Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Physical Sciences and Mathematics Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Sustainability

Institution
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 4842

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Corn And Soybean Response To Wastewater-Recycled Phosphorus Fertilizers, Shane Ylagan Dec 2020

Corn And Soybean Response To Wastewater-Recycled Phosphorus Fertilizers, Shane Ylagan

Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

The ability to recycle phosphorus (P) from wastewaters could provide a sustainable, continuous source of P that might also help protect surface water quality from P enrichment. The mineral struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O) is an understudied material that can be created from Pcontaining wastewater and has been shown to have agricultural fertilizer value. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of electrochemically precipitated struvite (ECST), chemically precipitated struvite (Crystal Green; CG), diammonium phosphate (DAP), monoammonium phosphate (MAP), rock phosphate (RP), and triple super phosphate (TSP) on corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) response in a 79-day greenhouse ...


Low-Temperature Pyrolysis Of Municipal Solid Waste Components And Refuse-Derived Fuel—Process Efficiency And Fuel Properties Of Carbonized Solid Fuel, Kacper Swiechowski, Ewa Syguła, Jacek A. Koziel, Paweł Stepien, Szymon Kugler, Piotr Manczarski, Andrzej Białowiec Jun 2020

Low-Temperature Pyrolysis Of Municipal Solid Waste Components And Refuse-Derived Fuel—Process Efficiency And Fuel Properties Of Carbonized Solid Fuel, Kacper Swiechowski, Ewa Syguła, Jacek A. Koziel, Paweł Stepien, Szymon Kugler, Piotr Manczarski, Andrzej Białowiec

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

New technologies to valorize refuse-derived fuels (RDFs) will be required in the near future due to emerging trends of (1) the cement industry’s demands for high-quality alternative fuels and (2) the decreasing calorific value of the fuels derived from municipal solid waste (MSW) and currently used in cement/incineration plants. Low-temperature pyrolysis can increase the calorific value of processed material, leading to the production of value-added carbonized solid fuel (CSF). This dataset summarizes the key properties of MSW-derived CSF. Pyrolysis experiments were completed using eight types of organic waste and their two RDF mixtures. Organic waste represented common morphological ...


A Statistical Impulse Response Model Based On Empirical Characterization Of Wireless Underground Channel, Abdul Salam, Mehmet C. Vuran, Suat Irmak May 2020

A Statistical Impulse Response Model Based On Empirical Characterization Of Wireless Underground Channel, Abdul Salam, Mehmet C. Vuran, Suat Irmak

Faculty Publications

Wireless underground sensor networks (WUSNs) are becoming ubiquitous in many areas. The design of robust systems requires extensive understanding of the underground (UG) channel characteristics. In this paper, an UG channel impulse response is modeled and validated via extensive experiments in indoor and field testbed settings. The three distinct types of soils are selected with sand and clay contents ranging from $13\%$ to $86\%$ and $3\%$ to $32\%$, respectively. The impacts of changes in soil texture and soil moisture are investigated with more than $1,200$ measurements in a novel UG testbed that allows flexibility in soil moisture control. Moreover ...


Sandy Buck '78: Seeing Light Amidst The Gloom, Gerry Boyle May 2020

Sandy Buck '78: Seeing Light Amidst The Gloom, Gerry Boyle

Colby Magazine

"If you look at the macro you could come to a grinding halt and throw your hand up. But when you look at the local, and even state and regional levels, there are reasons for hope." -Sandy Buck '78


Low-Carbon Rebuilding Strategies For California Communities Impacted By Wildfires, Tessa Grezdo May 2020

Low-Carbon Rebuilding Strategies For California Communities Impacted By Wildfires, Tessa Grezdo

Master's Projects and Capstones

In recent years, California’s wildfires have intensified and communities that have been impacted by these wildfires are now beginning to rebuild. Materials that are both fire-resistant and low in embodied carbon should be used when rebuilding in fire-prone regions. Embodied carbon in buildings contributes to about 11% of global greenhouse gas emissions. To help California reach its climate mitigation and resilience goals, this study examined the utilization of low-carbon and fire-resistant building materials during the post-wildfire rebuilding process. Embodied emissions are significantly reduced when building designs incorporate low-carbon materials. This study examined low-carbon and fire-resistant exterior building materials that ...


