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Plant Sciences

2009

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Articles 1 - 30 of 170

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Joint Fire Science Program – Lake Mead National Recreation Area Revegetating Burned Arid Lands: Identifying Successful Native Species Using Trait And Competition Analysis: Quarterly Progress Report, Time Period: October 1 — December 31, 2009, Margaret N. Rees Dec 2009

Joint Fire Science Program – Lake Mead National Recreation Area Revegetating Burned Arid Lands: Identifying Successful Native Species Using Trait And Competition Analysis: Quarterly Progress Report, Time Period: October 1 — December 31, 2009, Margaret N. Rees

Fire Science

• Article accepted for publication in Journal of Arid Environments.

• Recharged irrigation gel packs for outplanting and watered seed plots at Goodsprings site.

• Completed full year of seed granivory trials at Goodsprings site.

• Presented information on this Task Agreement to 4th International Fire Ecology and Management Congress.

• Maintained nursery plots and added installment of nitrogen treatment.


Crop And Weather Report Dec. 21, Integrated Crop Management News Dec 2009

Crop And Weather Report Dec. 21, Integrated Crop Management News

Integrated Crop Management News

Crop and weather report guests include Iowa State University Extension climatologist Elwynn Taylor, integrated pest management specialist Rich Pope, and corn agronomist Roger Elmore. On the first day of winter with snow covering most of the state and halting any remaining corn harvests, guests comment on the just released corn yield report - 2009 Iowa Crop Performance Test --- Corn.


A Test Of Four Models To Predict The Risk Of Naturalization Of Non-Native Woody Plants In The Chicago Region, Mark P. Widrlechner, Janette R. Thompson, Emily J. Kapler, Kristen Kordecki, Philip M. Dixon, Galen Gates Dec 2009

A Test Of Four Models To Predict The Risk Of Naturalization Of Non-Native Woody Plants In The Chicago Region, Mark P. Widrlechner, Janette R. Thompson, Emily J. Kapler, Kristen Kordecki, Philip M. Dixon, Galen Gates

NCRPIS Publications and Papers

Accurate methods to predict the naturalization of non-native woody plants are key components of risk-management programs being considered by nursery and landscape professionals. The objective of this study was to evaluate four decision-tree models to predict naturalization (fi rst tested in Iowa) on two new sets of data for non-native woody plants cultivated in the Chicago region. We identifi ed life-history traits and native ranges for 193 species (52 known to naturalize and 141 not known to naturalize) in two study areas within the Chicago region. We used these datasets to test four models (one continental-scale and three regional-scale) as ...


Crop Weather Risk For 2010, Elwynn Taylor Dec 2009

Crop Weather Risk For 2010, Elwynn Taylor

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The Midwest has just experienced two harsh winters in a row, a wet Spring, lagging Growing Degree Days, slow development of crops, record high yield in the field, Fall rain (and floods), and record moist grain and soy at harvest. Although there are a few who do remember when everyone helped with harvest AFTER Thanksgiving Dinner, most of us were convinced that it was better equipment that got the crops in. It turns out that weather may have had an impact all along.


Providing Service And Suport To Watershed Improvement Projects Accress Iowa, Jamie Benning, Chad Ingels Dec 2009

Providing Service And Suport To Watershed Improvement Projects Accress Iowa, Jamie Benning, Chad Ingels

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Nonpoint source nutrient pollution from agriculture entering Iowa’s surface water bodies (Figure 1) is a problem for impaired local watersheds throughout the Corn Belt, and as far away as the Gulf of Mexico. The Mississippi River drains 40 percent of the continental US and carries almost 140 cubic miles of water yearly (Libra 1998). The U.S. Geological Survey estimated an average of 1.65 million tons/year of nitrogen (N) were exported into the Gulf of Mexico from 1987-1996 causing a condition called hypoxia (Libra 1998). Hypoxia, also known as a dead zone, is an area where water ...


