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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Seasonal Controls On Nearshore Hypoxia In A Small Coastal Embayment, Stephen Alexander Huie Mar 2021

Seasonal Controls On Nearshore Hypoxia In A Small Coastal Embayment, Stephen Alexander Huie

Physics

Dissolved oxygen (DO) is an important biogeochemical factor that strongly influences nearshore coastal ecosystems. Low DO (hypoxic) events can cause physiological stressful environments for ecological and economically important species, potentially leading to mass mortalities. In order to better assess drivers of coastal hypoxia, we collected data from monthly cruises on the inner shelf and nearshore moorings inside and outside a small coastal embayment (San Luis Obispo Bay on the Central California Coast) across the full upwelling season (March to August). During the late spring and early summer, we found that the nearshore near-bottom temperature-DO (T-DO) relationship aligned with the shelf ...


Quantum Computing: Resolving Myths, From Physics To Metaphysics, Jacob R. Mandel Mar 2021

Quantum Computing: Resolving Myths, From Physics To Metaphysics, Jacob R. Mandel

Physics

As the field of quantum computing becomes popularized, myths or misconceptions will inevitably come along with it. From the sci-fi genre to the casual usage of the term quantum, idealism begins to take over our projections of the technological future. But what are quantum computers? And what does quantum mean? How are they any different than the computers we use on an everyday basis? Will there be quantum computing smartphones? Are quantum computers just a faster version of conventional computing or a wholly new way of computing altogether? The objective of this paper is to resolve common myths or misconceptions ...


A Mobile Application For Optimally Matching Real Estate Clients, Yu Karen Asai, Steven Andrew Luu Mar 2021

A Mobile Application For Optimally Matching Real Estate Clients, Yu Karen Asai, Steven Andrew Luu

Computer Science and Software Engineering

Real estate agents are often tasked with finding their clients’ ideal properties. This can be difficult because multiple clients may have varying preferences, such as number of bedrooms, square footage, or price. Furthermore, different clients may weight their individual preferences differently. Existing applications do not consider multiple clients’ satisfaction, nor do they allow clients to weigh their preferences, potentially leading to less-than-ideal matchings between clients and properties.

In this project, we design and implement an iOS application whereby real estate agents can match multiple clients with individually weighted preferences to properties scraped from web listings. We model this client-property matching ...


Potential Environmental Effects Of Deepwater Floating Offshore Wind Energy Facilities, Hayley Farr, Benjamin Ruttenberg, Ryan K. Walter, Yi-Hui Wang, Crow White Mar 2021

Potential Environmental Effects Of Deepwater Floating Offshore Wind Energy Facilities, Hayley Farr, Benjamin Ruttenberg, Ryan K. Walter, Yi-Hui Wang, Crow White

Physics

Over the last few decades, the offshore wind energy industry has expanded its scope from turbines mounted on foundations driven into the seafloor and standing in less than 60 m of water, to floating turbines moored in 120 m of water, to prospecting the development of floating turbines moored in ~1,000 m of water. Since there are few prototype turbines and mooring systems of these deepwater, floating offshore wind energy facilities (OWFs) currently deployed, their effects on the marine environment are speculative. Using the available scientific literature concerning appropriate analogs, including fixed-bottom OWFs, land-based wind energy facilities, wave and ...


A Retrospective Analysis Of The Impact Of Wind Power Generation On Residential Natural Gas Prices In The United States, Maya Vikstrom Mar 2021

A Retrospective Analysis Of The Impact Of Wind Power Generation On Residential Natural Gas Prices In The United States, Maya Vikstrom

Economics

Heightened concern over the environmental impact and price volatility of natural gas has led to an increased demand for renewable energy. Wind energy is one of the fastest-growing sources of electricity and is the United States’ top renewable energy source. As a substitute for natural gas, wind energy has a direct impact on the demand for natural gas and consequently, the price. Using data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration, the Bureau of Economic Analysis, and the U.S. NOAA, this paper determines a causal relationship between wind generation and natural gas prices because of the random component of ...