Energy Intensity Variation Among California Urban Water Supplies, Madeline Willett May 2020

Energy Intensity Variation Among California Urban Water Supplies, Madeline Willett

Master's Projects and Capstones

Drought, population growth, and warmer temperatures will continue to strain and stress California's water supplies. Surface water and groundwater will not suffice as primary water supplies in the future. As California looks to build a more resilient water supply portfolio, the energy intensity of the water supplies in California could increase. This study examines 4 cities in California and their varied water supplies. Urban Water Management Plans (UWMP) are used to calculate the projected change in energy intensity of each city's supply. The results show that there is such variation in climate and water supply sources across California ...


A Review Of The Methods And Metrics In Research, Implementation, And Management Of Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture, Cassandra Erickson May 2020

A Review Of The Methods And Metrics In Research, Implementation, And Management Of Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture, Cassandra Erickson

Master's Projects and Capstones

As seafood demand rises with the growing population, methods of providing sustainable and reliable protein are needed. Wild fishery stocks have decreased so aquaculture is seen as the way to meet these growing demands. The aquaculture industry has continued to grow 8.3% every year since 1970 primarily through using intensive cultivation of a single species creating negative effects on the marine environment. An increase in nutrients from these intensive cultivations can lead to eutrophication, a decrease in oxygen, and alter the ecosystem structure and biodiversity. Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) aims to offset the increased input of nutrients through fish ...


A Comparison Of Fuel Reduction Methods For Wildfire Risk Management And Climate Change Resiliency In Mixed Conifer Forests In The Sierra Nevada, Heather Navle May 2020

A Comparison Of Fuel Reduction Methods For Wildfire Risk Management And Climate Change Resiliency In Mixed Conifer Forests In The Sierra Nevada, Heather Navle

Master's Projects and Capstones

Wildfires in the mixed conifer forests of California’s Sierra Nevada have been a common and natural disturbance for thousands of years, historically occurring every 3 to 30 years. The flora and fauna of the mixed conifer forest have evolved to depend on low to moderate severity wildfires for reproduction, foraging, and habitat. However, the Sierra Nevada has experienced dramatic environmental changes over the past ~150 years as a result of three main factors: wildfire suppression, climate change, and habitat loss. Because of the threat wildfires pose to human lives, property and timber harvest, they have been suppressed to an ...


Bull Kelp (Nereocystic Lutkeana) Restoration And Management In Northern California, Olivia Johnson May 2020

Bull Kelp (Nereocystic Lutkeana) Restoration And Management In Northern California, Olivia Johnson

Master's Projects and Capstones

Northern California’s coastal marine ecosystems support one of the most productive and biodiverse habitats on the planet. Bull kelp forests (Nereocystic lutkeana) form habitats for an abundance of marine mammals, sea bird, fish, and invertebrates. In recent years, compounding ecological and climatic factors have disrupted the balance of the bull kelp forests and led to an unprecedented loss of bull kelp biomass and canopy cover. These areas that are typically teeming with marine life have shifted into a stable state of sea urchin barrens due to over grazing of bull kelp by purple sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus pupuratus). These sea ...


What Is The U.S. Drought Monitor?, National Drought Mitigation Center May 2020

What Is The U.S. Drought Monitor?, National Drought Mitigation Center

Publications of the National Drought Mitigation Center

The USDA uses the map as a trigger for programs that help agricultural producers recover from drought and other natural disasters:

Livestock Forage Disaster Program (LFP)

Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm Raised Fish Program (ELAP)

Fast-Track Secretarial Disaster Declarations

Emergency Loans Program


The U.S. Drought Monitor Network: Improving Drought Early Warning, The U.S. Drought Monitor Network May 2020

The U.S. Drought Monitor Network: Improving Drought Early Warning, The U.S. Drought Monitor Network

Publications of the National Drought Mitigation Center

WHAT IS THE U.S. DROUGHT MONITOR NETWORK?

WHO ARE THE OBSERVERS?

WHAT BENEFITS?

The network in action

HOW DOES IT WORK?

WHO CREATES THE MAP?


Zenneck Waves In Decision Agriculture: An Empirical Verification And Application In Em-Based Underground Wireless Power Transfer, Usman Raza, Abdul Salam May 2020

Zenneck Waves In Decision Agriculture: An Empirical Verification And Application In Em-Based Underground Wireless Power Transfer, Usman Raza, Abdul Salam

Faculty Publications

In this article, the results of experiments for the observation of Zenneck surface waves in sub GHz frequency range using dipole antennas are presented. Experiments are conducted over three different soils for communications distances of up to 1 m. This empirical analysis confirms the existence of Zenneck waves over the soil surface. Through the power delay profile (PDP) analysis, it has been shown that other subsurface components exhibit rapid decay as compared to the Zenneck waves. A potential application of the Zenneck waves for energy transmission in the area of decision agriculture is explored. Accordingly, a novel wireless through-the-soil power ...


