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Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia

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Articles 1 - 30 of 2001

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Geology, Soils And Climate Of The Margaret River Wine Region, Peter J. Tille, Angela Stuart-Street, Peter S. Gardiner Aug 2020

Geology, Soils And Climate Of The Margaret River Wine Region, Peter J. Tille, Angela Stuart-Street, Peter S. Gardiner

All other publications

This report is an extract from the broader description and analysis of the geology, soils and climate of all the wine regions of Western Australia currently being developed by DPIRD. It expands on the brief descriptions in the second edition of 'Viticulture' (Coombe & Dry 2004) concerning the soils and landscapes of Western Australia’s main wine growing regions. We have tailored this report extract to the specific needs of the Margaret River wine region. It contains local soil names and soil-landscape zones and systems maps.

The wine industry recognises the importance of giving customers an understanding of the vines’ environment ...


Water Quality Study Of The Muchea Livestock Truck Wash, Simon Clarendon, David Weaver, Justin L.M Hardy, Claire Coffey, Robert Summers, David Rogers, Peta Richards Aug 2020

Water Quality Study Of The Muchea Livestock Truck Wash, Simon Clarendon, David Weaver, Justin L.M Hardy, Claire Coffey, Robert Summers, David Rogers, Peta Richards

Resource management technical reports

Across Australia there is a lack of information on the quality of the water discharged from facilities that are used to wash livestock trucks. This water quality scoping study partially fills that information gap and provides a starting point for future planning, design and construction of livestock truck washes.

The study was undertaken in 2011–12 at the Western Australian Muchea Livestock Centre, and aimed to gain insights into water quality associated with the truck wash facility at that site. These insights can help to inform the planning for further construction of truck wash facilities throughout the state, and whether ...


The Effect Of Soil Ph On Phosphorus Content Of Clover Pasture, David Weaver, Robert Summers, David Rogers, Peta Richards Jun 2020

The Effect Of Soil Ph On Phosphorus Content Of Clover Pasture, David Weaver, Robert Summers, David Rogers, Peta Richards

Resource management technical reports

Testing of pasture soils from 2009 to 2018, as part of DPIRD’s Whole Farm Nutrient Mapping (WFNM) project in the coastal catchments of south-west Western Australia (WA), indicated that soil pH was so low it could be limiting plant access to nutrients. Observations by some farmers who had been involved in the soil testing were that lime application had not increased pasture production, even when pHCa (pH measured in calcium chloride) tests indicated that phosphorus (P) should become more available by increasing soil pH. Farmers also wanted to know if they needed to apply more P than soil ...


A Simple Guide For Describing Soils, Angela Stuart-Street, Nicolyn Short Dr, Paul Galloway, Noel R. Schoknecht Jun 2020

A Simple Guide For Describing Soils, Angela Stuart-Street, Nicolyn Short Dr, Paul Galloway, Noel R. Schoknecht

All other publications

Soils are enormously diverse and can be very confusing to understand and talk about. This simple guide for describing soils helps to identify the most important parts of a soil profile and provide an easy way to understand and explain what you see. It gives you a step-by-step guide of what soil properties to describe and how to describe them, along with the tools to make basic soil classifications. The soil descriptors help you to identify the soil type and aid in assigning a simple and standardised name to the soil. While this guide is designed to link with a ...


Soil Amendment And Soil Testing As Nutrient Reduction Strategies For The Peel Integrated Water Initiative, Robert Summers, Peta Richards, David Weaver, David Rowe May 2020

Soil Amendment And Soil Testing As Nutrient Reduction Strategies For The Peel Integrated Water Initiative, Robert Summers, Peta Richards, David Weaver, David Rowe

Resource management technical reports

The Transform Peel program focuses on 42 000 hectares (ha) due east of Mandurah called the Peel Food Zone, 75 kilometres (km) south of Perth in the shires of Murray and Serpentine Jarrahdale and includes an assessment of intensified and enclosed agriculture and a business park. The Peel Integrated Water Initiative was developed through Transform Peel to identify water sources and minimise the effect of these projects on water quality by reducing the nutrient loads discharged into the Peel–Harvey Estuarine System, which has been suffering from poor water quality for this reason.

The mineral sand miner MZI Resources Pty ...


Establishing Pastoralist Monitoring Sites In The Grasslands: A Guide For Pastoralists, Department Of Primary Industries And Regional Development May 2020

Establishing Pastoralist Monitoring Sites In The Grasslands: A Guide For Pastoralists, Department Of Primary Industries And Regional Development

All other publications

This guide is for lessees and station managers who wish to establish rangeland condition monitoring programs for their pastoral leases. The guide outlines the main principles to consider for establishing monitoring sites, and the collecting and recording data to monitor changes over time of rangeland condition within a grassland environment.

