# Physical Sciences and Mathematics Commons™

Articles 1 - 30 of 3114

## Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Catch The King Tide 2018: All King Tide Data, Jon Derek Loftis Dec 2018

#### Catch The King Tide 2018: All King Tide Data, Jon Derek Loftis

##### Data

"Catch the King" is a citizen-science GPS data collection effort centered in Hampton Roads, VA, that seeks to interactively map the King Tide's maximum inundation extents. The goal is to validate and improving predictive model accuracy for future forecasting of increasingly pervasive "nuisance" flooding.

Associated Dataset: Ocean Circulation Causes Strong Variability In The Mid-Atlantic Bight Nitrogen Budget, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Pierre St-Laurent Dec 2018

#### Associated Dataset: Ocean Circulation Causes Strong Variability In The Mid-Atlantic Bight Nitrogen Budget, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Pierre St-Laurent

##### Data

The dataset includes model outputs used in the associated publication (Friedrichs et al.), which used the United States Eastern Continental Shelf (USECoS) biogeochemical model embedded in the Regional-Ocean-Modeling-System (ROMS) to examine the impact of the oceanic circulation on the nitrogen budget of the Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB). The model simulation covers the period 2004 to 2008 and is fully described in the associated publication. The model simulation highlights that the horizontal along-shelf and across-shelf fluxes dominate the spatiotemporal variability of net community production (NCP) in the MAB. The highest NCP is found in a year when inorganic nitrogen entering from across ...

A Model Archive For Sediment Transport Model Including Short-Lived Radioisotopes: Model Description And Idealized Test Cases, Justin J. Birchler, Courtney K. Harris, Tara A. Kniskern Oct 2018

#### A Model Archive For Sediment Transport Model Including Short-Lived Radioisotopes: Model Description And Idealized Test Cases, Justin J. Birchler, Courtney K. Harris, Tara A. Kniskern

##### Data

This dataset includes model input, code, and output used in the publication Birchler et al. (2018, Journal of Marine Science and Engineering), which used a coupled hydrodynamic-sediment transport-biogeochemical model to investigate the roles of resuspension, deposition, on biodiffusion on the behavior of short-lived radioisotopes in an idealized one-dimensional model setting. Model development for this project focused on incorporating radioisotope tracers into the sediment transport module in the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). As described in Birchler et al. (2018, Journal of Marine Science and Engineering), the model can account for supply and sorption of radioisotope tracers in the water column ...

Shorescape-Level Factors Drive Distribution And Condition Of A Salt Marsh Facilitator (Geukensia Demissa), Robert E. Isdell, Donna Marie Bilkovic, Carl Hershner Oct 2018

#### Shorescape-Level Factors Drive Distribution And Condition Of A Salt Marsh Facilitator (Geukensia Demissa), Robert E. Isdell, Donna Marie Bilkovic, Carl Hershner

##### VIMS Articles

Ribbed mussels (Geukensia demissa) are a highly abundant bivalve filter feeder throughout the salt marshes of the U.S. Atlantic Coast. These mussels form a mutualistic relationship with smooth cordgrass Spartina alterniflora wherein the grass provides habitat and shade to the mussels, and the mussels stabilize the sediment and fertilize the grass. Salt marshes are, however, rapidly changing and eroding as humans modify the coast, and the rate of sea level rise is accelerating. In order to understand how ribbed mussels may respond to their changing habitat, we collected mussel density and distribution data from 30 marshes covering the range ...

Oct 2018

#### A Climatological Dataset Of Nutrient, Chlorophyll, And Particulate Matter Distributions On The Ross Sea Continental Shelf Derived From Cruise-Based Measurements Spanning 1967 To 2016, Walker O. Smith Jr., Daniel E. Kaufman

##### Data

This dataset includes data used in the publication Smith and Kaufman (2018), Progress in Oceanography, which examines the temporal and spatial distributions of nutrients and particulate matter in the Ross Sea continental Shelf using cruise-based observations, and compares the resulting annual productivity estimates with previously reported satellite-based estimates. Specifically, these data represent distributions of nutrients, chlorophyll, particulate organic carbon, particulate organic nitrogen, and biogenic silica that were compiled from 42 cruises (from 1967 - 2016) to the Ross Sea continental shelf to generate a comprehensive climatological dataset for November, December, January, and February. This climatology provides a novel look at broad ...