The Malawi Project: From Conventional To Holistic Decision Making, Grace Wetmore Dec 2009

The Malawi Project: From Conventional To Holistic Decision Making, Grace Wetmore

Animal Science

How the Cal Poly Malawi Appropriate Technologies Team, and other development groups, can use Holistic Management to aid developing countries in an effort towards a sustainable future.


Methane Flux In Cropland And Adjacent Riparian Buff Ers With Different Vegetation Covers, Dong-Gill Kim, Thomas M. Isenhart, Timothy B. Parkin, Richard C. Schultz, Thomas E. Loynachan Dec 2009

Methane Flux In Cropland And Adjacent Riparian Buff Ers With Different Vegetation Covers, Dong-Gill Kim, Thomas M. Isenhart, Timothy B. Parkin, Richard C. Schultz, Thomas E. Loynachan

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

While water quality functions of conservation buffers established adjacent to cropped fields have been widely documented, the relative contribution of these re-established perennial plant systems to greenhouse gases has not been completely documented. In the case of methane (CH(4)), these systems have the potential to serve as sinks of CH(4) or may provide favorable conditions for CH(4) production. This study quantifies CH(4) flux from soils of riparian buffer systems comprised of three vegetation types and compares these fluxes with those of adjacent crop fields. We measured soil properties and diel and seasonal variations of CH(4 ...


Heirloom And Hybrid Tomato Yield And Quality In Organic And Conventional Production Systems, Diana J. Edlin Dec 2009

Heirloom And Hybrid Tomato Yield And Quality In Organic And Conventional Production Systems, Diana J. Edlin

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Due to the recent changes in the economy of Kentucky tobacco production, some producers are seeking an alternative crop that will provide similar economic gains to tobacco without needing more acreage. Tomatoes are an existing crop in Kentucky that have been declining in acreage over the last five years. There is evidence to suggest that, through niche and local marketing, tomatoes may be able to fill the void left by tobacco. However, there is concern among producers that they will lose yield and/or quality if they switch to one of these niche production systems or cultivars.

A two year ...


Mu Transposon Insertion Sites And Meiotic Recombination Events Co-Localize With Epigenetic Marks For Open Chromatin Across The Maize Genome, Sanzhen Liu, Cheng-Ting Yeh, Tieming Ji, Kai Ying, Haiyan Wu, Ho Man Tang, Yan Fu, Daniel S. Nettleton, Patrick S. Schnable Nov 2009

Mu Transposon Insertion Sites And Meiotic Recombination Events Co-Localize With Epigenetic Marks For Open Chromatin Across The Maize Genome, Sanzhen Liu, Cheng-Ting Yeh, Tieming Ji, Kai Ying, Haiyan Wu, Ho Man Tang, Yan Fu, Daniel S. Nettleton, Patrick S. Schnable

Agronomy Publications

The Mu transposon system of maize is highly active, with each of the ∼50–100 copies transposing on average once each generation. The approximately one dozen distinct Mutransposons contain highly similar ∼215 bp terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) and generate 9-bp target site duplications (TSDs) upon insertion. Using a novel genome walking strategy that uses these conserved TIRs as primer binding sites, Mu insertion sites were amplified from Mu stocks and sequenced via 454 technology. 94% of ∼965,000 reads carried Mu TIRs, demonstrating the specificity of this strategy. Among these TIRs, 21 novel Mu TIRs were discovered, revealing additional ...


Crop And Weather Report Nov. 9, Integrated Crop Management News Nov 2009

Crop And Weather Report Nov. 9, Integrated Crop Management News

Integrated Crop Management News

Crop and weather report guests include Iowa State University Extension climatologist Elwynn Taylor, integrated pest management specialist Rich Pope, and economist Chad Hart. After weeks of poor weather farmers made a big improvement in harvesting both corn and soybean crops. The latest USDA numbers, as of Nov. 8, indicate 34 percent of the corn has been harvested and 83 percent of the soybeans.


