRS) invariant topological insulators (TIs) fullfil a paradigmatic role in the field of topological materials, standing at the origin of its development. Apart from TRS protected 'strong' TIs, it was realized early on that more confounding weak topological insulators (WTI) exist. WTIs depend on translational symmetry and exhibit topological surface states only in certain directions making it significantly more difficult to match the experimental success of strong TIs. We here report on the discovery of a WTI state in RhBi2 that belongs to the optimal space group P1, which is the only space group where symmetry indicated ...


Max Cuts In Triangle-Free Graphs, József Balogh, Felix Christian Clemen, Bernard Lidicky Mar 2021

Max Cuts In Triangle-Free Graphs, József Balogh, Felix Christian Clemen, Bernard Lidicky

Mathematics Publications

A well-known conjecture by Erdős states that every triangle-free graph on n vertices can be made bipartite by removing at most n2/25 edges. This conjecture was known for graphs with edge density at least 0.4 and edge density at most 0.172. Here, we will extend the edge density for which this conjecture is true; we prove the conjecture for graphs with edge density at most 0.2486 and for graphs with edge density at least 0.3197. Further, we prove that every triangle-free graph can be made bipartite by removing at most n2/23.5 edges improving ...


Pressure Effect On Band Inversion In Ae Cd2 As2 (Ae = Ca, Sr, Ba), Jonathan M. Destefano, Lin-Lin Wang Mar 2021

Pressure Effect On Band Inversion In Ae Cd2 As2 (Ae = Ca, Sr, Ba), Jonathan M. Destefano, Lin-Lin Wang

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

Recent studies have predicted that magnetic EuCd2As2 can host several different topological states depending on its magnetic order, including a single pair of Weyl points. Here we report on the bulk properties and band inversion induced by pressure in the nonmagnetic analogs AECd2As2 (AE=Ca, Sr, Ba) as studied with density functional theory calculations. Under ambient pressure we find that these compounds are narrow band gap semiconductors, in agreement with experiment. The size of the band gap is dictated by both the increasing ionicity across the AE series which tends to increase the band gap, as well as the larger ...


Light-Wave Control Of Correlated Materials Using Quantum Magnetism During Time-Periodic Modulation Of Coherent Transport, Panagiotis C. Lingos, Myron D. Kapetanakis, Jigang Wang, Ilias E. Perakis Mar 2021

Light-Wave Control Of Correlated Materials Using Quantum Magnetism During Time-Periodic Modulation Of Coherent Transport, Panagiotis C. Lingos, Myron D. Kapetanakis, Jigang Wang, Ilias E. Perakis

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

Light–wave quantum electronics utilizes the oscillating carrier wave to control electronic properties with intense laser pulses. Without direct light–spin interactions, however, magnetic properties can only be indirectly affected by the light electric field, mostly at later times. A grand challenge is how to establish a universal principle for quantum control of charge and spin fluctuations, which can allow for faster-than-THz clock rates. Using quantum kinetic equations for the density matrix describing non–equilibrium states of Hubbard quasiparticles, here we show that time–periodic modulation of electronic hopping during few cycles of carrier–wave oscillations can dynamically steer an ...


Localization Of Nonblinking Point Sources Using Higher-Order-Mode Detection And Optical Heterodyning: Developing A Strategy For Extending The Scope Of Molecular, Super-Resolution Imaging, Kaylan Santra, Viet Nguyen, Emily A. Smith, Jacob W. Petrich, Xueyu Song Mar 2021

Localization Of Nonblinking Point Sources Using Higher-Order-Mode Detection And Optical Heterodyning: Developing A Strategy For Extending The Scope Of Molecular, Super-Resolution Imaging, Kaylan Santra, Viet Nguyen, Emily A. Smith, Jacob W. Petrich, Xueyu Song

Chemistry Publications

While the stochastic, “blinking” nature of fluorescent systems has enabled the super-resolution of their localization by the fitting of their point-spread functions (PSFs), this strategy cannot be exploited for similar resolution of “nonblinking” systems, such as those that might be encountered in a coherent Raman experiment. An alternative method for subdiffraction-limited imaging lies in the exploitation of optical heterodyning. For example, if a Gaussian PSF (a TEM00 mode) of a point emitter is displaced with respect to the origin of the optical system, photons in the higher-order TEM modes carry information about that displacement. Information concerning the displacement can be ...


Interdisciplinary Strategies To Enable Data-Driven Plant Breeding In A Changing Climate, Aaron Kusmec, Zihao Zheng, Sotirios Archontoulis, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Guiping Hu, Lizhi Wang, Jianming Yu, Patrick S. Schnable Mar 2021

Interdisciplinary Strategies To Enable Data-Driven Plant Breeding In A Changing Climate, Aaron Kusmec, Zihao Zheng, Sotirios Archontoulis, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Guiping Hu, Lizhi Wang, Jianming Yu, Patrick S. Schnable

Mechanical Engineering Publications

This perspective lays out a framework to enable the breeding of crops that can meet worldwide demand under the challenges of global climate change. Past work in various fields has produced multiple prediction methods to contribute to different plant breeding objectives. Our proposed framework focuses on the integration of these methods into decision-support tools that quantify the effects on multiple objectives of decisions made throughout the plant breeding pipeline. We discuss the complementarities among these methods with an emphasis on integration into tools that utilize operations research and systems approaches to help plant breeders rapidly and optimally design new cultivars ...


