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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Metabolomic Profiling Of Nicotiana Spp. Nectars Indicate That Pollinator Feeding Preference Is A Stronger Determinant Than Plant Phylogenetics In Shaping Nectar Diversity, Fredy A. Silva, Elizabeth C. Chatt, Siti-Nabilla Mahalim, Adel Guirgis, Xingche Guo, Dan S. Nettleton, Basil J. Nikolau, Robert W. Thornburg May 2020

Metabolomic Profiling Of Nicotiana Spp. Nectars Indicate That Pollinator Feeding Preference Is A Stronger Determinant Than Plant Phylogenetics In Shaping Nectar Diversity, Fredy A. Silva, Elizabeth C. Chatt, Siti-Nabilla Mahalim, Adel Guirgis, Xingche Guo, Dan S. Nettleton, Basil J. Nikolau, Robert W. Thornburg

Statistics Publications

Floral nectar is a rich secretion produced by the nectary gland and is offered as reward to attract pollinators leading to improved seed set. Nectars are composed of a complex mixture of sugars, amino acids, proteins, vitamins, lipids, organic and inorganic acids. This composition is influenced by several factors, including floral morphology, mechanism of nectar secretion, time of flowering, and visitation by pollinators. The objective of this study was to determine the contributions of flowering time, plant phylogeny, and pollinator selection on nectar composition in Nicotiana. The main classes of nectar metabolites (sugars and amino acids) were quantified using gas ...


Ragweed And Sagebrush Pollen Can Distinguish Between Vegetation Types At Broad Spatial Scales, Hannah M. Carroll, Alan D. Wanamaker, Lynn G. Clark, Brian J. Wilsey May 2020

Ragweed And Sagebrush Pollen Can Distinguish Between Vegetation Types At Broad Spatial Scales, Hannah M. Carroll, Alan D. Wanamaker, Lynn G. Clark, Brian J. Wilsey

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Patterns of vegetation distribution at regional to subcontinental scales can inform understanding of climate. Delineating ecoregion boundaries over geologic time is complicated by the difficulty of distinguishing between prairie types at broad spatial scales using the pollen record. Pollen ratios are sometimes employed to distinguish between vegetation types, although their applicability is often limited to a geographic range. The Neotoma Paleoecology Database offers an unparalleled opportunity to synthesize a large number of pollen datasets. Ambrosia (ragweed) is a genus of mesic‐adapted species sensitive to summer moisture. Artemisia (sagebrush, wormwood, mugwort) is a genus of dry‐mesic‐adapted species resilient ...


Wayne E. Sabbe Arkansas Soil Fertility Studies 2019, Nathan A. Slaton May 2020

Wayne E. Sabbe Arkansas Soil Fertility Studies 2019, Nathan A. Slaton

Research Series

Rapid technological changes in crop management and production require that the research efforts be presented in an expeditious manner. The contributions of soil fertility and fertilizers are major production factors in all Arkansas crops. The studies described within will allow producers to compare their practices with the university’s research efforts. Additionally, soil-test data and fertilizer sales are presented to allow comparisons among years, crops, and other areas within Arkansas.


Equation Chapter 1 Section 1 Corn Suitability Rating For Southern Highland Zone Of Tanzania - A Feasibility Assessment At The Tari-Uyole, Mbeya, Tanzania, Johnson Godlove Mtama, Charles Lee Burras, Balthazar Michael Msanya May 2020

Equation Chapter 1 Section 1 Corn Suitability Rating For Southern Highland Zone Of Tanzania - A Feasibility Assessment At The Tari-Uyole, Mbeya, Tanzania, Johnson Godlove Mtama, Charles Lee Burras, Balthazar Michael Msanya

Agronomy Publications

Corn productivity indices (CSR2T) for representative soils in the Southern Highland Zone of Tanzania were developed. The approaches used were derived from Iowa State University’s CSR2. Consistent with ISU, index points were applied to the pedon based on the USDA Soil Taxonomy subgroup, family particle size class, and available water holding capacity, solum depth and resilience to degradation characterizations. Additional index points were applied based on field conditions especially slope, erosion history and flooding or ponding risk in order to determine the inherent productivity potential of the soils in the work sites. The results were used to develop the ...