Functional Transition In The Floral Receptacle Of The Sacred Lotus (Nelumbo Nucifera): From Thermogenesis To Photosynthesis, R. E. Miller, J. R. Watling, Sharon A. Robinson Nov 2009

Functional Transition In The Floral Receptacle Of The Sacred Lotus (Nelumbo Nucifera): From Thermogenesis To Photosynthesis, R. E. Miller, J. R. Watling, Sharon A. Robinson

Sharon Robinson

The receptacle of the sacred lotus is the main source of heat during the thermogenic stage of floral development. Following anthesis, it enlarges, greens and becomes a fully functional photosynthetic organ. We investigated development of photosynthetic traits during this unusual functional transition. There were two distinct phases of pigment accumulation in receptacles. Lutein and photoprotective xanthophyll cycle pigments accumulated first with 64% and 95% of the maximum, respectively, present prior to anthesis. Lutein epoxide comprised 32% of total carotenoids in yellow receptacles, but declined with development. By contrast, more than 85% of maximum total chlorophyll, β-carotene and Rubisco were produced ...


Responses Of Plants In Polar Regions To Uvb Exposure : A Meta-Analysis, K. K. Newsham, Sharon A. Robinson Nov 2009

Responses Of Plants In Polar Regions To Uvb Exposure : A Meta-Analysis, K. K. Newsham, Sharon A. Robinson

Sharon Robinson

We report a meta-analysis of data from 34 field studies into the effects of UV-B radiation on Arctic and Antarctic bryophytes and angiosperms. The studies measured plant responses to decreases in UV-B radiation under screens, natural fluctuations in UV-B irradiance, or increases in UV-B radiation applied from fluorescent UV lamps. Exposure to UV-B radiation was found to increase the concentrations of UV-B absorbing compounds in leaves or thalli by 7% and 25% (expressed on a mass or area basis, respectively). UV-B exposure also reduced aboveground biomass and plant height by 15% and 10%, respectively, and increased DNA damage by 90 ...


Genetic Structure Of East Antarctic Populations Of The Moss Ceratodon Purpureus, L. J. Clarke, D. J. Ayre, Sharon A. Robinson Nov 2009

Genetic Structure Of East Antarctic Populations Of The Moss Ceratodon Purpureus, L. J. Clarke, D. J. Ayre, Sharon A. Robinson

Sharon Robinson

The capacity of the polar flora to adapt is of increasing concern given current and predicted environmental change in these regions. Previous genetic studies of Antarctic mosses have been of limited value due to a lack of variation in the markers or non-specificity of the methods used. We examined the power of five microsatellite loci developed for the cosmopolitan moss Ceratodon purpureus to detect genetically distinct clones and infer the distribution of clones within and among populations from the Windmill Islands, East Antarctica. Our microsatellite data suggest extraordinarily high levels of variation reported in RAPD studies were artificially elevated by ...


Two Cys Or Not Two Cys? That Is The Question; Alternative Oxidase In The Thermogenic Plant Sacred Lotus, Nicole M. Grant, Yoshihiko Onda, Yusuke Kakizaki, Kkikukatsu Ito, Jennifer R. Watling, Sharon A. Robinson Nov 2009

Two Cys Or Not Two Cys? That Is The Question; Alternative Oxidase In The Thermogenic Plant Sacred Lotus, Nicole M. Grant, Yoshihiko Onda, Yusuke Kakizaki, Kkikukatsu Ito, Jennifer R. Watling, Sharon A. Robinson

Sharon Robinson

Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) regulates temperature in its floral chamber to 32°C to 35°C across ambient temperatures of 8°C to 40°C with heating achieved through high alternative pathway fluxes. In most alternative oxidase (AOX) isoforms, two cysteine residues, Cys1 and Cys2, are highly conserved and play a role in posttranslational regulation of AOX. Further control occurs via interaction of reduced Cys1 with α-keto acids, such as pyruvate. Here, we report on the in vitro regulation of AOX isolated from thermogenic receptacle tissues of sacred lotus. AOX protein was mostly present in the reduced form, and only ...