#### The Contribution Of Local And Transport Processes To Phytoplankton Biomass Variability Over Different Timescales In The Upper James River, Virginia, Qubin Qin, Jian Shen

##### Articles

Although both local processes (photosynthesis, respiration, grazing, and settling), and transport processes (advective transport and diffusive transport) significantly affect local phytoplankton dynamics, it is difficult to separate their contributions and to investigate the relative importance of each process to the local variability of phytoplankton biomass over different timescales. A method of using the transport rate is introduced to quantify the contribution of transport processes. By combining the time-varying transport rate and high-frequency observed chlorophyll a data, we can explicitly examine the impact of local and transport processes on phytoplankton biomass over a range of timescales from hourly to annually. For ...

Forecasting Coastal Water Levels In Virginia, Center For Coastal Resources Management, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science Jul 2018

#### Forecasting Coastal Water Levels In Virginia, Center For Coastal Resources Management, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science

##### Reports

Rivers & Coast is a periodic publication of the Center for Coastal Resources Management, Virginia Institute of Marine Science. The goal of Rivers & Coast is to keep readers well informed of current scientific understanding behind key environmental issues related to watershed rivers and coastal ecosystems of the Chesapeake Bay.

Probing Molecular Dynamics With Hyperpolarized Ultrafast Laplace Nmr Using A Low-Field, Singlesided Magnet†, Jared N. King, Alfredo Fallorina, Justin Yu, Guannan Zhang, Ville-Veikko Telkki, Christian Hilty, Tyler Meldrum Jun 2018

#### Probing Molecular Dynamics With Hyperpolarized Ultrafast Laplace Nmr Using A Low-Field, Singlesided Magnet†, Jared N. King, Alfredo Fallorina, Justin Yu, Guannan Zhang, Ville-Veikko Telkki, Christian Hilty, Tyler Meldrum

##### Chemistry Faculty and Graduate Publications

Laplace NMR (LNMR) offers deep insights on diffusional and rotational motion of molecules. The so-called “ultrafast” approach, based on spatial data encoding, enables one to carry out a multidimensional LNMR experiment in a single scan, providing from 10 to 1000-fold acceleration of the experiment. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of ultrafast diffusion–T2 relaxation correlation (DT2) measurements with a mobile, low-field, relatively low-cost, single-sided NMR magnet. We show that the method can probe a broad range of diffusion coefficients (at least from 10−8 to 10−12 m2 s−1) and reveal multiple components of fluids ...

Section: 01 Line Frame: 01, 18 October 2017: Aerial Imagery Acquired To Monitor The Distribution And Abundance Of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation In Chesapeake Bay And Coastal Bays, Robert J. Orth, David J. Wilcox, Jennifer R. Whiting, Anna K. Kenne, Erica R. Smith Jun 2018

#### Section: 01 Line Frame: 01, 18 October 2017: Aerial Imagery Acquired To Monitor The Distribution And Abundance Of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation In Chesapeake Bay And Coastal Bays, Robert J. Orth, David J. Wilcox, Jennifer R. Whiting, Anna K. Kenne, Erica R. Smith

##### Data

Multispectral aerial imagery acquired in 2017 to monitor the distribution and abundance of submerged aquatic vegetation in Chesapeake Bay and coastal bays

Section: 01 Line Frame: 06, 27 August 2017: Aerial Imagery Acquired To Monitor The Distribution And Abundance Of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation In Chesapeake Bay And Coastal Bays, Robert J. Orth, David J. Wilcox, Jennifer R. Whiting, Anna K. Kenne, Erica R. Smith Jun 2018

#### Section: 01 Line Frame: 06, 27 August 2017: Aerial Imagery Acquired To Monitor The Distribution And Abundance Of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation In Chesapeake Bay And Coastal Bays, Robert J. Orth, David J. Wilcox, Jennifer R. Whiting, Anna K. Kenne, Erica R. Smith

##### Data

Multispectral aerial imagery acquired in 2017 to monitor the distribution and abundance of submerged aquatic vegetation in Chesapeake Bay and coastal bays

Associated Dataset: Impacts Of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition And Coastal Nitrogen Fluxes On Oxygen Concentrations In Chesapeake Bay, Fei Da, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Pierre St-Laurent Jun 2018

#### Associated Dataset: Impacts Of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition And Coastal Nitrogen Fluxes On Oxygen Concentrations In Chesapeake Bay, Fei Da, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Pierre St-Laurent

##### Data

The dataset includes model outputs used in publication Da et al. (2018), which used the Estuarine-Carbon-Biogeochemistry model embedded in the Regional-Ocean-Modeling-System (ChesROMS-ECB) to examine the relative impact of direct atmospheric dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) deposition and DIN from the continental shelf on the Chesapeake Bay dissolved oxygen. Model simulations highlight that DIN from the atmosphere has roughly the same impact on hypoxia as the same gram-for-gram change in riverine DIN loading. DIN concentrations on the continental shelf has a similar overall impact on hypoxia as DIN from the atmosphere.

