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Articles 1  30 of 1756
FullText Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics
Y_{2}O_{3} Optical Constants Between 5 Nm And 50 Nm, Joseph B. Muhlestein, Benjamin D. Smith, Margaret Miles, Stephanie M. Thomas, Anthony Willey, David D. Allred, R. Steven Turley
Y2O3 Optical Constants Between 5 Nm And 50 Nm, Joseph B. Muhlestein, Benjamin D. Smith, Margaret Miles, Stephanie M. Thomas, Anthony Willey, David D. Allred, R. Steven Turley
All Faculty Publications
We report optical constants of ebeam evaporated yttrium oxide Y_{2}O_{3} thin films as determined from angledependent reflectance measurements at wavelengths from 5 to 50 nm. Samples were measured using synchrotron radiation at the Advanced Light Source. The experimental reflectance data were fit to obtain values for the index of refraction and thin film roughness. We compare our computed constants with those of previous researchers and those computed using the independent atom approximation from the CXRO website. We found that the index of refraction near 36 nm is much lower than previous data from Tomiki as reported by ...
Nonlinear Optical Characterization Of Solids, Alex Farnsworth
Nonlinear Optical Characterization Of Solids, Alex Farnsworth
Undergraduate Honors Theses
Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation (VSFG) and the similar Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) are both classified as nonlinear optical phenomena, with the hallmark trait being that the input and output frequencies are different. Both of these systems are remarkable tools due to their surface specific nature. Still, there is much that is not known about the response from these systems, especially the nonresonant SFG response. We have worked to better understand SFG signal, specifically the nonresonant temporal profile. We have also collected results that call into question some underlying assumptions about timebased suppression methods when working with single crystal substrates.
As ...
User Attitudes About Duo TwoFactor Authentication At Byu, Jonathan Dutson
User Attitudes About Duo TwoFactor Authentication At Byu, Jonathan Dutson
Undergraduate Honors Theses
Simple passwordbased authentication provides insufficient protection against increasingly common incidents of online identity theft and data loss. Although twofactor authentication (2FA) provides users with increased protection against attackers, users have mixed feelings about the usability of 2FA. We surveyed the students, faculty, and staff of Brigham Young University (BYU) to measure user sentiment about DUO Security, the 2FA system adopted by BYU in 2017. We find that most users consider DUO to be annoying, and about half of those surveyed expressed a preference for authentication without using a secondfactor. About half of all participants reported at least one instance of ...
Improving The Quality Of Neural Machine Translation Using Terminology Injection, Duane K. Dougal
Improving The Quality Of Neural Machine Translation Using Terminology Injection, Duane K. Dougal
All Theses and Dissertations
Most organizations use an increasing number of domain or organizationspecific words and phrases. A translation process, whether human or automated, must also be able to accurately and efficiently use these specific multilingual terminology collections. However, comparatively little has been done to explore the use of vetted terminology as an input to machine translation (MT) for improved results. In fact, no single established process currently exists to integrate terminology into MT as a general practice, and especially no established process for neural machine translation (NMT) exists to ensure that the translation of individual terms is consistent with an approved terminology collection ...
Divisibility Properties Of Coefficients Of Modular Functions Of Genus Zero Levels, Merrill Warnick
Divisibility Properties Of Coefficients Of Modular Functions Of Genus Zero Levels, Merrill Warnick
Undergraduate Honors Theses
We prove divisibility results for the Fourier coefficients of canonical basis elements for the spaces of weakly holomorphic modular forms of weight 0 and levels 6, 10, 12, 18 with poles only at the cusp at infinity. In addition, we show that these Fourier coefficients satisfy Zagier duality in all weights, and give a general formula for the generating functions of such canonical bases for all genus zero levels. These results originally appeared in a paper of the same title that was accepted by the journal Integers, and was authored by the present author, with Paul Jenkins and Vicki
Clean Indices Of Common Rings, Benjamin L. Schoonmaker
Clean Indices Of Common Rings, Benjamin L. Schoonmaker
All Theses and Dissertations
Lee and Zhou introduced the clean index of rings in 2004. Motivated by this work, Basnet and Bhattacharyya introduced both the weak clean index of rings and the nil clean index of rings and Cimpean and Danchev introduced the weakly nil clean index of rings. In this work, we calculate each of these indices for the rings ℤ/nℤ and matrix rings with entries in ℤ/nℤ. A generalized index is also introduced.