Towards A Complete Formal Semantics Of Rust, Alexa White Mar 2021

Towards A Complete Formal Semantics Of Rust, Alexa White

Master's Theses

Rust is a relatively new programming language with a unique memory model designed to provide the ease of use of a high-level language as well as the power and control of a low-level language while preserving memory safety. In order to prove the safety and correctness of Rust and to provide analysis tools for its use cases, it is necessary to construct a formal semantics of the language. Existing efforts to construct such a semantic model are limited in their scope and none to date have successfully captured the complete functionality of the language. This thesis focuses on the K-Rust ...


Node Classification On Relational Graphs Using Deep-Rgcns, Nagasai Chandra Mar 2021

Node Classification On Relational Graphs Using Deep-Rgcns, Nagasai Chandra

Master's Theses

Knowledge Graphs are fascinating concepts in machine learning as they can hold usefully structured information in the form of entities and their relations. Despite the valuable applications of such graphs, most knowledge bases remain incomplete. This missing information harms downstream applications such as information retrieval and opens a window for research in statistical relational learning tasks such as node classification and link prediction. This work proposes a deep learning framework based on existing relational convolutional (R-GCN) layers to learn on highly multi-relational data characteristic of realistic knowledge graphs for node property classification tasks. We propose a deep and improved variant ...


Brain Tumor Detection And Classification From Mri Images, Anjaneya Teja Sarma Kalvakolanu Mar 2021

Brain Tumor Detection And Classification From Mri Images, Anjaneya Teja Sarma Kalvakolanu

Master's Theses

A brain tumor is detected and classified by biopsy that is conducted after the brain surgery. Advancement in technology and machine learning techniques could help radiologists in the diagnosis of tumors without any invasive measures. We utilized a deep learning-based approach to detect and classify the tumor into Meningioma, Glioma, Pituitary tumors. We used registration and segmentation-based skull stripping mechanism to remove the skull from the MRI images and the grab cut method to verify whether the skull stripped MRI masks retained the features of the tumor for accurate classification. In this research, we proposed a transfer learning based approach ...


Physics Engine On The Gpu With Opengl Compute Shaders, Quan Huy Minh Bui Mar 2021

Physics Engine On The Gpu With Opengl Compute Shaders, Quan Huy Minh Bui

Master's Theses

Any kind of graphics simulation can be thought of like a fancy flipbook. This notion is, of course, nothing new. For instance, in a game, the central computing unit (CPU) needs to process frame by frame, figuring out what is happening, and then finally issues draw calls to the graphics processing unit (GPU) to render the frame and display it onto the monitor. Traditionally, the CPU has to process a lot of things: from the creation of the window environment for the processed frames to be displayed, handling game logic, processing artificial intelligence (AI) for non-player characters (NPC), to the ...


The Structure Function Relationship Of Disordered Networks Using Young's Modulus And Floppy Modes, Melinda Grace Tajnai Feb 2021

The Structure Function Relationship Of Disordered Networks Using Young's Modulus And Floppy Modes, Melinda Grace Tajnai

Physics

Disordered networks may have the ability to store information that can be retrieved using a Young’s modulus measurement. The effect of the number of floppy modes a network has on the value of this Young’s modulus measurement is unknown. This experiment uses 28 networks consisting of 3D printed edges in a sliding frame to determine how the Young’s modulus of a network is related to the number of floppy modes.


Effects Of Estuary-Wide Seagrass Loss On Fish Populations, Jennifer K. O'Leary, Maurice C. Goodman, Ryan K. Walter, Kariss Willits, Daniel J. Pondella Jan 2021

Effects Of Estuary-Wide Seagrass Loss On Fish Populations, Jennifer K. O'Leary, Maurice C. Goodman, Ryan K. Walter, Kariss Willits, Daniel J. Pondella