Projecting Shifts In Thermal Habitat For 686 Species On The North American Continental Shelf, J. W. Morley, R. L. Selden, Robert J. Latour, T. L. Frolicher, R. J. Seagraves, M. L. Pinsky May 2018

#### Projecting Shifts In Thermal Habitat For 686 Species On The North American Continental Shelf, J. W. Morley, R. L. Selden, Robert J. Latour, T. L. Frolicher, R. J. Seagraves, M. L. Pinsky

##### VIMS Articles

Recent shifts in the geographic distribution of marine species have been linked to shifts in preferred thermal habitats. These shifts in distribution have already posed challenges for living marine resource management, and there is a strong need for projections of how species might be impacted by future changes in ocean temperatures during the 21st century. We modeled thermal habitat for 686 marine species in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans using long-term ecological survey data from the North American continental shelves. These habitat models were coupled to output from sixteen general circulation models that were run under high (RCP 8.5 ...

Constraints On Cosmic Strings Using Data From The First Advanced Ligo Observing Run, B. P. Abbott, R. Abbott, T. D. Abbott, F. Acernese, K. Ackley, C. Adams, T. Adams, P. Addesso, R. X. Adhikari, V. B. Adya, C. Affeldt, M. Afrough, B. Agarwal, M. Agathos, K. Agatsuma, N. Aggarwal, O. D. Aguiar, L. Aiello, A. Ain, P. Ajith, B. Allen, G. Allen, Eugeniy E. Mikhailov, H. Rew, M. Zhang May 2018

#### Constraints On Cosmic Strings Using Data From The First Advanced Ligo Observing Run, B. P. Abbott, R. Abbott, T. D. Abbott, F. Acernese, K. Ackley, C. Adams, T. Adams, P. Addesso, R. X. Adhikari, V. B. Adya, C. Affeldt, M. Afrough, B. Agarwal, M. Agathos, K. Agatsuma, N. Aggarwal, O. D. Aguiar, L. Aiello, A. Ain, P. Ajith, B. Allen, G. Allen, Eugeniy E. Mikhailov, H. Rew, M. Zhang

##### Arts & Sciences Publications

Cosmic strings are topological defects which can be formed in grand unified theory scale phase transitions in the early universe. They are also predicted to form in the context of string theory. The main mechanism for a network of Nambu-Goto cosmic strings to lose energy is through the production of loops and the subsequent emission of gravitational waves, thus offering an experimental signature for the existence of cosmic strings. Here we report on the analysis conducted to specifically search for gravitational-wave bursts from cosmic string loops in the data of Advanced LIGO 2015-2016 observing run (O1). No evidence of such ...