Netlight: Cloud Baked Indirect Illumination, Nathan Andrew Zabriskie
Netlight: Cloud Baked Indirect Illumination, Nathan Andrew Zabriskie
All Theses and Dissertations
Indirect lighting drastically increases the realism of rendered scenes but it has traditionally been very expensive to calculate. This has long precluded its use in realtime rendering applications such as video games which have mere milliseconds to respond to user input and produce a final image. As hardware power continues to increase, however, some recently developed algorithms have started to bring realtime indirect lighting closer to reality. Of specific interest to this paper, cloudbased rendering systems add indirect lighting to realtime scenes by splitting the rendering pipeline between a server and one or more connected clients. However, thus far they ...
A Quantitative Study Of The Deployment Of The Sender Policy Framework, Eunice Zsu Tan
A Quantitative Study Of The Deployment Of The Sender Policy Framework, Eunice Zsu Tan
All Theses and Dissertations
Email has become a standard form of communication between businesses. With the prevalent use of email as a form of communication between businesses and customers, phishing emails have emerged as a popular social engineering approach. With phishing, attackers trick users into divulging their personal information through email spoofing. Thus, it is imperative to verify the sender of an email. Antispoofing mechanisms such as the Sender Policy Framework (SPF) have been developed as the first line of defense against spoofing by validating the source of an email as well as the presenting options of how to handle emails that fail to ...
Certificate Revocation Table: Leveraging Locality Of Reference In Web Requests To Improve Tls Certificate Revocation, Luke Austin Dickinson
Certificate Revocation Table: Leveraging Locality Of Reference In Web Requests To Improve Tls Certificate Revocation, Luke Austin Dickinson
All Theses and Dissertations
X.509 certificate revocation defends against maninthemiddle attacks involving a compromised certificate. Certificate revocation strategies face scalability, effectiveness, and deployment challenges as HTTPS adoption rates have soared. We propose Certificate Revocation Table (CRT), a new revocation strategy that is competitive with or exceeds alternative stateoftheart solutions in effectiveness, efficiency, certificate growth scalability, mass revocation event scalability, revocation timeliness, privacy, and deployment requirements. The CRT periodically checks the revocation status of X.509 certificates recently used by an organization, such as clients on a university's private network. By prechecking the revocation status of each certificate the client is likely to ...
Fitting Parameter Uncertainties In Least Squares Fitting, R. Steven Turley
Fitting Parameter Uncertainties In Least Squares Fitting, R. Steven Turley
All Faculty Publications
This article review the theory and practice of computing uncertainties in the fit parameters in least squares fits. It shows how to estimate the uncertainties and gives some numerical examples in Julia of their use. Examples are given and validated for both linear and nonlinear fits.
Linear Least Squares Curve Fitting, R. Steven Turley
Linear Least Squares Curve Fitting, R. Steven Turley
All Faculty Publications
This article is a review of the theory and practice behind linear least squares curve fitting. It outlines how to find the optimal parameters to match experimental data with theory and how to estimate the uncertainty in those parameters. The article demonstrates and validates these calculations in Excel, MATLAB, Mathematica, Python, and Julia.
Polynomial Fitting, R. Steven Turley
Polynomial Fitting, R. Steven Turley
All Faculty Publications
This article reviews the theory and some good practice for fitting polynomials to data. I show by theory and example why fitting using a basis of orthogonal polynomials rather than monomials is desirable. I also show how to scale the independent variable for a more stable fit. I also demonstrate how to compute the uncertainty in the fit parameters. Finally, I discuss regression analysis: how to determine whether adding an additional term to the fit is justified.
Cubic Interpolation With IrregularlySpaced Points In Julia 1.0, R. Steven Turley
Cubic Interpolation With IrregularlySpaced Points In Julia 1.0, R. Steven Turley
All Faculty Publications
This article shows how to interpolate between regularly or irregularlyspaced points in Julia 1.0. It has derivations of the theory behind cubic splines, and piecewise cubic hermite polynomial interpolation. The spline interpolants are continuous and have continuous first and second derivatives. The hermite polynomial interpolants are continuous and have continuous first derivatives. Three techniques are implemented to determine the slope at the data points for the interpolation (knots). One uses the average slope of the neighboring segments. Another use the quadratic polynomial passing through the point and its two neighbors. The third, PCHIP, is similar to the first method ...