A Systematic Way To Extend The Debye–Hückel Theory Beyond Dilute Electrolyte Solutions, Tiejun Xiao, Xueyu Song Mar 2021

A Systematic Way To Extend The Debye–Hückel Theory Beyond Dilute Electrolyte Solutions, Tiejun Xiao, Xueyu Song

Chemistry Publications

An extended Debye–Hückel theory with fourth order gradient term is developed for electrolyte solutions; namely, the electric potential φ(r) of the bulk electrolyte solution can be described by ∇2φ(r) = κ2φ(r) + LQ2∇4φ(r), where the parameters κ and LQ are chosen to reproduce the first two roots of the dielectric response function of the bulk solution. Three boundary conditions for solving the electric potential problem are proposed based upon the continuity conditions of involving functions at the dielectric boundary, with which a boundary element method for the electric potential of a solute with ...


Mitigation Of Airborne Prrsv Transmission With Uv Light Treatment: Proof-Of-Concept, Peiyang Li, Jacek A. Koziel, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman, Jianqiang Zhang, Ting-Yu Cheng, Wannarat Yim-Im, William S. Jenks, Myeongseong Lee, Baitong Chen, Steven J. Hoff Mar 2021

Mitigation Of Airborne Prrsv Transmission With Uv Light Treatment: Proof-Of-Concept, Peiyang Li, Jacek A. Koziel, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman, Jianqiang Zhang, Ting-Yu Cheng, Wannarat Yim-Im, William S. Jenks, Myeongseong Lee, Baitong Chen, Steven J. Hoff

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Proper treatment of infectious air could potentially mitigate the spread of airborne viruses such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The objective of this research is to test the effectiveness of ultraviolet (UV) in inactivating aerosolized PRRSV, specifically, four UV lamps, UV-A (365 nm, both fluorescent and LED-based), “excimer” UV-C (222 nm), and germicidal UV-C (254 nm), were tested. The two UV-C lamps effectively irradiated fast-moving PRRSV aerosols with short treatment times (<2 s). One-stage and two-stage UV inactivation models estimated the UV doses needed for target percentage (%) reductions on PRRSV titer. UV-C (254 nm) dose needed for 3-log (99.9%) reduction was 0.521 and 0.0943 mJ/cm2, respectively, based on one-stage and two-stage models. An order of magnitude lower UV-C (222 nm) doses were needed for a 3-log reduction, i.e., 0 ...


Sequence‐Selective Protection Of Peptides From Proteolysis, Xiaowei Li, Kaiqian Chen, Yan Zhao Mar 2021

Sequence‐Selective Protection Of Peptides From Proteolysis, Xiaowei Li, Kaiqian Chen, Yan Zhao

Chemistry Publications

Proteolysis of proteins and peptides is involved in the infection of cells by enveloped viruses and also in the invasion and spread of cancer cells. Shutting down broad‐specificity proteases, however, is problematic because normal functions by these proteases will be affected. Herein, nanoparticle receptors were prepared from molecular imprinting for complex biological peptides. Their strong and selective binding enabled them to protect their targeted sequences from proteolysis in aqueous solution at stoichiometric amounts. Generality of the method was demonstrated by the protection of hydrophobic and hydrophilic peptides from different proteases, selective protection of a segment of a long peptide ...


Inducibility Of 4-Vertex Tournaments, Dalton Burke, Bernard Lidicky, Florian Pfender, Michael Phillips Mar 2021

Inducibility Of 4-Vertex Tournaments, Dalton Burke, Bernard Lidicky, Florian Pfender, Michael Phillips

Mathematics Publications

We determine the inducibility of all tournaments with at most 4 vertices together with the extremal constructions. The 4-vertex tournament containing an oriented C3 and one source vertex has a particularly interesting extremal construction. It is an unbalanced blow-up of an edge, where the sink vertex is replaced by a quasi-random tournament and the source vertex is iteratively replaced by a copy of the construction itself.


Disproportionate Ch4 Sink Strength From An Endemic, Sub-Alpine Australian Soil Microbial Community, Marshall D. Mcdaniel, Marcela Hernández, Marc G. Dumont, Lachlan J. Ingram, Mark A. Adams Mar 2021

Disproportionate Ch4 Sink Strength From An Endemic, Sub-Alpine Australian Soil Microbial Community, Marshall D. Mcdaniel, Marcela Hernández, Marc G. Dumont, Lachlan J. Ingram, Mark A. Adams

Agronomy Publications

Soil-to-atmosphere methane (CH4) fluxes are dependent on opposing microbial processes of production and consumption. Here we use a soil–vegetation gradient in an Australian sub-alpine ecosystem to examine links between composition of soil microbial communities, and the fluxes of greenhouse gases they regulate. For each soil/vegetation type (forest, grassland, and bog), we measured carbon dioxide (CO2) and CH4 fluxes and their production/consumption at 5 cm intervals to a depth of 30 cm. All soils were sources of CO2, ranging from 49 to 93 mg CO2 m−2 h−1. Forest soils were strong ...


Energy Spotlight: Advances In Lib Electrolyte, Stabilizing Cspbbr3 In Mesoporous Silica, And Halide Segregation In Mixed Halide Perovskites, Nam-Soon Choi, Javier Vela, Jeffrey Dubose, Prashant V. Kamat Mar 2021

Energy Spotlight: Advances In Lib Electrolyte, Stabilizing Cspbbr3 In Mesoporous Silica, And Halide Segregation In Mixed Halide Perovskites, Nam-Soon Choi, Javier Vela, Jeffrey Dubose, Prashant V. Kamat

Chemistry Publications

One of the biggest developments of the past decade in the field of colloidal semiconductors is the introduction of lead halide perovskite nanocrystals. Because of their low cost, ease of synthesis, and near ideal optical properties, these materials are versatile building blocks for light-emitting displays, solar cells, environmental sensors, and radiation detectors.