Remediation Strategies To Reduce Heavy Metal Uptake In Lettuce Grown In Contaminated Urban Soil, Ryley Thomas Apr 2020

Remediation Strategies To Reduce Heavy Metal Uptake In Lettuce Grown In Contaminated Urban Soil, Ryley Thomas

UCARE Research Products

Urban soils are increasingly used to produce food for local consumption, which requires at the same time management strategies that prevent the plant uptake of potentially present contaminants. This study was conducted to test different soil amendments for their ability to retain lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) within the soil matrix. The analyzed soil was taken from a potential community garden lot near a railroad in Lincoln, NE where elevated concentrations in Pb and As had been detected. Ponderosa pine biochar and spent coffee grounds were used as soil additives because of their documented chemical reactivity towards soil cations or ...


On-Site And External Energy Harvesting In Underground Wireless, Usman Raza, Abdul Salam Apr 2020

On-Site And External Energy Harvesting In Underground Wireless, Usman Raza, Abdul Salam

Faculty Publications

Energy efficiency is vital for uninterrupted long-term operation of wireless underground communication nodes in the field of decision agriculture. In this paper, energy harvesting and wireless power transfer techniques are discussed with applications in underground wireless communications (UWC). Various external wireless power transfer techniques are explored. Moreover, key energy harvesting technologies are presented that utilize available energy sources in the field such as vibration, solar, and wind. In this regard, the Electromagnetic(EM)- and Magnetic Induction(MI)-based approaches are explained. Furthermore, the vibration-based energy harvesting models are reviewed as well. These energy harvesting approaches lead to design of an ...


Extreme Fire As A Management Tool To Combat Regime Shifts In The Range Of The Endangered American Burying Beetle, Alison K. Ludwig, Daniel R. Uden, Dirac Twidwell Apr 2020

Extreme Fire As A Management Tool To Combat Regime Shifts In The Range Of The Endangered American Burying Beetle, Alison K. Ludwig, Daniel R. Uden, Dirac Twidwell

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

This study is focused on the population of federally-endangered American burying beetles in south-central Nebraska. It is focused on changes in land cover over time and at several levels of spatial scale, and how management efforts are impacting both the beetle and a changing landscape. Our findings are applicable to a large portion of the Great Plains, which is undergoing the same shift from grassland to woodland, and to areas where the beetle is still found.


Evaluating Potential Effects Of 2019 Australian Bushfires On Animal Species, Protected Land, And Land Cover, Alyssa J. Kaewwilai Apr 2020

Evaluating Potential Effects Of 2019 Australian Bushfires On Animal Species, Protected Land, And Land Cover, Alyssa J. Kaewwilai

Student Publications

The 2019-2020 Australian bushfire event had exceptionally dry, hot conditions as well as high potential impacts on the country’s wildlife and natural resources. The purpose of the study was to analyze the potential impacts of the 2019 Australian bushfire event on animal species, protected land, and varied land cover types. The research question of this project is: how does the location of the Australian Bushfires of 2020 potentially impact animal species, protected land and national parks, as well as different land covers? Raster calculator was used to combine and classify layers from the MODIS Burned Area Product of burned ...


De Novo Sequencing And Analysis Of Salvia Hispanica Tissue-Specific Transcriptome And Identification Of Genes Involved In Terpenoid Biosynthesis, James Wimberley, Joseph Cahill, Hagop S. Atamian Mar 2020

De Novo Sequencing And Analysis Of Salvia Hispanica Tissue-Specific Transcriptome And Identification Of Genes Involved In Terpenoid Biosynthesis, James Wimberley, Joseph Cahill, Hagop S. Atamian

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Salvia hispanica (commonly known as chia) is gaining popularity worldwide as a healthy food supplement due to its low saturated fatty acid and high polyunsaturated fatty acid content, in addition to being rich in protein, fiber, and antioxidants. Chia leaves contain plethora of secondary metabolites with medicinal properties. In this study, we sequenced chia leaf and root transcriptomes using the Illumina platform. The short reads were assembled into contigs using the Trinity software and annotated against the Uniprot database. The reads were de novo assembled into 103,367 contigs, which represented 92.8% transcriptome completeness and a diverse set of ...