Adding Limit Points To BassSerre Graphs Of Groups, Alexander Jin Shumway
Adding Limit Points To BassSerre Graphs Of Groups, Alexander Jin Shumway
All Theses and Dissertations
We give a brief overview of BassSerre theory and introduce a method of adding a limit point to graphs of groups. We explore a basic example of this method, and find that while the fundamental theorem of BassSerre theory no longer applies in this case we still recover a group action on a covering space of sorts with a subgroup isomorphic to the fundamental group of our new base space with added limit point. We also quantify how much larger the fundamental group of a graph of groups becomes after this construction, and discuss the effects of adding and identifying ...
Data Assimilation In The Boussinesq Approximation For Mantle Convection, Shane Alexander Mcquarrie
Data Assimilation In The Boussinesq Approximation For Mantle Convection, Shane Alexander Mcquarrie
All Theses and Dissertations
Many highly developed physical models poorly approximate actual physical systems due to natural random noise. For example, convection in the earth's mantle—a fundamental process for understanding the geochemical makeup of the earth's crust and the geologic history of the earth—exhibits chaotic behavior, so it is difficult to model accurately. In addition, it is impossible to directly measure temperature and fluid viscosity in the mantle, and any indirect measurements are not guaranteed to be highly accurate. Over the last 50 years, mathematicians have developed a rigorous framework for reconciling noisy observations with reasonable physical models, a technique ...
Use Of Phase And Amplitude Gradient Estimation For Acoustic Source Characterization And Localization, Joseph Scott Lawrence
Use Of Phase And Amplitude Gradient Estimation For Acoustic Source Characterization And Localization, Joseph Scott Lawrence
All Theses and Dissertations
Energybased acoustic quantities provide vital information about acoustic fields and the characterization of acoustic sources. Recently, the phase and amplitude gradient estimator (PAGE) method has been developed to reduce error and extend bandwidth of energybased quantity estimates. To inform uses and applications of the method, analytical and experimental characterizations of the method are presented. Analytical PAGE method bias errors are compared with those of traditional estimation for two and threemicrophone onedimensional probes. For a monopole field when phase unwrapping is possible, zero bias error is achieved for active intensity using threemicrophone PAGE and for specific acoustic impedance using twomicrophone PAGE ...
Euclidean Domains, Vandy Jade Tombs
Euclidean Domains, Vandy Jade Tombs
All Theses and Dissertations
In the usual definition of a Euclidean domain, a ring has a norm function whose codomain is the positive integers. It was noticed by Motzkin in 1949 that the codomain could be replaced by any wellordered set. This motivated the study of transfinite Euclidean domains in which the codomain of the norm function is replaced by the class of ordinals. We prove that there exists a (transfinitely valued) Euclidean Domain with Euclidean order type for every indecomposable ordinal. Modifying the construction, we prove that there exists a Euclidean Domain with no multiplicative norm. Following a definition of Clark and Murty ...
Machine Learning For Inspired, Structured, Lyrical Music Composition, Paul Mark Bodily
Machine Learning For Inspired, Structured, Lyrical Music Composition, Paul Mark Bodily
All Theses and Dissertations
Computational creativity has been called the "final frontier" of artificial intelligence due to the difficulty inherent in defining and implementing creativity in computational systems. Despite this difficulty computer creativity is becoming a more significant part of our everyday lives, in particular music. This is observed in the prevalence of music recommendation systems, cocreational music software packages, smart playlists, and procedurallygenerated video games. Significant progress can be seen in the advances in industrial applications such as Spotify, Pandora, Apple Music, etc., but several problems persist. Of more general interest, however, is the question of whether or not computers can exhibit autonomous ...