Identifying and ongoing monitoring of representative sites can be used to objectively assess the effect of livestock numbers, fire and seasonal conditions on the health of the perennial vegetation and soil. Importantly, monitoring can assist lessees demonstrate whether their current land management practices are appropriate for achieving acceptable rangeland condition.


Rain, Rain, Gone Away. Decreased Growing Season Rainfall For The Dryland Cropping Region Of South-Western Australia, Tim Scanlon, Greg Doncon Feb 2020

Rain, Rain, Gone Away. Decreased Growing Season Rainfall For The Dryland Cropping Region Of South-Western Australia, Tim Scanlon, Greg Doncon

Journal articles

The shift in Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures in 1976 led to a change in rainfall for the broad-scale winter annual grain cropping and pasture region in the south-west of Western Australia (the WA wheatbelt). Agriculture in the eastern part the WA Wheatbelt was particularly sensitive to the change in rainfall because it is a marginal area for agronomic production, with low rainfall before changes in sea surface temperature. A second shift in sea surface temperature occurred in 2000, but there has been no analysis of the resulting impact on rainfall in the eastern WA wheatbelt. An analysis of rainfall ...


Planning For The Peel Food Zone, Heather M. Percy Feb 2020

Planning For The Peel Food Zone, Heather M. Percy

All other publications

The Planning for the Peel Food Zone project is part of Phase 1 of the Transform Peel initiative.Transform Peel is intended to be a ‘disruptive’ long-term program that supports economic growth, diversification and creates jobs in the Peel region. Transform Peel recognises the importance of protecting the internationally recognised waterways and wetlands of the Peel–Harvey Estuary and aims to halve the nutrient loads entering its waterways from the surrounding catchment.

The $49.3 million Phase 1 program for Transform Peel comprises three main components: Peel Food Zone; Peel Integrated Water Initiative; Peel Business Park.

This report summarises the ...


Hydrogeology Of The Gillingarra Palaeochannel, Russell Speed, Adele Killen Feb 2020

Hydrogeology Of The Gillingarra Palaeochannel, Russell Speed, Adele Killen

Resource management technical reports

Previous groundwater investigations had identified the presence of palaeochannel sediments under the Capitela Valley in the Perth Basin, about 25 kilometres south-west of Moora. The sediments of this Capitela Palaeochannel were thought to form a discrete aquifer of good quality groundwater suitable for agriculture.

To improve our understanding of the Capitela Palaeochannel, its distribution, water quality and potential as a groundwater resource, we undertook an airborne electromagnetic (AEM) geophysical survey of the area in December 2012. This led to the discovery of a palaeochannel located in the Darling Range between Gillingarra and New Norcia, and we named this the Gillingarra ...


Best Practice Soil Sampling To Depth The Key To Enable Growers To Manage Soil Acidity, Stephen Carr Dec 2019

Best Practice Soil Sampling To Depth The Key To Enable Growers To Manage Soil Acidity, Stephen Carr

The State of Soil Science in WA

Soil acidity affects approximately 50 million hectares of agricultural land in Australia, predominantly in Western Australia (WA) and New South Wales (State of the Environment 2011 committee). Subsurface acidity below 0.1 m, in particular, is a major land degradation issue throughout the WA wheatbelt. Soil acidification is an inevitable consequence of productive agriculture, largely through the addition of acidifying fertilizers, leaching of nitrates and removal of alkaline plant products.


What Lies Deep Beneath – Acid Sulfate Soil Impacts On Groundwater Resources Used For Irrigation, Brad Degens Dec 2019

What Lies Deep Beneath – Acid Sulfate Soil Impacts On Groundwater Resources Used For Irrigation, Brad Degens

The State of Soil Science in WA

Over 17 years have passed since the hazards posed by Acid Sulfate Soils (ASS) were recognised in WA with a catastrophic oxidation event during dewatering of a development in Perth’s northern suburbs. Since then, regional mapping has identified ASS risks lies beneath over 6000 km2 (about half) of the Swan Coastal plain. The risks posed by these soils are mostly to water quality and aquatic ecosystems rather than the directly to soils for agricultural production purposes.


Identification And Classification Of “New” Semi-Arid Soils From The Pilbara Wa With Potential Additions To The Australian Soil Classification, Henry Smolinski, Dennis Van Gool Dec 2019

Identification And Classification Of “New” Semi-Arid Soils From The Pilbara Wa With Potential Additions To The Australian Soil Classification, Henry Smolinski, Dennis Van Gool

The State of Soil Science in WA

As part of the Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development’s (DPIRD) Transforming Agriculture in the Pilbara (TAP) project, a land assessment of the region was conducted to identify areas with potential for irrigated agriculture. The morphology of the dominant soils is described together with their chemical and physical properties.


