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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Arboriculture Safety Around The World, Jamie Lim Oct 2019

Arboriculture Safety Around The World, Jamie Lim

Masters Theses

Arboricultural work is inherently dangerous, with more serious injuries and fatalities than most other professions. Safety standards exist in some jurisdictions, but it is unclear how many standards exist, how they compare to one another, and whether (and how many) jurisdictions share standards. To establish a baseline understanding of these issues, my objectives were to (i) develop a database of existing standards, (ii) identify the most frequently occurring safety topics and (iii) describe similarities and differences in safety topics among standards from different countries. I worked with a variety of contacts and traditional university library resources to identify, obtain, analyze ...


Plants, Parasites, And Pollinators: The Effects Of Medicinal Pollens On A Common Gut Parasite In Bumble Bees, George Locascio Oct 2018

Plants, Parasites, And Pollinators: The Effects Of Medicinal Pollens On A Common Gut Parasite In Bumble Bees, George Locascio

Masters Theses

Declines in several pollinator species are due to a variety of factors, including pathogens. Incorporating pollinator-friendly plant species into wild and agricultural habitats could reduce the stress of pathogens if food sources act medicinally against pathogens. Previous research demonstrated one domesticated sunflower cultivar (Helianthus annuus) can dramatically reduce a gut pathogen (Crithidia bombi) of the common eastern bumble bee, Bombus impatiens. To ascertain the breadth of this medicinal trait, we tested whether pollen from several H. annuus cultivars and four relatives could also reduce C. bombi infections in B. impatiens. We also investigated whether timing of exposure to sunflower pollen ...


Tracking 19th Century Late Blight From Archival Documents Using Text Analytics And Geoparsing, Laura Tateosian, Rachael Guenter, Yi-Peng Yang, Jean Ristaino Sep 2017

Tracking 19th Century Late Blight From Archival Documents Using Text Analytics And Geoparsing, Laura Tateosian, Rachael Guenter, Yi-Peng Yang, Jean Ristaino

Free and Open Source Software for Geospatial (FOSS4G) Conference Proceedings

In 1845, Ireland's potato crop was struck by a devastating potato disease that killed Ireland’s crop caused devastation for seven years and led to mass starvation and emigration from the country. The cause of the potato destruction was a fungus-like plant pathogen. There are several theories about the origin of the disease and the source of the 19th century outbreaks. We use historical documents contemporary to that time to investigate spatial information that might inform these mysteries. We present methodologies for automatically extracting information from these voluminous data sources. We identify and map geographic locations that are proximate ...


Assessing Kiln-Produced Hardwood Biochar For Improving Soil Health In A Temperate Climate Agricultural Soil, Emily J. Cole Nov 2015

Assessing Kiln-Produced Hardwood Biochar For Improving Soil Health In A Temperate Climate Agricultural Soil, Emily J. Cole

Doctoral Dissertations

Soil quality has become a major factor used in assessing sustainable land management and the overall environmental quality, food security, and economic viability of agricultural lands. Recently, biochar has been touted as having many potential uses as a soil amendment for improving soil quality, specifically improving cation exchange capacity, pH and nutrient availability. However, soil biology also plays a significant role in biogeochemical processes that influence soil health and should be included in a more comprehensive study of soil health. This dissertation describes 4 projects within the same 3-year field study with the cumulative purpose of better understanding the effect ...


Volatile Profiles And Resistance To Herbivory In Eastern Hemlock, Elizabeth A. Mckenzie Nov 2014

Volatile Profiles And Resistance To Herbivory In Eastern Hemlock, Elizabeth A. Mckenzie

Masters Theses

Eastern hemlock hosts the hemlock woolly adelgid, an introduced sap-feeding insect that causes rapid deterioration of the host. Like most conifers, eastern hemlock produces a variety of constitutive and induced defenses, primarily terpenoids. To explore the relationship of terpenoid defenses with adelgid infestations, we artificially infested hemlocks at a forest site and a plantation site, and compared their terpenoid concentrations to those in control trees. Infested trees showed lower terpenoid concentrations than control trees, suggesting that eastern hemlock not only fails to induce production of terpenoids in response to adelgid infestation, but becomes less able to produce carbon-based defenses due ...