Eelgrass Health Survey And Results, Nicholas B. Anderson, Catherine M. Ashcraft, Dante D. Torio, Frederick T. Short Mar 2020

Eelgrass Health Survey And Results, Nicholas B. Anderson, Catherine M. Ashcraft, Dante D. Torio, Frederick T. Short

Natural Resources and the Environment Scholarship

Researchers at the University of New Hampshire designed, tested, and conducted an eelgrass health survey. The primary goal of the survey was to collect health ratings from respondents who had viewed pre-selected images of eelgrass representing a wide range of health conditions. Survey results were used as a calibration and validation to a novel eelgrass health index developed using video-monitoring. Two secondary goals of this this survey were the identification of plant-specific and environmental characteristics important to respondents and the introduction of the new eelgrass health index. This published dataset includes de-identified survey respondent background and demographic data, the survey ...


Sowing Uncertainty: What We Do And Don’T Know About The Planting Of Pesticide-Treated Seed, Claudia Hitaj, David J. Smith, Aimee Code, Seth Wechsler, Paul D. Esker, Margaret R. Douglas Mar 2020

Sowing Uncertainty: What We Do And Don’T Know About The Planting Of Pesticide-Treated Seed, Claudia Hitaj, David J. Smith, Aimee Code, Seth Wechsler, Paul D. Esker, Margaret R. Douglas

Faculty and Staff Publications By Year

Farmers, regulators, and researchers rely on pesticide use data to assess the effects of pesticides on crop yield, farm economics, off-target organisms, and human health. The publicly available pesticide use data in the United States do not currently account for pesticides applied as seed treatments. We find that seed treatment use has increased in major field crops over the last several decades but that there is a high degree of uncertainty about the extent of acreage planted with treated seeds, the amount of regional variability, and the use of certain active ingredients. One reason for this uncertainty is that farmers ...


Rain, Rain, Gone Away. Decreased Growing Season Rainfall For The Dryland Cropping Region Of South-Western Australia, Tim Scanlon, Greg Doncon Feb 2020

Rain, Rain, Gone Away. Decreased Growing Season Rainfall For The Dryland Cropping Region Of South-Western Australia, Tim Scanlon, Greg Doncon

Journal articles

The shift in Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures in 1976 led to a change in rainfall for the broad-scale winter annual grain cropping and pasture region in the south-west of Western Australia (the WA wheatbelt). Agriculture in the eastern part the WA Wheatbelt was particularly sensitive to the change in rainfall because it is a marginal area for agronomic production, with low rainfall before changes in sea surface temperature. A second shift in sea surface temperature occurred in 2000, but there has been no analysis of the resulting impact on rainfall in the eastern WA wheatbelt. An analysis of rainfall ...


Interactive Effects Of The Co2 Enrichment And Nitrogen Supply On The Biomass Accumulation, Gas Exchange Properties, And Mineral Elements Concentrations In Cucumber Plants At Different Growth Stages, Xun Li, Jinlong Dong, Nazim S. Gruda, Wenying Chu, Zengqiang Duan Jan 2020

Interactive Effects Of The Co2 Enrichment And Nitrogen Supply On The Biomass Accumulation, Gas Exchange Properties, And Mineral Elements Concentrations In Cucumber Plants At Different Growth Stages, Xun Li, Jinlong Dong, Nazim S. Gruda, Wenying Chu, Zengqiang Duan

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

The concentration changes of mineral elements in plants at different CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) and nitrogen (N) supplies and the mechanisms which control such changes are not clear. Hydroponic trials on cucumber plants with three [CO2] (400, 625, and 1200 µmol mol−1) and five N supply levels (2, 4, 7, 14, and 21 mmol L−1) were conducted. When plants were in high N supply, the increase in total biomass by elevated [CO2] was 51.7% and 70.1% at the seedling and initial fruiting stages, respectively. An increase in net photosynthetic rate (Pn) by more ...