Shifting Public Perception: Climate Change Means Living With Fire And Smoke, Robert Froembling May 2020

Shifting Public Perception: Climate Change Means Living With Fire And Smoke, Robert Froembling

Seattle Journal of Technology, Environmental & Innovation Law

The urgency to prepare for the climate crisis has never been greater. We are currently living in the sixth mass extinction and the effects are only going to accelerate. We will inherit more wildfires, larger wildfires, and more frequent wildfires.

This piece is not meant to stoke fear in its readers or be depressing, but to shift public perception on what our future holds by evaluating the laws and science presented to us. This piece will look at regional and federal regulations and assess the increased rate of forest fires and the grave public health concerns from stagnant smoke specifically ...


Ecosystem Services Of Urban Tree Canopy For The Mitigation Of Climate Change: Measuring Carbon Sequestration And Understory Temperature Reduction Of Knoxville’S Urban Forest, Tyler Hounshell May 2020

Ecosystem Services Of Urban Tree Canopy For The Mitigation Of Climate Change: Measuring Carbon Sequestration And Understory Temperature Reduction Of Knoxville’S Urban Forest, Tyler Hounshell

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

In the future, the city of Knoxville, Tennessee will be impacted by climate warming due to anthropogenic climate change. Yet, the ecosystem services provided by urban tree canopy in Knoxville’s urban forest can help mitigate the effects of climate warming. In addition to improving air quality, regulating water flow, and reducing noise pollution, Knoxville’s urban forest serves as a carbon sink and sequesters carbon dioxide on an annual basis. Utilizing methods for calculating carbon sequestration by trees in urban and suburban settings developed by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, the sequestration potential and its uncertainty is calculated ...


How Farms Make Money, Caroline Parlee May 2020

How Farms Make Money, Caroline Parlee

Research Day

One of the challenges confronting Massachusetts is how to feed its population with local resources. It takes a lot of food to feed these people and a lot of this food is coming from out of state. This means that the state's food supply requires fossil fuels for transport and this contributes to the state's carbon footprint and climate change. Numerous studies have recommended that food should be eaten and produced in the same area to increase sustainability and resilience and reduce its environmental impacts. So, the question is how to promote local agriculture? To do this we ...


Kodiak Island, Alaska And The 1989 Exxon Valdez Oil Spill, Cora Van Hazinga May 2020

Kodiak Island, Alaska And The 1989 Exxon Valdez Oil Spill, Cora Van Hazinga

Research Day

Tanker ships have transported Alaskan crude oil through Prince William Sound since 1975. In March of 1989, the Exxon Valdez ran aground on the Bligh Reef, spilling 10.8 million gallons of crude oil into the Prince William Sound (Figure 1). The timing of the spill, remote location, thousands of miles of rugged and wild shoreline, and the abundance of wildlife in the region combined to make it an environmental disaster. Approximately 1,300 miles of Alaskan shoreline was impacted, and effects are still being felt today.


The Future Of Geography In The Massachusetts Curriculum Framework, Michelle Mazares-Monga May 2020

The Future Of Geography In The Massachusetts Curriculum Framework, Michelle Mazares-Monga

Research Day

The National Assessment of Education Progress evaluated eighth grade students on their geographic literacy in 2014 and in 2018, and found a decrease in average scores. One reason is that Geography has historically not been taught as a separate subject in most K-12 public schools. Certain states are updating their frameworks to be more inclusive of a diverse array of subjects. In Massachusetts, Geography is addressed under the History and Social Science Frameworks. Unfortunately, the teaching of Geography is given short shrift under these frameworks. The overarching goal of this project is to assess the status of Geographical education in ...


With Community And Environment In Mind: Bike Share System In Salem, Ma, Sheida Serafat May 2020

With Community And Environment In Mind: Bike Share System In Salem, Ma, Sheida Serafat

Research Day

In recent years, there has been a proliferation of new forms of mobility in the urban space. Salem, a small tourist town in the northeastern United States, follows this trend. Sharing bicycles, scooters and other services offer not only new options for travelers, but also new sources of data that can help municipalities make better investments in transportation and policy options. Since 2007, a bicycle sharing system has been at the forefront of the micro-mobility revolution in the city. This service is a positive resource for residents, passengers, students and visitors who want to explore the city faster than walking ...