May 2018

#### Counting Real Conjugacy Classes In Some Finite Classical Groups, Elena Amparo

An element $g$ in a group $G$ is real if there exists $x\in G$ such that $xgx^{-1}=g^{-1}$. If $g$ is real then all elements in the conjugacy class of $g$ are real. In \cite{GS1} and \cite{GS2}, Gill and Singh showed that the number of real $\mathrm{GL}_n(q)$-conjugacy classes contained in $\mathrm{SL}_n(q)$ equals the number of real $\mathrm{PGL}_n(q)$-conjugacy classes when $q$ is even or $n$ is odd. In this paper, we use generating functions to show that the result is also true for odd $q ... Ph Tolerance And Luminescence In Vibrio Fischeri, Devin Jones May 2018 #### Ph Tolerance And Luminescence In Vibrio Fischeri, Devin Jones ##### Undergraduate Honors Theses The purpose of this experiment was to examine how changes in pH would affect the symbiotic and free-living V. fischeri in growth and bioluminescence. We also wished to assess how geographic location and host organism related to patterns of growth and bioluminescence along a pH gradient. To do so, seventeen strains of V. fischeri ecotypes were obtained from diverse host organisms and geographic locations. These strains were then growth on a pH gradient ranging from 4.8 to 10.8. Our results showed that V. fischeri was able to grow on a very wide range, with species growing from pH ... May 2018 #### Spectral Analysis Of Lattice Qcd Two-Point Correlation Functions, Elena Amparo ##### Undergraduate Honors Theses We extracted a discrete energy spectrum corresponding to scattering of two pions in a finite volume in Quantum Chromodynamics by analyzing matrices of two-point correlation functions computed within lattice QCD. We solved the generalized eigenvalue problem$C(t)v=\lambda C(t_0)v$, where the eigenvectors correspond to the optimal linear combination of basis operators to interpolate each state in the spectrum and the time dependence of the eigenvalues is controlled by the state energy. In order to solve the generalized eigenvalue problem, we used the properties of positive definite matrices to decompose$C(t_0)$into its eigensystem and rewrite ... #### Characterizing The Ductile-Brittle Transition Of Polyamide-11/ Purification And Characterization Of Boron Nitride Nanotubes, William Kim ##### Undergraduate Honors Theses Semi-crystalline polymers undergo a transition from ductile to brittle behavior that has traditionally been characterized by the molecular weight (Mw). However, using Mw as a determinant of the ductile brittle transition has been proven to be imprecise. To better understand the ductile-brittle transition, polyamide-11 (PA-11) was degraded in water and low molecular weight acids: acetic and butanoic. The Mw of PA-11 degraded 4 times faster in acetic and 8 times faster in butanoic acid than when aged in water. This accelerated aging technique separated the role of crystallinity from a changing molecular weight on ductility. This research shows that crystallinity ... May 2018 #### Procedural Generation And Rendering Of Ink Bamboo Painting, Yangyang He ##### Undergraduate Honors Theses This thesis describes an algorithm that generates various ink bamboo paintings. First, a completely procedural model is used to generate the geometric shape of bamboos. The model uses a grammar-like approach that recursively generates new parts of the bamboo in a randomized manner. The random parameters are bounded by rules that simulate the natural form of bamboo. The structure of the bamboo is represented line segments with directions. Various ink stroke sprites of stalk, branch, or leaf shapes are mapped to line segments, using reverse mapping and bilinear sampling to eliminate aliasing effects. The sprites are mapped in different degrees ... Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program Annual Report 2017, Susanna Musick, Lewis Gillingham May 2018 #### Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program Annual Report 2017, Susanna Musick, Lewis Gillingham ##### Reports Through 2017, the Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program (VGFTP) has maintained a 22-year database of rec-ords for tagged and recaptured fish. The program is a cooperative project of the Virginia Saltwater Fishing Tournament (VSFT) under the Virginia Marine Resources Commission-(VMRC) and the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) of the College of William and Mary (under the VIMS Marine Advisory Program). #### Gas-Phase Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange And Fragmentation Studies Of Tetrapeptides Containing Lysine And Its Homologs, Annatram Do ##### Undergraduate Honors Theses Mass spectrometry- based proteomics is becoming a common method in proteomics. Peptides can be identified by automated database searches, and relative protein abundances can be obtained from the mass spectra. Understanding the fragmentation mechanisms may refine and provide additional "rules" that will increase the confidence in automated primary sequencing of peptides and eventually relate the information on gas-phase fragmentation patterns and energetics of dissociation to the gas-phase conformations of intact and fragment peptides and proteins; this will improve protein identification and profiling. Improvements are necessary for continual use of these quantitative approaches and bottom-up proteomics. Lysine and its homologs, ornithine ... #### Two-Mode Squeezing And Conservation Of Optical Angular Momentum Via Four-Wave Mixing In Rubidium, Nathan Super ##### Undergraduate Honors Theses The goal of the project is to produce a pair of intensity-squeezed light fields using Four-Wave Mixing (FWM) in hot Rubidium vapor. In this process, interaction of atoms with near-resonant strong control optical field results in strong amplification of a weak probe optical field and in generation of a quantum correlated conjugate Stokes optical field. In order to establish the quantum correlation between the Stokes and probe fields, we measured the differential intensity noise between the Stokes and probe fields. If the noise falls below the quantum noise limit, then two-mode intensity squeezing has been achieved, as a first step ... May 2018 #### Strongly Real Conjugacy Classes In Unitary Groups Over Fields Of Even Characteristic, Tanner N. Carawan ##### Undergraduate Honors Theses An element$g$of a group$G$is called strongly real if there is an$s$in$G$such that$s^2 = 1$and$sgs^{-1} = g^{-1}$. It is a fact that if$g$in$G$is strongly real, then every element in its conjugacy class is strongly real. Thus we can classify each conjugacy class as strongly real or not strongly real. Gates, Singh, and Vinroot have classified the strongly real conjugacy classes of U$(n, q^2)$in the case that$q\$ is odd. Vinroot and Schaeffer Fry have classified some of the conjugacy classes of U ...