Physics

Globally, habitat loss in coastal marine systems is a major driver of species decline, and estuaries are particularly susceptible to loss. Along the United States Pacific coast, monospecific eelgrass (Zostera marina) beds form the major estuarine vegetated habitat. In Morro Bay, California, eelgrass experienced an unprecedented decline of > 95%, from 139 ha in 2007 to < 6 ha by 2017. Fish populations were compared before and after the eelgrass decline using trawl surveys. Beach seines surveys were also conducted during the post-decline period to characterize species within and outside of remnant eelgrass beds.While the estuary-wide loss of eelgrass did not result in fewer fish or less biomass, it led to changes in species composition. The post-eelgrass decline period was characterized by increases in flatfish (mainly Citharichthys stigmaeus) and staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus), and decreases in habitat specialists including bay pipefish (Syngnathus leptorhynchus) and shiner perch (Cymatogaster aggregata). There were similar trends inside and outside of remnant eelgrass patches. These findings support evidence across multiple ecosystems suggesting that the predominance of habitat-specialists predicts whether or not habitat loss leads to an overall decline in fish abundance. In addition, loss of critical habitats across seascapes can restrict population connectivity and lead to range contraction. For bay pipefish, the loss of eelgrass in Morro Bay is likely to create a population biogeographic divide. Currently, Morro Bay is dominated by flatfish and sculpins, and the longevity of this new ecosystem state will depend on future eelgrass recovery dynamics supported by ecosystem-based management approaches.


Seasonal Variability Of Upwelling And Downwelling Surface Current Patterns Near A Small Coastal Embayment, Nicholas Trautman Dec 2020

Seasonal Variability Of Upwelling And Downwelling Surface Current Patterns Near A Small Coastal Embayment, Nicholas Trautman

Physics

Upwelling in coastal embayments is important to a variety of physical and biological processes. Despite their ubiquity, circulation patterns in small bays (width and length scales ≤ 20 km) in eastern boundary current upwelling systems are relatively understudied compared to their larger counterparts. In this study, we apply a conditional averaging technique to investigate upwelling- and downwelling-driven circulation in a small coastal embayment located in Central California [San Luis Obispo (SLO) Bay]. We also investigate intraseasonal differences in the current patterns in SLO Bay. Conditional averaging reveals distinct intraseasonal differences and features that are obscured by traditional seasonal averages when examining ...


Machine Learning Based Predictions Of Dissolved Oxygen In A Small Coastal Embayment, Manuel Valera, Ryan K. Walter, Barbara A. Bailey, Jose E. Castillo Dec 2020

Machine Learning Based Predictions Of Dissolved Oxygen In A Small Coastal Embayment, Manuel Valera, Ryan K. Walter, Barbara A. Bailey, Jose E. Castillo

Physics

Coastal dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations have a profound impact on nearshore ecosystems and, in recent years, there has been an increased prevalance of low DO hypoxic events that negatively impact nearshore organisms. Even with advanced numerical models, accurate prediction of coastal DO variability is challenging and computationally expensive. Here, we apply machine learning techniques in order to reconstruct and predict nearshore DO concentrations in a small coastal embayment while using a comprehensive set of nearshore and offshore measurements and easily measured input (training) parameters. We show that both random forest regression (RFR) and support vector regression (SVR) models accurately reproduce ...


Investigation On The Use Of Small Aperture Telescopes For Leo Satellite Orbit Determination, Luis R. Curiel Iii Dec 2020

Investigation On The Use Of Small Aperture Telescopes For Leo Satellite Orbit Determination, Luis R. Curiel Iii

Master's Theses

The following thesis regards the use of small aperture telescopes for space domain awareness efforts. The rapidly populating space domain was motivation for the development of a new operation scheme to conduct space domain awareness feasibility studies using small telescopes. Two 14-inch Schmidt-Cassegrain Telescopes at the California Polytechnic State University and the Air Force Research Lab in Kirtland AFB, NM, in conjunction with a dedicated CCD camera and a commercial DSLR camera, were utilized to conduct optical observations on satellites in Earth orbit.

Satellites were imaged during August 2019, and from January 2020 to March 2020, resulting in the collection ...