Nov. 2 Crop And Weather Report, Doug Cooper Nov 2009

Nov. 2 Crop And Weather Report, Doug Cooper

Integrated Crop Management News

Crop and weather report guests include Charles Hurburgh, Iowa State University professor of ag and biosystems engineering and professor in charge of the Grain Quality Initiative; ISU Extension climatologist Elwynn Taylor, integrated pest management specialist Rich Pope, and soybean agronomist Palle Pedersen.


Photo Highlights Of The 10th Kentucky Grazing Conference, Kentucky Grazing Conference Oct 2009

Photo Highlights Of The 10th Kentucky Grazing Conference, Kentucky Grazing Conference

Kentucky Grazing Conference

No abstract provided.


Forage Spokesman Information, Tom Flowers, Vince Rawe, Caldwell Willig Oct 2009

Forage Spokesman Information, Tom Flowers, Vince Rawe, Caldwell Willig

Kentucky Grazing Conference

No abstract provided.


Animal Welfare--Animal Rights: Role Of Grazing, Roy Burris Oct 2009

Animal Welfare--Animal Rights: Role Of Grazing, Roy Burris

Kentucky Grazing Conference

The care and handling of farm animals has drawn a lot of media attention lately. Some well-publicized events have given our industry the proverbial black-eye and led to a chain of events that has left livestock producers feeling very vulnerable to negative attacks. Although these events have been very isolated, they have had some very farreaching effects. Could they have been prevented? How? What do we do now?


Extended Grazing And Reduced Stored Feed, Edward N. Ballard Oct 2009

Extended Grazing And Reduced Stored Feed, Edward N. Ballard

Kentucky Grazing Conference

Feed costs represent the major cost in most livestock production systems. A recently completed analysis of 225 Standardized Performance Analysis (SPA) Beef Cow Records on herds in Illinois and Iowa showed that feed cost was the overriding factor determining profitability, explaining over 57 percent of the herd-to-herd variation. Typically the cost of supplying nutrients to ruminant livestock is much greater using harvested feedstuffs as opposed to grazing pastures or crop residues. The primary function of a grassland farm is to convert solar energy to marketable livestock products in the most efficient manner. The fewer steps between the animal product and ...


Stored Feed Needs: How Much? What Quality?, Jeff Lehmkuhler Oct 2009

Stored Feed Needs: How Much? What Quality?, Jeff Lehmkuhler

Kentucky Grazing Conference

Feed resources are the largest variable expense in beef production systems outside the initial investment in the livestock. When we look at Standardized Performance Analysis (SPA) information from Texas and Minnesota, states that are at the extreme from an environment stance, the projected costs for maintaining a beef cow are strikingly similar. It is important to note that these costs include all expenses and opportunity costs. Getting back to the SPA information, in 2007 the annual cost to maintain a cow in Texas was determined to be roughly $590 while the Minnesota value was near $610 or only about $20 ...


Tall Fescue Grazing Research, Glen Aiken Oct 2009

Tall Fescue Grazing Research, Glen Aiken

Kentucky Grazing Conference

‘Kentucky-31’ tall fescue, like it or hate it, covers 5 million acres of Kentucky and if you do not have it on your farm, it is likely that one of your bordering neighbors does! Tall fescue owes its persistence and productivity in large part to a fungal endophyte that infects most plants. This endophyte produces an array of alkaloids that benefit the plant in tolerating heat, drought, and grazing. Unfortunately, the endophyte also produces ergot alkaloids that can cause “fescue toxicosis” in cattle. Cattle inflicted with toxicosis have reduced dry matter intake, elevated body temperature, and often retain their winter ...


Weed Control Options For Pastures, Jon Doran Oct 2009

Weed Control Options For Pastures, Jon Doran

Kentucky Grazing Conference

What is a weed? A pasture or hayfield “weed” is any plant that you deem as being out of place and/or a plant that is decreasing your desired forage production. Weeds may be classified in several ways including broadleaf weeds, woody plants, and undesirable grasses. Besides decreasing forage, weeds can also interfere with forage utilization, grazing distribution, etc. There are several methods available to control weeds and increase production of and access to desirable forages. The three main methods are cultural, mechanical, and chemical. The cultural method is quite simple-a thriving grass stand is an excellent form of weed ...