The Effects Of Environmental Stress On Arabidopsis Thaliana Establishment And Development, Paige Petty Jan 2020

The Effects Of Environmental Stress On Arabidopsis Thaliana Establishment And Development, Paige Petty

Student Research, Papers, and Creative Works

Arabidopsis thaliana is a model organism for plant research because it grows quickly, is easy to maintain, and findings from Arabidopsis can be easily extrapolated to crop species such as tomato, soybean, corn, and sorghum. Of particular interest is the process of photomorphogenesis, which promotes seedling establishment in soil. A rise in temperature causes stress for the seedling, which can inhibit photomorphogenesis and cause elongated hypocotyls that grow regardless of light intensity. Drought can also affect the rate of photosynthesis and limit seedling growth. In this project, we explored how the adult Arabidopsis plant is affected by delayed seedling establishment ...


Forecasting Corn Yield With Machine Learning Ensembles, Mohsen Shahhosseini, Guiping Hu, Sotirios Archontoulis Jan 2020

Forecasting Corn Yield With Machine Learning Ensembles, Mohsen Shahhosseini, Guiping Hu, Sotirios Archontoulis

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Publications

The emerge of new technologies to synthesize and analyze big data with high-performance computing, has increased our capacity to more accurately predict crop yields. Recent research has shown that Machine learning (ML) can provide reasonable predictions, faster, and with higher flexibility compared to simulation crop modeling. The earlier the prediction during the growing season the better, but this has not been thoroughly investigated as previous studies considered all data available to predict yields. This paper provides a machine learning based framework to forecast corn yields in three US Corn Belt states (Illinois, Indiana, and Iowa) considering complete and partial in-season ...


Milkweed (Asclepias Syriaca) Plant Detection Using Mobile Cameras, Koray Ozcan, Anuj Sharma, Steven P. Bradbury, Dana Schweitzer, Teresa Blader, Sue Blodgett Jan 2020

Milkweed (Asclepias Syriaca) Plant Detection Using Mobile Cameras, Koray Ozcan, Anuj Sharma, Steven P. Bradbury, Dana Schweitzer, Teresa Blader, Sue Blodgett

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Milkweed (Asclepias spp.) are host plants of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus). It is important to detect milkweed plant locations to assess the status and trends of monarch habitat in support of monarch conservation programs. In this paper, we describe autonomous detection of milkweed plants using cameras mounted to vehicles. For detection, we used both aggregated channel features (ACF) for running the detectors on embedded computing platforms with central processing unit and faster region‐based convolutional neural network (Faster R‐CNN) with a ResNet architecture‐based detector that is suitable for graphics processing unit optimized processing. The ACF‐based model produced ...


Dominant Native And Non‐Native Graminoids Differ In Key Leaf Traits Irrespective Of Nutrient Availability, Arthur A. D. Broadbent, Jennifer Firn, James M. Mcgree, Elizabeth T. Borer, Yvonne M. Buckley, W. Stanley Harpole, Kimberly J. Komatsu, Andrew S. Macdougall, Kate H. Orwin, Nicholas J. Ostle, Eric W. Seabloom, Jonathan D. Bakker, Lori Biederman, Maria C. Caldeira, Nico Eisenhauer, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Joslin L. Moore, Carla Nogueira, Pablo L. Peri, Anita C. Risch, Christine Roscher, Martin Schütz, Carly J. Stevens Jan 2020

Dominant Native And Non‐Native Graminoids Differ In Key Leaf Traits Irrespective Of Nutrient Availability, Arthur A. D. Broadbent, Jennifer Firn, James M. Mcgree, Elizabeth T. Borer, Yvonne M. Buckley, W. Stanley Harpole, Kimberly J. Komatsu, Andrew S. Macdougall, Kate H. Orwin, Nicholas J. Ostle, Eric W. Seabloom, Jonathan D. Bakker, Lori Biederman, Maria C. Caldeira, Nico Eisenhauer, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Joslin L. Moore, Carla Nogueira, Pablo L. Peri, Anita C. Risch, Christine Roscher, Martin Schütz, Carly J. Stevens

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Aim: Nutrient enrichment is associated with plant invasions and biodiversity loss. Functional trait advantages may predict the ascendancy of invasive plants following nutrient enrichment but this is rarely tested. Here, we investigate (a) whether dominant native and non-native plants differ in important morphological and physiological leaf traits, (b) how their traits respond to nutrient addition, and (c) whether responses are consistent across functional groups.

Location: Australia, Europe, North America and South Africa.

Time period: 2007–2014.

Major taxa studied: Graminoids and forbs.