Building Adaptive Capacity In Tribal Communities Of The Missouri River Basin To Manage Drought And Climate Extremes: A Case Study From The Wind River Indian Reservation, Crystal J. Stiles, Natalie Umphlett, Mitch Cottenoir May 2020

Building Adaptive Capacity In Tribal Communities Of The Missouri River Basin To Manage Drought And Climate Extremes: A Case Study From The Wind River Indian Reservation, Crystal J. Stiles, Natalie Umphlett, Mitch Cottenoir

HPRCC Personnel Publications

Native American peoples of the Northern and Central Plains have long endured harsh climate conditions, such as floods and droughts, and they possess valuable traditional knowledges that have enhanced their resilience to these extreme events. However, in recent times, limited capacity to adapt to a rapidly changing climate combined with a lack of resources have increased tribes’ vulnerability to climate extremes and their associated impacts. In response, a number of projects have been developed to assist tribes with their self-identified climate- and drought-related needs, particularly in the context of on-reservation decision-making. In this case study, we present an engagement strategy ...


Year Long Water Quality Analysis Of White Horn Brook, Kevin Dyer May 2020

Year Long Water Quality Analysis Of White Horn Brook, Kevin Dyer

Senior Honors Projects

KEVIN DYER (Marine Biology)

Year-long Analysis of the Water Quality of White Horn Brook

Sponsor: Thomas Boving (Geological Sciences)

Water is the foundation for all life on earth and is the most vital resource on this planet. Despite this, oceans and waterways all over the world are being polluted and exploited in ways detrimental to their fundamental hydrologic functions. For instance, excess nitrate levels can lead to eutrophication which gives rise to harmful algae blooms. Low pH can cause the breakdown of CaCO3 exoskeletons of organisms, such mollusks. High temperature variations are major stressors to living things and can cause ...


Stage-Structured Blue Crab Population Model With Fishing, Predation And Cannibalism, Fangming Xu May 2020

Stage-Structured Blue Crab Population Model With Fishing, Predation And Cannibalism, Fangming Xu

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Blue crab is a species of crab commonly found in the waters of the western Atlantic Ocean. It is one of the most important shellfish in the Chesapeake Bay. The blue crab fishing industry has a notable impact on the local economy, and blue crabs form a key link in the Chesapeake Bay food web. Between the mid-1990s and 2004, the blue crab population dropped by two thirds. Factors such as habitat loss, harvest pressure and climate change may have contributed to the decline. However, there hasn’t been enough research on the long term dynamic equilibrium, making it difficult ...


Establishing Pastoralist Monitoring Sites In The Grasslands: A Guide For Pastoralists, Department Of Primary Industries And Regional Development May 2020

Establishing Pastoralist Monitoring Sites In The Grasslands: A Guide For Pastoralists, Department Of Primary Industries And Regional Development

All other publications

This guide is for lessees and station managers who wish to establish rangeland condition monitoring programs for their pastoral leases. The guide outlines the main principles to consider for establishing monitoring sites, and the collecting and recording data to monitor changes over time of rangeland condition within a grassland environment.

Identifying and ongoing monitoring of representative sites can be used to objectively assess the effect of livestock numbers, fire and seasonal conditions on the health of the perennial vegetation and soil. Importantly, monitoring can assist lessees demonstrate whether their current land management practices are appropriate for achieving acceptable rangeland condition.


Utilization Of Recycled Filament For 3d Printing For Consumer Goods, Alexa Peterson May 2020

Utilization Of Recycled Filament For 3d Printing For Consumer Goods, Alexa Peterson

Apparel Merchandising and Product Development Undergraduate Honors Theses

The 3D printing market has been used in a wide variety of manufacturing industries including textile and apparel. Many consumers can now own a personal 3D printer at home for recreational printing. There are even websites dedicated to 3D printing patterns made by consumers. However, the materials used in the 3D printing process pose a problem for the environment due to their plastic-based nature. 3D printing is a layered process with each layer being printed depending on the layer below it for strength and stability. During the 3D printing process, great amounts of waste are produced as a result of ...


Irrigation Design In Montana: Accommodating Varying Water Accessibility Across The Continental Divide., John Garrett Lampson May 2020

Irrigation Design In Montana: Accommodating Varying Water Accessibility Across The Continental Divide., John Garrett Lampson

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The design work performed in this project was conducted over two summers (2018, 2019) of internship experience with the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) across the state of Montana. The first summer’s design work was based out of Glendive, MT, in Dawson County, approximately 50 kilometers from the North Dakota border. The second summer was in Missoula, MT, in Missoula County, near the Idaho border. The two areas differ significantly in topography, weather, and water availability with the main separating geographic influence being the Rocky Mountains.