The Arithmetic Of Modular Grids, Grant Steven Molnar
The Arithmetic Of Modular Grids, Grant Steven Molnar
All Theses and Dissertations
Let M_{k}^{(∞)} (Gamma, nu) denote the space of weight k weakly holomorphic weight modular forms with poles only at the cusp (∞), and let widehat M_{k}^{(∞)} (Gamma, nu) subseteq M_{k}^{(∞)} (Gamma, nu) denote the space of weight k weakly holomorphic modular forms in M_{k}^{(∞)} (Gamma, nu) which vanish at every cusp other than (∞). We construct canonical bases for these spaces in terms of MaassPoincaré series, and show that the coefficients of these bases satisfy Zagier duality.
Ion Friction At Small Values Of The Coulomb Logarithm, Robert Tucker Sprenkle
Ion Friction At Small Values Of The Coulomb Logarithm, Robert Tucker Sprenkle
All Theses and Dissertations
We create a dualspecies ultracold neutral plasma (UNP) by photoionizing Yb and Ca atoms in a dualspecies magnetooptical trap. Unlike singlespecies UNP expansion, these plasmas are well outside of the collisionless (Vlasov) approximation. We observe the mutual interaction of the Yb and Ca ions by measuring the velocity distribution for each ion species separately. We model the expansion using a fluid code including ionion friction and compare with experimental results to obtain a value of the Coulomb logarithm of Λ= 0.04.
Finding TorsionFree Groups Which Do Not Have The Unique Product Property, Lindsay Jennae Soelberg
Finding TorsionFree Groups Which Do Not Have The Unique Product Property, Lindsay Jennae Soelberg
All Theses and Dissertations
This thesis discusses the Kaplansky zero divisor conjecture. The conjecture states that a group ring of a torsionfree group over a field has no nonzero zero divisors. There are situations for which this conjecture is known to hold, such as linearly orderable groups, unique product groups, solvable groups, and elementary amenable groups. This paper considers the possibility that the conjecture is false and there is some counterexample in existence. The approach to searching for such a counterexample discussed here is to first find a torsionfree group that has subsets A and B such that AB has no unique product. We ...
An Algorithm For Symbolic Computing Of Singular Limits Of Dynamical Systems, Dane Jordan Bjork
An Algorithm For Symbolic Computing Of Singular Limits Of Dynamical Systems, Dane Jordan Bjork
All Theses and Dissertations
The manifold boundary approximation method, MBAM is a new technique used in approximating systems of equations using parameter reduction. This method and other approximation methods are introduced and described. Several current issues in performing MBAM are discussed in further detail. These issues significantly slow down the process of MBAM and create a barrier of entry for those wishing to use the method without a strong background in mathematics. A solution is proposed to automatically reparameterize models and evaluate specific types of variables approaching limits  significantly speeding up the process of MBAM. An implementation of the solution is discussed.
Congruences For Fourier Coefficients Of Modular Functions Of Levels 2 And 4, Eric Brandon Moss
Congruences For Fourier Coefficients Of Modular Functions Of Levels 2 And 4, Eric Brandon Moss
All Theses and Dissertations
We give congruences modulo powers of 2 for the Fourier coefficients of certain level 2 modular functions with poles only at 0, answering a question posed by Andersen and Jenkins. The congruences involve a modulus that depends on the binary expansion of the modular form's order of vanishing at infinity. We also demonstrate congruences for Fourier coefficients of some level 4 modular functions.
Examining Multimorbidities Using Association Rule Learning, Kaylee Dudley
Examining Multimorbidities Using Association Rule Learning, Kaylee Dudley
Undergraduate Honors Theses
All insurance companies, regardless of the kind of insurance they offer, do their best to predict the future by comparing current to historical information. Any statistically significant correlation, regardless of expectations and hidden factors, can help to actuarially model future behavior. Using deidentified data from over 6 million health insurance policies over one year, we looked for any significant groupings of medical issues. The medical issues are defined based on the commercial “Episode Treatment Groups” (ETGs) classification, and our claims contain 347 different ETGs. We performed different kinds of analysis, including Bayesian posterior cluster analysis, kmeans cluster analysis, and association ...