The All New Australian Soil Classification, Noel R. Schoknecht Dec 2019

The All New Australian Soil Classification, Noel R. Schoknecht

The State of Soil Science in WA

An upgraded 3rd Edition of the ASC will be published in 2020. The most significant change will be the incorporation of a new soil Order - the Arenosols (deep sandy soils) improving its relevance to Western Australian soils. Another planned improvement is providing the classification for free in a number of formats – including the web, a downloadable print-ready pdf and an e-publication – all available on the Soil Science Australia website.


Variable Aluminium Toxicity And Root Distribution In Acidic Soil Profiles, Paul Damon, Gaus Azam, Craig Scanlan, Chris Gazey Dec 2019

Variable Aluminium Toxicity And Root Distribution In Acidic Soil Profiles, Paul Damon, Gaus Azam, Craig Scanlan, Chris Gazey

The State of Soil Science in WA

Subsoil acidity currently affects two thirds of the arable soils in the WA wheatbelt. At acidic soil pH, aluminium (Al) is solubilised from the solid phase into soil solution, creating a direct and localised toxicity to plant roots. Aluminium toxicity to plant roots constrains crop productivity by reducing root proliferation through soil, and inhibiting the capacity of roots to tolerate other constraints, such as compaction. Ongoing acidification of the subsoil is a direct artefact of the productive farming systems that are required to feed our world’s growing appetite for grain and livestock products.


Influence Of Lime And Crop Rotation On Soil Nitrogen, Dry Matter Production And Microbial Biomass; A Field Trial, Merredin, Wa, Manujla Premaratne, Daniel V. Murphy, Craig Scanlan, Frances C. Hoyle Dec 2019

Influence Of Lime And Crop Rotation On Soil Nitrogen, Dry Matter Production And Microbial Biomass; A Field Trial, Merredin, Wa, Manujla Premaratne, Daniel V. Murphy, Craig Scanlan, Frances C. Hoyle

The State of Soil Science in WA

Nitrogen (N) fertilisers are applied to the soil to meet crop N demands. A large proportion of Western Australian (WA) cropping soils are acidic, decreasing access to plant available nutrients. Application of lime is generally the most effective means of ameliorating increasing soil acidity.


Vacuum Drying Soil Samples Is A Low-Temperature Alternative To Conventional Oven Drying When Determining Soil Water Repellence, Enoch Wong, Philip R. Ward, Matthias Leopold, Daniel V. Murphy, Louise Barton Dec 2019

Vacuum Drying Soil Samples Is A Low-Temperature Alternative To Conventional Oven Drying When Determining Soil Water Repellence, Enoch Wong, Philip R. Ward, Matthias Leopold, Daniel V. Murphy, Louise Barton

The State of Soil Science in WA

Here we investigated a low-temperature (20˚C) soil drying technique to generate soil water contents equivalent to those achieved by conventional oven drying (105˚C). The effect of drying temperature, plus aeration status (oxic or anoxic), on SWR was also investigated.


Soil Exchangeable Cations Increase Microbial Carbon Use Efficiency And Microbial Growth In Acidic Soils, Emilia Horn Dec 2019

Soil Exchangeable Cations Increase Microbial Carbon Use Efficiency And Microbial Growth In Acidic Soils, Emilia Horn

The State of Soil Science in WA

Microbial growth and function is influenced by the properties of the surrounding soil where surface chemistry mediates interactions between individual organisms and their local microenvironment. We hypothesised that the addition of exchangeable base cations, necessary for microbial biochemical function, will increase microbial growth in acidic soils.


Bacterial Processes Associated With Soil C And N Following Application Of Compost And Manure To Dairy Pasture At The Beginning And End Of The Growing Season, Lynette Abbot, Bede Mikan, Zakaria Solaiman, Anjani Weersekara, Sanja Schwab, Ian Waite, Sasha Jenkins Dec 2019

Bacterial Processes Associated With Soil C And N Following Application Of Compost And Manure To Dairy Pasture At The Beginning And End Of The Growing Season, Lynette Abbot, Bede Mikan, Zakaria Solaiman, Anjani Weersekara, Sanja Schwab, Ian Waite, Sasha Jenkins

The State of Soil Science in WA

This study investigated the impact of dairy manure and compost on bacterial community composition and functional diversity in a dairy pasture in south-western Australia.