Methods: We focused on two types of leaf traits connected to resource acquisition: morphological features relating to light-foraging ...


Extracting Agronomic Information From Smos Vegetation Optical Depth In The Us Corn Belt Using A Nonlinear Hierarchical Model, Colin Lewis-Beck, Victoria A. Walker, Jarad Niemi, Petrutza Caragea, Brian K. Hornbuckle Jan 2020

Extracting Agronomic Information From Smos Vegetation Optical Depth In The Us Corn Belt Using A Nonlinear Hierarchical Model, Colin Lewis-Beck, Victoria A. Walker, Jarad Niemi, Petrutza Caragea, Brian K. Hornbuckle

Statistics Publications

Remote sensing observations that vary in response to plant growth and senescence can be used to monitor crop development within and across growing seasons. Identifying when crops reach specific growth stages can improve harvest yield prediction and quantify climate change. Using the Level 2 vegetation optical depth (VOD) product from the European Space Agency’s Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite, we retrospectively estimate the timing of a key crop development stage in the United States Corn Belt. We employ nonlinear curves nested within a hierarchical modeling framework to extract the timing of the third reproductive development stage of ...


Combination Of Biological And Chemical Soil Tests Best Predict Maize Nitrogen Response, Marshall D. Mcdaniel, D. T. Walters, L. G. Bundy, X. Li, R. A. Drijber, John E. Sawyer, Michael J. Castellano, C. A. M. Laboski, P. C. Scharf, W. R. Horwath Jan 2020

Combination Of Biological And Chemical Soil Tests Best Predict Maize Nitrogen Response, Marshall D. Mcdaniel, D. T. Walters, L. G. Bundy, X. Li, R. A. Drijber, John E. Sawyer, Michael J. Castellano, C. A. M. Laboski, P. C. Scharf, W. R. Horwath

Agronomy Publications

Soil tests can help optimize nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates, thereby improving farmer profitability and environmental performance. In US Midwest maize (Zea mays) production, however, most soil N tests have limited accuracy to predict N fertilizer requirements. Here we tested the individual and combined ability of 30 soil tests (12 rapid N extractions, seven biological carbon or N tests, six long‐term incubation kinetic parameters, and five other routine soil tests), as well as environmental and management data, to predict maize response to N fertilizer across 56 site‐years in the US Midwest. Out of 30 soil tests, and across all ...


Phytochemistry, Toxicology And Therapeutic Value Of Petasites Hybridus Subsp. Ochroleucus (Common Butterbur) From The Balkans, Tatjana Mihajilov-Krstev, Boris Jovanovic, Bojan Zlatković, Jelena Matejić, Jelena Vitorović, Vladimir Cvetković, Budimir Ilić, Ljubiša Đorđević, Nataša Joković, Dragoljub Miladinović, Tatjana Jakšić, Nemanja Stanković, Vesna Stankov Jovanović, Nirit Bernstein Jan 2020

Phytochemistry, Toxicology And Therapeutic Value Of Petasites Hybridus Subsp. Ochroleucus (Common Butterbur) From The Balkans, Tatjana Mihajilov-Krstev, Boris Jovanovic, Bojan Zlatković, Jelena Matejić, Jelena Vitorović, Vladimir Cvetković, Budimir Ilić, Ljubiša Đorđević, Nataša Joković, Dragoljub Miladinović, Tatjana Jakšić, Nemanja Stanković, Vesna Stankov Jovanović, Nirit Bernstein

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Petasites hybridus (Common butterbur) is extensively used in traditional medicine, and is currently gaining interest and popularity as a food supplement and for its medicinal properties. It contains a large number of active compounds of potential therapeutic activity, but also toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Science-based information is needed to support the developing modern use of this plant, and to direct continued safe practice in traditional medicine. The present study focused on the essential oils from leaves and rhizomes of the understudied P. hybridus ssp. ochroleucus from the Balkans, and evaluated its phytochemistry and potential therapeutic activities (antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-cholinesterase and anti-inflammatory ...