Application Of The Entropy Concept To Thermodynamics And Life Sciences: Evolution Parallels Thermodynamics, Cellulose Hydrolysis Thermodynamics, And Ordered And Disordered Vacancies Thermodynamics, Marko Popovic
All Theses and Dissertations
Entropy, first introduced in thermodynamics, is used in a wide range of fields. Chapter 1 discusses some important theoretical and practical aspects of entropy: what is entropy, is it subjective or objective, and how to properly apply it to living organisms. Chapter 2 presents applications of entropy to evolution. Chapter 3 shows how cellulosic biofuel production can be improved. Chapter 4 shows how lattice vacancies influence the thermodynamic properties of materials. To determine the nature of thermodynamic entropy, Chapters 1 and 2 describe the roots, the conceptual history of entropy, as well as its path of development and application. From ...
Probabilistic Programming For Theory Of Mind For Autonomous Decision Making, Iris Rubi Seaman
Probabilistic Programming For Theory Of Mind For Autonomous Decision Making, Iris Rubi Seaman
All Theses and Dissertations
As autonomous agents (such as unmanned aerial vehicles, or UAVs) become more ubiquitous, they are being used for increasingly complex tasks. Eventually, they will have to reason about the mental state of other agents, including those agents' beliefs, desires and goals – socalled Theory of Mind – and make decisions based on that reasoning. We describe increasingly complex theory of mind models of a UAV pursuing an intruder, and show that (1) there is a natural Bayesian formulation to reasoning about the uncertainty inherent in our estimate of another agent's mental state, and that (2) probabilistic programming is a natural way ...
Evaluating The Usability Of TwoFactor Authentication, Kendall Ray Reese
Evaluating The Usability Of TwoFactor Authentication, Kendall Ray Reese
All Theses and Dissertations
Passwords are the dominant form of authentication on the web today. However,many users choose weak passwords and reuse the same password on multiple sites, thus increasing their vulnerability to having their credentials leaked or stolen. Twofactor authentication strengthens existing password authentication schemes against impersonation attacks and makes it more difficult for attackers to reuse stolen credentials on other websites. Despite the added security benefits of twofactor authentication, there are still many open questions about its usability. Many twofactor authentication systems in widespread usage today have not yet been subjected to adequate usability testing. Previous comparative studies have demonstrated significant ...
Network Specializations, Symmetries, And Spectral Properties, Dallas C. Smith
Network Specializations, Symmetries, And Spectral Properties, Dallas C. Smith
All Theses and Dissertations
In this dissertation, we introduce three techniques for network sciences. The first of these techniques is a series of new models for describing network growth. These models, called network specialization models, are built with the idea that networks grow by specializing the function of subnetworks. Using these models we create theoretical networks which exhibit wellknown properties of real networks. We also demonstrate how the spectral properties are preserved as the models grow. The second technique we describe is a method for decomposing networks that contain automorphisms in a way that preserves the spectrum of the original graph. This method for ...
Adaptive Fluid Simulation Using A Linear Octree Structure, Sean A. Flynn
Adaptive Fluid Simulation Using A Linear Octree Structure, Sean A. Flynn
All Theses and Dissertations
An Eulerian approach to fluid flow provides an efficient, stable paradigm for realistic fluid simulation. However, its traditional reliance on a fixedresolution grid is not ideal for simulations that simultaneously exhibit both large and smallscale fluid phenomena. Octreebased fluid simulation approaches have provided the needed adaptivity, but the inherent weakness of a pointerbased tree structure has limited their effectiveness. We present a linear octree structure that provides a significant runtime speedup using these octreebased simulation algorithms. As memory prices continue to decline, we leverage additional memory when compared to traditional octree structures to provide this improvement. In addition to reducing ...
Addressing The Regulator's Dilemma: A Self Drive Framework For Balancing Safety And Innovation, Craig Maughan
Addressing The Regulator's Dilemma: A Self Drive Framework For Balancing Safety And Innovation, Craig Maughan
Brigham Young University Prelaw Review
Policymakers are tasked with creating regulations that responsibly oversee the growth and deployment of emerging technologies. I argue that the SELF DRIVE Act, currently being deliberated in Congress, offers one such intelligent regulatory structure for autonomous vehicles: it prioritizes public safety over adherence to outdated requirements, giving innovators greater freedom to fieldtest new designs. More importantly, I examine how key principles of the SELF DRIVE Act should be applied to other emerging technologies currently facing regulatory roadblock. Specifically, I suggest the drone industry be subject to regulatory changes that incentivize safety, allow exploration, and anticipate future growth. Such regulations allow ...