Phantom Ocean, Real Impact: Natural Surf Sound Experiments Alter Foraging Activity And Habitat Use Across Taxa, Ryan N. Wardle Dec 2020

Phantom Ocean, Real Impact: Natural Surf Sound Experiments Alter Foraging Activity And Habitat Use Across Taxa, Ryan N. Wardle

Master's Theses

A growing body of research focuses on how background sounds shape and alter critical elements of animals’ lives, such as foraging behavior, habitat use, and ecological interactions (Bradbury & Vehrencamp, 2011; Barber et al., 2010; Kight & Swaddle, 2011; Shannon et al., 2016). Much of this research has centered on the effects of anthropogenic noise (Dominoni et al., 2020; Francis & Barber, 2013; Ortega, 2012; Swaddle et al., 2015), but recent studies have also revealed that natural sound sources can influence animal behavior (Davidson et al., 2017; Le et al., 2019). Natural sounds, such as crashing surf, can create conditions where signaling and listening are difficult, but how this ...


Predicting Personality Type From Writing Style, Tanay Gottigundala Dec 2020

Predicting Personality Type From Writing Style, Tanay Gottigundala

Master's Theses

The study of personality types gained traction in the early 20th century, when Carl Jung's theory of psychological types attempted to categorize individual differences into the first modern personality typology. Iterating on Jung's theories, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) tried to categorize each individual into one of sixteen types, with the theory that an individual's personality type manifests in virtually all aspects of their life. This study explores the relationship between an individual's MBTI type and various aspects of their writing style. Using a MBTI-labeled dataset of user posts on a personality forum, three ensemble classifiers ...


Eelgrass (Zostera Marina) Population Decline In Morro Bay, Ca: A Meta-Analysis Of Herbicide Application In San Luis Obispo County And Morro Bay Watershed, Tyler King Sinnott Dec 2020

Eelgrass (Zostera Marina) Population Decline In Morro Bay, Ca: A Meta-Analysis Of Herbicide Application In San Luis Obispo County And Morro Bay Watershed, Tyler King Sinnott

Master's Theses

The endemic eelgrass (Zostera marina) community of Morro Bay Estuary, located on the central coast of California, has experienced an estimated decline of 95% in occupied area (reduction of 344 acres to 20 acres) from 2008 to 2017 for reasons that are not yet definitively clear. One possible driver of degradation that has yet to be investigated is the role of herbicides from agricultural fields in the watershed that feeds into the estuary. Thus, the primary research goal of this project was to better understand temporal and spatial trends of herbicide use within the context of San Luis Obispo (SLO ...


Dataset And Evaluation Of Self-Supervised Learning For Panoramic Depth Estimation, Ryan Nett Dec 2020

Dataset And Evaluation Of Self-Supervised Learning For Panoramic Depth Estimation, Ryan Nett

Master's Theses

Depth detection is a very common computer vision problem. It shows up primarily in robotics, automation, or 3D visualization domains, as it is essential for converting images to point clouds. One of the poster child applications is self driving cars. Currently, the best methods for depth detection are either very expensive, like LIDAR, or require precise calibration, like stereo cameras. These costs have given rise to attempts to detect depth from a monocular camera (a single camera). While this is possible, it is harder than LIDAR or stereo methods since depth can't be measured from monocular images, it has ...


Envrment: Investigating Experience In A Virtual User-Composed Environment, Matthew Key Dec 2020

Envrment: Investigating Experience In A Virtual User-Composed Environment, Matthew Key

Master's Theses

Virtual Reality is a technology that has long held society's interest, but has only recently began to reach a critical mass of everyday consumers. The idea of modern VR can be traced back decades, but because of the limitations of the technology (both hardware and software), we are only now exploring its potential. At present, VR can be used for tele-surgery, PTSD therapy, social training, professional meetings, conferences, and much more. It is no longer just an expensive gimmick to go on a momentary field trip; it is a tool, and as with the automobile, personal computer, and smartphone ...