Soil Water Content, Grain Yield, And Crop Water Use With Crop Rotations And Cultural Practices, Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen, Brett L. Allen, Jalal D. Jabro, William B. Stevens, William M. Iversen Jan 2020

Soil Water Content, Grain Yield, And Crop Water Use With Crop Rotations And Cultural Practices, Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen, Brett L. Allen, Jalal D. Jabro, William B. Stevens, William M. Iversen

Agronomy Publications

Limited and erratic precipitation in arid and semiarid regions can affect soil water storage, water use, and dryland crop performance. Our objective was to examine soil water content, crop yield, and water‐use efficiency (WUE) with crop rotations and cultural practices for six years in the northern Great Plains. Crop rotations were durum wheat (or durum) (Triticum turgidum L.)‐durum‐canola (Brassica napus L.)‐pea (Pisum sativum L.) (DDCP), durum‐durum‐flax (Linum usitatissimum L.)‐pea (DDFP), durum‐canola‐durum‐pea (DCDP), and durum‐flax‐durum‐pea (DFDP). A continuous durum (CD) was also included for comparison. Cultural practices were ...


Whole-Profile Soil Organic Matter Content, Composition, And Stability Under Cropping Systems That Differ In Belowground Inputs, Hanna J. Poffenbarger, Daniel C. Olk, Cynthia Cambardella, Jordan Kersey, Matthew Z. Liebman, Antonio Mallarino, Johan Six, Michael J. Castellano Jan 2020

Whole-Profile Soil Organic Matter Content, Composition, And Stability Under Cropping Systems That Differ In Belowground Inputs, Hanna J. Poffenbarger, Daniel C. Olk, Cynthia Cambardella, Jordan Kersey, Matthew Z. Liebman, Antonio Mallarino, Johan Six, Michael J. Castellano

Agronomy Publications

Subsoils have been identified as a potential carbon sink because they typically have low soil organic carbon (SOC) concentrations and high SOC stability. One proposed strategy to increase SOC stocks is to enhance C inputs to the subsoil by increasing crop rotation diversity with deep-rooted perennial crops. Using three long-term field trials in Iowa (study durations of 60, 35, and 12 years), we examined the effects of contrasting cropping systems [maize (Zea mays L.)-soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr) (= two-year system) vs. maize-soybean-oat (Avena sativa L.)/alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)-alfalfa or maize-maize-oat/alfalfa-alfalfa (= four-year system)] on above- and below-ground ...


Predicting Crop Yields And Soil‐Plant Nitrogen Dynamics In The Us Corn Belt, Sotirios V. Archontoulis, Michael J. Castellano, Mark A. Licht, Virginia Nichols, Mitch Baum, Isaiah Huber, Rafael Martinez-Feria, Laila Puntel, Raziel A. Ordonez, Javed Iqbal, Emily E. Wright, Ranae N. Dietzel, Matthew Helmers, Andy Vanloocke, Matt Liebman, Jerry L. Hatfield, Daryl Herzmann, S. Carolina Córdova, Patrick Edmonds, Kaitlin Togliatti, Ashlyn Kessler, Gerasimos Danalatos, Heather Pasley, Carl Pederson, Kendall R. Lamkey Jan 2020

Predicting Crop Yields And Soil‐Plant Nitrogen Dynamics In The Us Corn Belt, Sotirios V. Archontoulis, Michael J. Castellano, Mark A. Licht, Virginia Nichols, Mitch Baum, Isaiah Huber, Rafael Martinez-Feria, Laila Puntel, Raziel A. Ordonez, Javed Iqbal, Emily E. Wright, Ranae N. Dietzel, Matthew Helmers, Andy Vanloocke, Matt Liebman, Jerry L. Hatfield, Daryl Herzmann, S. Carolina Córdova, Patrick Edmonds, Kaitlin Togliatti, Ashlyn Kessler, Gerasimos Danalatos, Heather Pasley, Carl Pederson, Kendall R. Lamkey

Agronomy Publications

We used the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) to predict and explain maize and soybean yields, phenology, and soil water and nitrogen (N) dynamics during the growing season in Iowa, USA. Historical, current and forecasted weather data were used to drive simulations, which were released in public four weeks after planting. In this paper, we (1) describe the methodology used to perform forecasts; (2) evaluate model prediction accuracy against data collected from 10 locations over four years; and (3) identify inputs that are key in forecasting yields and soil N dynamics. We found that the predicted median yield at planting ...