Translating Soils Information Into Better Land Planning Decisions: An Example From The Peel-Harvey Catchment Western Australia, Heather M. Percy, Andrew Del Marco, Tom Lerner, Brett Flugge Dec 2019

Translating Soils Information Into Better Land Planning Decisions: An Example From The Peel-Harvey Catchment Western Australia, Heather M. Percy, Andrew Del Marco, Tom Lerner, Brett Flugge

The State of Soil Science in WA

State planning policy for the Peel-Harvey coastal plain catchment requires decision makers to consider land suitability when assessing proposals for intensive agriculture including for horticulture. This information is not accessible or easily understood by land use planners. We will describe how we translated this information into a model Local Planning Policy (LPP) for the Peel-Harvey.


Validating And Extending The National Better Fertiliser Decisions For Pasture Critical Values For Phosphorus, David Rogers, David Weaver, Ron Master, Robert Summers Dec 2019

Validating And Extending The National Better Fertiliser Decisions For Pasture Critical Values For Phosphorus, David Rogers, David Weaver, Ron Master, Robert Summers

The State of Soil Science in WA

Viable pasture based grazing systems in south-western Australia have been made possible over much of the landscape through input of nutrients to soils which were impoverished when first cleared. Initial dramatic increases in production stimulated subsequent applications of fertilisers, particularly phosphatic fertilisers, ever since. However, excessive fertiliser application can be tied to environmental impacts including the loss of phosphorus (P) to waterways impacting on water quality.


Legacy Phosphorus – Have We Fallen Asleep At The Wheel?, Simon Clarendon, David Weaver, Robert Summers Dec 2019

Legacy Phosphorus – Have We Fallen Asleep At The Wheel?, Simon Clarendon, David Weaver, Robert Summers

The State of Soil Science in WA

Reducing nutrient loss from agricultural landscapes using management practices in Australia has long been advocated to improve water quality. Water quality, i.e. phosphorus (P) concentrations are commonly used to measure the effectiveness of management practices at the paddock level. However, the effectiveness of paddock scale management practices is often not reflected at a catchment scale, in part due to levels of implementation, but also due to the equilibrium effects of legacy P.


Rapid Soil Analytical Techniques For International Agricultural Research And Development, Wendy Vance, Mike Tf Wong, Anthony Ringrose-Voase, Soil And Water Science Office, Cambodian Agricultural Research And Development Institute, Department Of Agricultural Research, Myanmar Dec 2019

Rapid Soil Analytical Techniques For International Agricultural Research And Development, Wendy Vance, Mike Tf Wong, Anthony Ringrose-Voase, Soil And Water Science Office, Cambodian Agricultural Research And Development Institute, Department Of Agricultural Research, Myanmar

The State of Soil Science in WA

Soil analysis is used to assess natural resources and inform management to improve long-term farming profitability. Conventional techniques typically use different methods, equipment, reagents and skills to measure each soil property of interest. The consequence is that a conventional soil laboratory is expensive to set up, maintain and run. These issues result in many countries (and organisations) having to do without a well-functioning conventional soil laboratory. Developments in spectroscopic and potentiometric methods of soil analysis means that these countries need not go without reliable soil analysis.


Soil Classification Based On Spectral And Environmental Variables, Andre Carnieletto Dotto, Raphael A. Viscara Rossel, Jose Am Dematte, Rodnei Rizzo Dec 2019

Soil Classification Based On Spectral And Environmental Variables, Andre Carnieletto Dotto, Raphael A. Viscara Rossel, Jose Am Dematte, Rodnei Rizzo

The State of Soil Science in WA

In the last decades, the volume of soil data collection has increased significantly. Because of that it is now possible to obtain a soil classification using spectral, climate and terrain attributes. The idea was to develop a soil series system, which intends to discriminate soil types according to soil, climate and terrain variables. This new system was called Soil-Environmental Classification.


Black Soldier Fly Technology Can Convert Manure Into Valuable Fertiliser, Sasha Jenkins, Zhuoda Huang, Bede Mikan, Morten Andersen, Luke Wheat, Lynette Abbott Dec 2019

Black Soldier Fly Technology Can Convert Manure Into Valuable Fertiliser, Sasha Jenkins, Zhuoda Huang, Bede Mikan, Morten Andersen, Luke Wheat, Lynette Abbott

The State of Soil Science in WA

Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens, BSF) farming provides an alternative low-cost waste management solution for converting agricultural waste into high quality insect meal (BSF larvae as animal feed) and a valuable fertiliser (BSF casting residue or frass).

The aim of this study was to investigate the slow-releasing effect of N after coating the BSF frass with three different fatty acids (lauric, myristic and stearic acid).