Our Experiences With Eastern Gamagrass, Tommy R. Yankey Oct 2009

Our Experiences With Eastern Gamagrass, Tommy R. Yankey

Kentucky Grazing Conference

As livestock producers try to reduce their cost of production, many look at ways to reduce their feed costs. Feed costs have been identified as the largest single cost of livestock production, making up 50 to 70% of the total cost of production. Grazing is the cheapest way to feed cattle on a cost per pound of nutrient basis.


New Developments In Grazing Species And Varieties, S. Ray Smith Oct 2009

New Developments In Grazing Species And Varieties, S. Ray Smith

Kentucky Grazing Conference

During the last 10 years there have been several new forage species that have emerged as useful in grazing systems and many new varieties have been released of traditional species. Plant breeders continue to make improvement in our traditional pasture species like tall fescue, orchardgrass, and red and white clover. In the following paragraphs, I will focus more on some of the forage species that you may not be as familiar with and highlight the advancements occurring in developing new varieties for grazing. There are many sources of information on this subject. I especially encourage you to read the new ...


Why Should I Improve My Grazing Program?, Garry D. Lacefield Oct 2009

Why Should I Improve My Grazing Program?, Garry D. Lacefield

Kentucky Grazing Conference

Grazing represents the cheapest way to feed ruminants on a cost per pound of nutrient basis. Stored feed is usually the single largest item in livestock budgets and cost or amount of stored feed is usually the best prediction of potential profitability in most beef cattle operations.


Foreword And Kfgc Award Winners [2009], Garry D. Lacefield, Christi L. Forsythe Oct 2009

Foreword And Kfgc Award Winners [2009], Garry D. Lacefield, Christi L. Forsythe

Kentucky Grazing Conference

No abstract provided.


Soil Management Of Harvest Ruts, H. Mark Hanna, Mahdi Al-Kaisi Oct 2009

Soil Management Of Harvest Ruts, H. Mark Hanna, Mahdi Al-Kaisi

Integrated Crop Management News

Combines working in wet conditions to harvest crops have formed ruts in fields. About three-fourths of combine mass and virtually all of loaded grain tank weight are carried on the combine front axle. With good yields, grain tank extensions, and a 12-row head, front axle load can be 18 to 20 tons.


Crop And Weather Report Week Of Oct. 26, Integrated Crop Management News Oct 2009

Crop And Weather Report Week Of Oct. 26, Integrated Crop Management News

Integrated Crop Management News

The October 26 crop and weather report guests are Charles Hurburgh, Iowa State University professor of ag and biosystems engineering and professor in charge of the Grain Quality Initiative, ISU Extension climatologist Elwynn Taylor, integrated pest management specialist Rich Pope, and corn agronomist Roger Elmore.


Oct. 19 Weekly Crop And Weather Report, Doug Cooper Oct 2009

Oct. 19 Weekly Crop And Weather Report, Doug Cooper

Integrated Crop Management News

Monday guests for the weekly crop and weather report include Charles Hurburgh, Iowa State University professor of ag and biosystems engineering and professor in charge of the Grain Quality Initiative; Palle Pedersen, extension soybean agronomist; Rich Pope, integrated pest management specialist; and Elwynn Taylor, ISU Extension climatologist.


2009 Corn Quality Issues, Charles R. Hurburgh, Roger Elmore Oct 2009

2009 Corn Quality Issues, Charles R. Hurburgh, Roger Elmore

Integrated Crop Management News

The state experienced a hard freeze Oct. 10 and 11, ending a growing season that had been slowed by rain and, in some areas snow. Despite the overall cool growing season – highlighted by a warm period in early September – the USDA October yield estimate of 186 bushels per acre in Iowa is the highest on record. As often happens with high grain yields, quality issues are surfacing. This article summarizes current field conditions, looks at test weight, weight shrink, and corn storability; two other articles in this series discuss field molds and storage management.