This paper focuses on the design process and requirements for two farms located ...


Design Of A Shallow-Aero Ebb And Flow Hydroponics System And Associated Educational Module For Tri Cycle Farms, Julie Halveland May 2020

Design Of A Shallow-Aero Ebb And Flow Hydroponics System And Associated Educational Module For Tri Cycle Farms, Julie Halveland

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Tri Cycle Farms, whose main mission is to reduce food insecurity in their community, is a non- profit urban farm in Fayetteville, Arkansas. The “Tri” in their name refers to the three parts of their foundation: giving a third of their yield to volunteers, giving a third to local food pantries, and selling a third to sustain the farm and demonstrate the economy of local food production. They want to expand on the third part and have a vision of building a hydroponic greenhouse with the intention that it will create more crops to sell and give, as well as ...


The Impact Of Extreme Heat On Environmental Justice Communities In California: Assessing Equity In Climate Action Plans, Karishma S. Becha May 2020

The Impact Of Extreme Heat On Environmental Justice Communities In California: Assessing Equity In Climate Action Plans, Karishma S. Becha

Master's Projects and Capstones

Climate change projections suggest extreme heat events will be more frequent over the next few decades. Extreme heat has both negative environmental and social impacts as it affects energy security, public health by increasing the risk of heat-related illnesses and stresses food and crop supply through prolonged droughts. The impacts of extreme heat will also disproportionately affect communities of low economic status. Because of this, there is a need for better climate action plans that can adapt to and mitigate the impacts brought upon by extreme heat that does not disproportionately impact vulnerable communities. This research analyzed local government Climate ...


Updating Wcu’S Climate Action Plan: Creating A Version 2 For Our Community Of Learners, Bradley Flamm Apr 2020

Updating Wcu’S Climate Action Plan: Creating A Version 2 For Our Community Of Learners, Bradley Flamm

Sustainability Research & Practice Seminar Presentations

No abstract provided.


Greenhouse Gas Inventory And Climate Action Plan For Armstrong Township, Pennsylvania, Shian Knouse Apr 2020

Greenhouse Gas Inventory And Climate Action Plan For Armstrong Township, Pennsylvania, Shian Knouse

Senior Scholars Day

Abstract A greenhouse gas inventory was conducted in Armstrong Township, Pennsylvania in the fall of 2019 and a partial draft of a climate action plan containing suggested mitigation actions to decrease greenhouse gas emissions in the jurisdiction followed using the results of the inventory. The inventory shows the following distribution of emissions: the transportation sector with 82.50% followed by the residential energy sector with 10.89%, the commercial energy sector with 3.65%, the solid waste sector with 1.65%, the industrial energy sector with 0.91%, and the water and wastewater sector with 0.38%. In total, Armstrong ...


Sea Level Rise Vulnerability Analysis Of Mangrove Ecosystems Using Gis, Kayla Caldwell Apr 2020

Sea Level Rise Vulnerability Analysis Of Mangrove Ecosystems Using Gis, Kayla Caldwell

HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations

Climate change is accelerating beyond what is natural due to excessive emissions from human activities. The sea level has been rising for many years and is currently at a rate of 3.6 mm/yr. Mangroves are known to only keep pace with a sea level rate of less than 1.2 mm/yr. Mangroves are particularly vulnerable to rising sea levels if they are not able to keep pace through vertical sediment accretion or inland migration. To test the vulnerability of the south Florida mangrove ecosystems to sea level rise, this study analyzed changes in the mangrove forest coverage ...


295— Biomimicry: Investigating The Active Site Model Of Lactate Racemase, Stephanie Podguski, Maisy Ross Apr 2020

295— Biomimicry: Investigating The Active Site Model Of Lactate Racemase, Stephanie Podguski, Maisy Ross

GREAT Day

Because of humans’ heavy impact on nature with industrialization and resource extraction, biomimetics, also known as biomimicry, is a study that has emerged. Biomimetics utilizes observations from nature to comprehend the principles of underlying mechanisms and apply concepts that may benefit science, medicine, engineering and the like. An area of biochemistry we are applying this to is the lactate racemase enzyme.This metalloenzyme is found in many prokaryotic organisms and catalyzes the interconversion between the two optical isomers of lactic acid. The structure of this enzyme consists of a square-planar nickel (II) ion coordinated by a histidine residue and a ...