The Test-Retest Reliability Of Erp Components As Assessed By The Brief Neurometric Battery, James D. Cole, Paul Kieffaber May 2018

#### The Test-Retest Reliability Of Erp Components As Assessed By The Brief Neurometric Battery, James D. Cole, Paul Kieffaber

Electroencephalography (EEG) has been a crucial component of neuropsychological research for nearly a century. Recent applications of the EEG recordings in a clinical setting have demonstrated a range of diagnostic and prognostic uses. Certain changes in event-related potentials (ERP) have been linked to the effects of different neurological conditions and can be accurately used to determine the severity of those conditions. However, in order to assess the stability of these ERP recordings over an extended period of time, one must first establish their statistical test-retest reliability. Using a novel Brief Neurometric Battery we assessed seven different ERP components in twenty ...

Tp Matrices And Tp Completability, Duo Wang May 2018

#### Tp Matrices And Tp Completability, Duo Wang

A matrix is called totally nonnegative (TN) if the determinant of

every square submatrix is nonnegative and totally positive (TP)

if the determinant of every square submatrix is positive. The TP

(TN) completion problem asks which partial matrices have a TP

(TN) completion. In this paper, several new TP-completable pat-

terns in 3-by-n matrices are identied. The relationship between

expansion and completability is developed based on the prior re-

sults about single unspecied entry. These results extend our un-

derstanding of TP-completable patterns. A new Ratio Theorem

related to TP-completability is introduced in this paper, and it can

possibly be ...

Ultra-High Dimensional Statistical Learning, Yanxin Xu May 2018

#### Ultra-High Dimensional Statistical Learning, Yanxin Xu

Advancements in information technology have enabled scientists to collect data of unprecedented size as well as complexity. Nowadays, high-dimensional data commonly arise in diverse fields as biology, engineering, health sciences, and economics. In this project, we consider both linear and non-parametric models with variable selection in the high-dimensional setting by assuming that only a small number of index coefficients influence the conditional mean of the response variable. Both the numerical results and the real data application demonstrate that the proposed approach selects the correct model with a high frequency and estimates the model coefficients accurately even for moderate sample size ...

Monitoring The Abundance Of American Shad And River Herring In Virginia's Rivers - 2017 Annual Report, Eric J. Hilton, Rob Latour, Patrick E. Mcgrath, Brian Watkins, Ashleigh Magee Apr 2018

#### Monitoring The Abundance Of American Shad And River Herring In Virginia's Rivers - 2017 Annual Report, Eric J. Hilton, Rob Latour, Patrick E. Mcgrath, Brian Watkins, Ashleigh Magee

##### Reports

This report describes the results of the twentieth year of a continuing study to estimate the relative abundance and assess the status of American shad (Alosa sapidissima) stocks in Virginia by monitoring the spawning runs in the James, York and Rappahannock rivers in spring 2017, evaluating hatchery programs, and contributing to coast-wide assessments (ASMFC 2007). We also report on two fishery-independent monitoring programs, one using staked gillnets in the Rappahannock River (year 2) and the other using anchor gillnets in the Chickahominy River (year 3; a major tributary of the James River),to determine relative abundance and stock structure for ...

#### Effect Of Pigment Volume Concentration On Physical And Chemical Properties Of Acrylic Emulsion Paints Assessed Using Single-Sided Nmr, Mary Therese Rooney

##### Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Acrylic emulsion paint is one of the most common media employed by 20th century painters. Since early acrylic paintings have begun to require the attention of conservators, scientists are working to characterize the properties of these paints to facilitate conservation efforts. In this study, we report an investigation of the physical and chemical properties of acrylic emulsion paints using single-sided NMR in conjunction with gloss measurements and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry. Combining the data from these techniques gives insight into pigment-binder interactions and the acrylic curing process, showing that as pigment concentration is increased in paints ...

Apr 2018

#### Enhancing Usability, Security, And Performance In Mobile Computing, Shanhe Yi

##### Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

We have witnessed the prevalence of smart devices in every aspect of human life. However, the ever-growing smart devices present significant challenges in terms of usability, security, and performance. First, we need to design new interfaces to improve the device usability which has been neglected during the rapid shift from hand-held mobile devices to wearables. Second, we need to protect smart devices with abundant private data against unauthorized users. Last, new applications with compute-intensive tasks demand the integration of emerging mobile backend infrastructure. This dissertation focuses on addressing these challenges. First, we present GlassGesture, a system that improves the usability ...

Apr 2018