Incorporating Shear Resistance Into Debris Flow Triggering Model Statistics, Noah J. Lyman Dec 2020

Incorporating Shear Resistance Into Debris Flow Triggering Model Statistics, Noah J. Lyman

Master's Theses

Several regions of the Western United States utilize statistical binary classification models to predict and manage debris flow initiation probability after wildfires. As the occurrence of wildfires and large intensity rainfall events increase, so has the frequency in which development occurs in the steep and mountainous terrain where these events arise. This resulting intersection brings with it an increasing need to derive improved results from existing models, or develop new models, to reduce the economic and human impacts that debris flows may bring. Any development or change to these models could also theoretically increase the ease of collection, processing, and ...


Using Current-Voltage Characteristics To Probe The Transport Mechanism In Carbon Nanotube Networks, Alejandro Jimenez Nov 2020

Using Current-Voltage Characteristics To Probe The Transport Mechanism In Carbon Nanotube Networks, Alejandro Jimenez

Physics

Carbon nanotube (CNT) random networks have shown great promise in electronic applications. For example, they have been used as the active layer in thin film transistor biosensors and as electrodes in supercapacitors (Hu, 2010). Although CNT networks applications are numerous, some of the key details of their electrical behavior are not fully understood. In particular, it is known that the junctions between tubes in CNT networks play a key role in determining the sensing properties of the network (Thanihaichelvana, et al., 2018), however, the mechanism by which metallic-semiconducting (m-s) tube junctions affect the electrical sensing properties of the network is ...


Telescope Parallel Actuator Mount: Control And Testing, Samuel S. Artho-Bentz Nov 2020

Telescope Parallel Actuator Mount: Control And Testing, Samuel S. Artho-Bentz

Master's Theses

This thesis approaches the task of designing a control system for the Parallel Actuator Mount developed by Dr. John Ridgely and Mr. Garrett Gudgel. It aims to create a base framework that directly controls the telescope and can be expanded to accept external command. It incorporates lower priced components and develops more easily approachable software with great functionality. An open-loop method for velocity control is established. Developing repeatable tests is a major focus. Testing finds the control methods developed result in velocity error of less than 5% and position error of less than 1.5% despite several mechanical issues and ...


Variability Of Active Galactic Nuclei From Differential Photometry, Nicholas Steven Yee Sep 2020

Variability Of Active Galactic Nuclei From Differential Photometry, Nicholas Steven Yee

Physics

The Seoul AGN Monitoring Project, or SAMP for short, is an international project (PI Jonghak Woo from Korea) with the goal of measuring the masses of black holes residing in the center of massive active galactic nuclei (AGNs). AGNs are some of the brightest objects in the universe. Their light is attributed to the accretion of material onto the black hole. However, these objects are too distant to spatially resolve the gravitational sphere of influence of the black hole directly. Instead, we use a technique called reverberation mapping which observes the variability of the AGN power-law continuum emission and the ...


Rheological Studies Of Fully-Formulated Coatings Thickened With Heur: Effects Of Surfactants, Brandon M. Bonilla Sep 2020

Rheological Studies Of Fully-Formulated Coatings Thickened With Heur: Effects Of Surfactants, Brandon M. Bonilla

Master's Theses

Rheology modifiers such as hydrophobically-modified ethoxylated urethane (HEUR)thickeners are included in waterborne latex coatings to optimize shear-rate dependent viscosity and other rheological properties. While these HEUR polymers are commonly used in industry, the complex chemical interactions that contribute to rheological properties are still not completely understood. Prior work in this area has focused on understanding latex-HEUR and latex-surfactant-HEUR interactions that affect rheological properties. Additionally, studies have been previously conducted to understand the relaxation mechanisms of complex interactions present in HEUR-thickened waterborne latex coatings under various dynamic conditions. The objective of this work is to extend the experimental work to ...


Pressure Driven Desalination Utilizing Nanomaterials, Fangyou Xie Sep 2020

Pressure Driven Desalination Utilizing Nanomaterials, Fangyou Xie

Master's Theses

Nanomaterials such as graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes, have demonstrated excellent properties for membrane desalination, including decrease of maintenance, increase of flux rate, simple solution casting, and impressive chemical inertness. Here, two projects are studied to investigate nanocarbon based membrane desalination. The first project is to prepare hybrid membranes with amyloid fibrils intercalated with graphene oxide sheets. The addition of protein amyloid fibrils expands the interlayer spacing between graphene oxide nanosheets and introduces additional functional groups in the diffusion pathways, resulting in increase of flux rate and rejection rate for the organic dyes. Amyloid fibrils also provide structural assistance to ...