Establishing Winter Annual Cover Crops By Interseeding Into Maize And Soybean, Yesuf Assen Mohammed, Heather L. Matthees, Russ W. Gesch, Swetabh Patel, Frank Forcella, Kyle Aasand, Nicholas Steffl, Burton L. Johnson, M. Scott Wells, Andrew W. Lenssen Jan 2020

Establishing Winter Annual Cover Crops By Interseeding Into Maize And Soybean, Yesuf Assen Mohammed, Heather L. Matthees, Russ W. Gesch, Swetabh Patel, Frank Forcella, Kyle Aasand, Nicholas Steffl, Burton L. Johnson, M. Scott Wells, Andrew W. Lenssen

Agronomy Publications

The limited time available for cover crop establishment after maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] harvest is one of the main reasons for low cover crop adoption in the upper Midwest. Therefore, a 2‐yr multilocation study was conducted to evaluate winter annual cover crops establishment, their effect on main crop grain yields, and soil water content when interseeded into standing maize and soybean. Treatments were three interseeding dates (broadcasting at R4, R5, and R6 growth stages for maize, and R6, R7, and R8 for soybean) and three cover crops (winter camelina [WC] [Camelina sativa L ...


Stacked Crop Rotations And Cultural Practices For Canola And Flax Yield And Quality, Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen, Brett L. Allen, Jalal D. Jabro, William B. Stevens Jan 2020

Stacked Crop Rotations And Cultural Practices For Canola And Flax Yield And Quality, Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen, Brett L. Allen, Jalal D. Jabro, William B. Stevens

Agronomy Publications

Canola (Brassica napus L.) and flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) are important oilseed crops, but improved management practices to enhance their yields and quality are needed. We studied the effect of stacked versus alternate‐year crop rotations and traditional versus improved cultural practices on canola and flax growth, seed yield, oil concentration, and N‐use efficiency from 2006 to 2011 in the northern Great Plains, USA. Stacked rotations were durum (Triticum turgidum L.)‐durum‐canola‐pea (Pisum sativum L.) (DDCP) and durum‐durum‐flax ‐pea (DDFP). Alternate‐year rotations were durum‐canola‐durum‐pea (DCDP) and durum‐flax‐durum‐pea (DFDP ...


Soil Sample Timing, Nitrogen Fertilization, And Incubation Length Influence Anaerobic Potentially Mineralizable Nitrogen, Jason D. Clark, Kristen S. Veum, Fabián G. Fernández, Newell R. Kitchen, James J. Camberato, Paul R. Carter, Richard B. Ferguson, David W. Franzen, Daniel E. Kaiser, Carrie A. M. Laboski, Emerson D. Nafziger, Carl J. Rosen, John E. Sawyer, John F. Shanahan Jan 2020

Soil Sample Timing, Nitrogen Fertilization, And Incubation Length Influence Anaerobic Potentially Mineralizable Nitrogen, Jason D. Clark, Kristen S. Veum, Fabián G. Fernández, Newell R. Kitchen, James J. Camberato, Paul R. Carter, Richard B. Ferguson, David W. Franzen, Daniel E. Kaiser, Carrie A. M. Laboski, Emerson D. Nafziger, Carl J. Rosen, John E. Sawyer, John F. Shanahan

Agronomy Publications

Understanding the variables that affect the anaerobic potentially mineralizable N (PMNan) test should lead to a standard procedure of sample collection and incubation length, improving PMNan as a tool in corn (Zea mays L.) N management. We evaluated the effect of soil sample timing (preplant and V5 corn development stage [V5]), N fertilization (0 and 180 kg ha−1) and incubation length (7, 14, and 28 d) on PMNan (0–30 cm) across a range of soil properties and weather conditions. Soil sample timing, N fertilization, and incubation length affected PMNan differently based on soil and weather conditions. Preplant vs ...