Understanding The Links Between Human Health And Climate Change: Agricultural Productivity And Allergenic Pollen Production Of Timothy Grass(Phleum Pratense L.) Under Future Predicted Levels Of Carbon Dioxide And Ozone, Jennifer M. Albertine Sep 2013

Understanding The Links Between Human Health And Climate Change: Agricultural Productivity And Allergenic Pollen Production Of Timothy Grass(Phleum Pratense L.) Under Future Predicted Levels Of Carbon Dioxide And Ozone, Jennifer M. Albertine

Open Access Dissertations

The prevalence of allergic disease is expected to increase with climate change. Grasses, which have highly allergenic pollen, are widely distributed across the globe. Changes in production and allergen content of grass pollen have not been specifically investigated. We tested the effects of elevated carbon dioxide and ozone on growth, pollen and allergen production of Timothy grass (Phleum pratense L.). Timothy is also used as an agricultural forage crop so changes in plant productivity can also affect humans indirectly. Plants were fumigated in eight chambers at two concentrations of ozone (O3; 30 and 80 ppb) and carbon dioxide (CO ...


Resin Volatiles Of Eastern Hemlock Induced By Its Non-Native Herbivores, Joshua D. Pezet Jan 2013

Resin Volatiles Of Eastern Hemlock Induced By Its Non-Native Herbivores, Joshua D. Pezet

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) is in decline because of infestation by the invasive hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae; ‘HWA’) and, to a lesser extent, the elongate hemlock scale (Fiorinia externa; ‘EHS’). Many conifers respond to insect herbivory by inducing oleoresin-based defenses, however it is unknown whether eastern hemlock is capable of this inducible response. We conducted a plantation setting study of artificially infested saplings to determine if feeding by HWA or EHS induces changes in the tree’s volatile chemistry. The induced changes in volatiles we found were unlike the terpenoid-based defenses of related conifers. Only HWA feeding elevated methyl ...


Nitrogen Dioxide In The Urban Forest: Exposure And Uptake, Tanner B. Harris Jan 2010

Nitrogen Dioxide In The Urban Forest: Exposure And Uptake, Tanner B. Harris

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels were measured inside and adjacent to canopies of urban trees in Springfield, MA, over two growing seasons. Nitrogen dioxide levels were consistently and significantly higher inside tree canopies compared to levels outside. During the second growing season, ozone (O3), temperature, and relative humidity (RH) were also measured using samplers co-located with the NO2 samplers. Ozone levels were significantly lower inside the canopy whereas temperatures were higher inside the canopy, and RH was not different between inner and outer canopy locations. The results corroborate theoretical models predicting elevated NO2 and depressed O3 levels inside tree canopies based ...


Bolivia's Coca Headache: The Agroyungas Program, Inflation, Campesinos, Coca And Capitalism In Bolivia, John D. Roberts Jan 2010

Bolivia's Coca Headache: The Agroyungas Program, Inflation, Campesinos, Coca And Capitalism In Bolivia, John D. Roberts

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

Bolivia in the 1980s was wracked by monetary inflation approaching levels of the German Weimar Republic. Immediately following this time of great financial crisis in Bolivia, the U.N. founded a project through the U.N.D.P. to encourage peasant farmers in Bolivia to switch from growing coca (the plant used manufacture cocaine) to growing other cash crops for market. This crop substitution and development program, called the Agroyungas Project, lasted from 1985 to 1991 and is the focus of this study. While many U.N. pundits and journalists considered the program’s initial small successes promising, it has ...


Laotian Agricultural Statistics, Joel Halpern Apr 1961

Laotian Agricultural Statistics, Joel Halpern

Anthropology Department Faculty Publication Series

No abstract provided.