Abalone Recruitment In Abalone Recruitment In Low-Density And Aggregated Populations Facing Climatic Stress, Ryan K. Walter Aug 2020

Abalone Recruitment In Abalone Recruitment In Low-Density And Aggregated Populations Facing Climatic Stress, Ryan K. Walter

Physics

Understanding spatial and temporal patterns in the recruitment of marine invertebrates with complex life histories remains a critical knowledge gap in marine ecology and fisheries. As marine invertebrates are facing multiple stressors from overfishing and climatic stress, it is important to evaluate the conditions that facilitate recruitment in low-density populations. The red abalone Haliolis rufescens historically supported an economically important fishery in California, but the fishery was sequentially closed as stocks declined, and the last fished area was closed in 2018 following the collapse of the kelp forests in Northern California. Here, red abalone recruitment was evaluated annually from 2012 ...


Cooking Systems Using Aluminum Foam, Ryan Tetsuo Mizukami Aug 2020

Cooking Systems Using Aluminum Foam, Ryan Tetsuo Mizukami

Physics

In developing countries, the use of wood burning fires for cooking is cause for illness and death. With this in mind, research was conducted to develop a solar cooking device capable of cooking of soup within 15 mins in order to reduce the negative impacts of cooking with wood. Current methods of solar-based cooking, such as solar concentrators and solar tube ovens, are impractical. A small solar panel is a cost-effective way to produce energy but will not produce enough power to cook within a reasonable amount of time. Even if it is assumed that all of the energy produced ...


Antibacterial Coatings Derived From Novel Chemically Responsive Vesicles, Emily B. Mobley Aug 2020

Antibacterial Coatings Derived From Novel Chemically Responsive Vesicles, Emily B. Mobley

Master's Theses

In order for a drug, or any material used for the purpose of eliciting a change in an organisms’ physical or chemical state, to be effective it must reach the intended target intact and for a sustained rate over time. Drug delivery systems encapsulate a drug to protect it from degradation, prevent side reactions, increase solubility, improve accumulation rates at target sites, and release drugs at a controlled rate. Controlled and sustained release of drugs is achieved by degradation of the carrier triggered by breaking dynamic chemical bonds caused by changes in the chemical environment such as pH or redox ...


Learning Assistant And Instructor Communication: Impacts On Perceived Efficacy, Jahangir Rassouli, Laura Ríos Jul 2020

Learning Assistant And Instructor Communication: Impacts On Perceived Efficacy, Jahangir Rassouli, Laura Ríos

Physics

The Learning Assistant (LA) Model was co-developed by Richard McCray and Valerie Otero at the University of Colorado Boulder in 2003. In this model, senior undergraduate students serve as facilitators for group discussion in lower-division courses, and employ evidenced-based practices for promoting inquiry and active learning [1]. Since its inception, the LA model has grown to various departments, disciplines, and universities.

At California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo (Cal Poly), the LA program in the physics department is still in its early stages. As such, it is an environment rich for exploration into the affordances, limitations, and benefits of ...


Combining Machine Learning And Empirical Engineering Methods Towards Improving Oil Production Forecasting, Andrew J. Allen Jul 2020

Combining Machine Learning And Empirical Engineering Methods Towards Improving Oil Production Forecasting, Andrew J. Allen

Master's Theses

Current methods of production forecasting such as decline curve analysis (DCA) or numerical simulation require years of historical production data, and their accuracy is limited by the choice of model parameters. Unconventional resources have proven challenging to apply traditional methods of production forecasting because they lack long production histories and have extremely variable model parameters. This research proposes a data-driven alternative to reservoir simulation and production forecasting techniques. We create a proxy-well model for predicting cumulative oil production by selecting statistically significant well completion parameters and reservoir information as independent predictor variables in regression-based models. Then, principal component analysis (PCA ...