Adjusting Corn Nitrogen Management By Including A Mineralizable‐Nitrogen Test With The Preplant And Presidedress Nitrate Tests, Jason D. Clark, Fabián G. Fernández, Kristen S. Veum, James J. Camberato, Paul R. Carter, Richard B. Ferguson, David W. Franzen, Daniel E. Kaiser, Newell R. Kitchen, Carrie A. M. Laboski, Emerson D. Nafziger, Carl J. Rosen, John E. Sawyer, John F. Shanahan Jan 2020

Adjusting Corn Nitrogen Management By Including A Mineralizable‐Nitrogen Test With The Preplant And Presidedress Nitrate Tests, Jason D. Clark, Fabián G. Fernández, Kristen S. Veum, James J. Camberato, Paul R. Carter, Richard B. Ferguson, David W. Franzen, Daniel E. Kaiser, Newell R. Kitchen, Carrie A. M. Laboski, Emerson D. Nafziger, Carl J. Rosen, John E. Sawyer, John F. Shanahan

Agronomy Publications

The anaerobic potentially mineralizable N (PMN) test combined with the preplant (PPNT) and presidedress (PSNT) nitrate tests may improve corn (Zea mays L.) N fertilization predictions. Forty‐nine corn N response experiments (mostly corn following soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]) were conducted in the U.S. Midwest from 2014–2016 to evaluate the ability of the PPNT and PSNT to predict corn relative yield (RY) and N fertilizer over‐ and under‐application rates when adjusted by PMN. Before planting and N fertilization, PPNT (0–30, 30–60, and 60–90 cm) and PMN (0–30 cm) samples were obtained. In ...


Soil Health Recovery After Grassland Reestablishment On Cropland: The Effects Of Time And Topographic Position, Mriganka De, Jason A. Riopel, Larry J. Cihacek, Michael Lawrinenko, Rebecca Baldwin-Kordick, Steven J. Hall, Marshall D. Mcdaniel Jan 2020

Soil Health Recovery After Grassland Reestablishment On Cropland: The Effects Of Time And Topographic Position, Mriganka De, Jason A. Riopel, Larry J. Cihacek, Michael Lawrinenko, Rebecca Baldwin-Kordick, Steven J. Hall, Marshall D. Mcdaniel

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) is a U.S. federal land conservation program that incentivizes grassland reestablishment on marginal lands. Although this program has many environmental benefits, two critical questions remain: does reestablishing grasslands via CRP also result in soil health recovery, and what parts of restored fields (i.e., topographic positions) recover the fastest? We hypothesized that soil health will recover over time after converting cropland to CRP grassland and that recovery will be greatest at higher topographic positions. To test this, we sampled 241 midwestern U.S. soils along a grassland chronosequence (0–40 yr, including native grasslands ...


Nutrient Availability Controls The Impact Of Mammalian Herbivores On Soil Carbon And Nitrogen Pools In Grasslands, Judith Sitters, Lori A. Biederman, Et Al. Jan 2020

Nutrient Availability Controls The Impact Of Mammalian Herbivores On Soil Carbon And Nitrogen Pools In Grasslands, Judith Sitters, Lori A. Biederman, Et Al.

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Grasslands are subject to considerable alteration due to human activities globally, including widespread changes in populations and composition of large mammalian herbivores and elevated supply of nutrients. Grassland soils remain important reservoirs of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). Herbivores may affect both C and N pools and these changes likely interact with increases in soil nutrient availability. Given the scale of grassland soil fluxes, such changes can have striking consequences for atmospheric C concentrations and the climate. Here, we use the Nutrient Network experiment to examine the responses of soil C and N pools to mammalian herbivore exclusion across 22 ...


Crop Yield Prediction Integrating Genotype And Weather Variables Using Deep Learning, Johnathon Shook, Tryambak Gangopadhyay, Linjiang Wu, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Soumik Sarkar, Asheesh K. Singh Jan 2020

Crop Yield Prediction Integrating Genotype And Weather Variables Using Deep Learning, Johnathon Shook, Tryambak Gangopadhyay, Linjiang Wu, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Soumik Sarkar, Asheesh K. Singh

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Accurate prediction of crop yield supported by scientific and domain-relevant insights, can help improve agricultural breeding, provide monitoring across diverse climatic conditions and thereby protect against climatic challenges to crop production including erratic rainfall and temperature variations. We used historical performance records from Uniform Soybean Tests (UST) in North America spanning 13 years of data to build a Long Short Term Memory - Recurrent Neural Network based model to dissect and predict genotype response in multiple-environments by leveraging pedigree relatedness measures along with weekly weather parameters. Additionally, for providing explainability of the important time-windows in the growing season, we developed a ...