Ilime An App For Assessing The Management Of Soil Acidity In Agricultural Systems, James Fisher, Jenni Clausen, Fiona Evans, Chris Gazey Dec 2019

Ilime An App For Assessing The Management Of Soil Acidity In Agricultural Systems, James Fisher, Jenni Clausen, Fiona Evans, Chris Gazey

The State of Soil Science in WA

iLIme mobile app is available for download for Apple and Android devices from your preferred app store.

https://www.agric.wa.gov.au/apps/ilime

Awareness of soil acidity as a constraint to agricultural production in Western Australia has led to increased use of lime, but rates remain too low to manage existing acidic soil and ongoing acidification. To invest in lime, growers need confidence in likely economic and production responses. This paper describes the development of an acidification calculator, in app form, that was developed with input and feedback to ensure that it would meet the needs and requirements ...


Extending The Message Of Soil Quality In The Mobile Device Era, Chris Gazey, Frances Hoyle Dec 2019

Extending The Message Of Soil Quality In The Mobile Device Era, Chris Gazey, Frances Hoyle

The State of Soil Science in WA

In this day and age, where everyone is time poor, making information easily and quickly available is paramount. However, with a topic as complex and as multi-dimensional as soil quality, a new approach to packaging information that is evidence-based and relevant to the local environment is required. Apple multimedia digital books provide a platform capable of delivering layers of information on mobile devices.


Simulating Australian Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration, Juhwan Lee, Raphael A. Viscarra Rossell Dec 2019

Simulating Australian Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration, Juhwan Lee, Raphael A. Viscarra Rossell

The State of Soil Science in WA

National initiatives to mitigate and adopt to climate change imply the need for enhancing carbon (C) sequestration in soils. Soil process models often render a C baseline hardly representative and its C sequestration potential questionable when initial soil C pools are not accounted. Here we use the soil process model Roth C to simulate site-specific soil C across 4431 sites in Australia. After matching the modelled and measured C pools at initial equilibrium, the model predicted C sequestration potentials in soils, coherent to changes among the pools, in response to soil inputs that represent soil and residue management. We show ...


Gravel Is Soil Is Gravel, David Weaver, Ron Master, David Rogers Dec 2019

Gravel Is Soil Is Gravel, David Weaver, Ron Master, David Rogers

The State of Soil Science in WA

Around 3.8 M ha of gravelly soil contributes to crop production in south west WA. Soil analysis and glasshouse experiments routinely take place in the absence of the ≥2 mm fraction. Typical processes include sample collection, air drying, and sieving (<2 mm) prior to experimentation or analysis. The ≥2 mm fraction is discarded as it is often considered inert, acting as a soil volume diluent, and problematic for routine chemical analysis when intact because of size and representativeness. However, the literature cites that the ≥2 mm fraction may contribute positively to soil chemical, physical and biological properties.


Evolution Of Ryegrass Resistance To Glyphosate Changes Soil Microbial Diversity 14 Years Continuous Application, Zakaria Solaiman, Abul Hashem, Bede Mikan, Lynette Abbott, Paul Storer, Vivek Bhat, Andrew Whitely Dec 2019

Evolution Of Ryegrass Resistance To Glyphosate Changes Soil Microbial Diversity 14 Years Continuous Application, Zakaria Solaiman, Abul Hashem, Bede Mikan, Lynette Abbott, Paul Storer, Vivek Bhat, Andrew Whitely

The State of Soil Science in WA

Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicides in agriculture. Short-term impacts of glyphosate on soil microbial communities have been reported but long-term effects are rarely studied. There is concern for non-target effects on soil microbial communities with potential to negatively affect soil functions after long-term use of glyphosate. Therefore, our objective was to investigate changes in bacterial community composition following long-term glyphosate application on annual ryegrass.


Soil Nitrogen Storage And Availability To Crops Are Increased By Conservation Agriculture Practices In Rice-Based Cropping Systems In The Eastern Gangetic Plains, Md. Khairal Alam, Richard Bell, M E. Haque, M A. Islam, M A. Kader Dec 2019

Soil Nitrogen Storage And Availability To Crops Are Increased By Conservation Agriculture Practices In Rice-Based Cropping Systems In The Eastern Gangetic Plains, Md. Khairal Alam, Richard Bell, M E. Haque, M A. Islam, M A. Kader

The State of Soil Science in WA

On-farm adoption of minimum soil disturbance and increased residue retention will alter nitrogen (N) dynamics in soils and N fertiliser management in the intensive rice–based triple cropping systems of the Eastern Gangetic Plains. However, the consequences of changes in N forms, N mineralisation and N availability for crops in these cropping systems have not been determined.