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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Enhancing Digestibility And Ethanol Yield Of Populus Wood Via Expression Of An Engineered Monolignol 4-O-Methyltransferase, Yuanheng Cai, Kewei Zhang, Hoon Kim, Guichuan Hou, Xuebin Zhang, Huijun Yang, Huan Feng, Lisa Miller, John Ralph, Chang-Jun Liu Nov 2019

Enhancing Digestibility And Ethanol Yield Of Populus Wood Via Expression Of An Engineered Monolignol 4-O-Methyltransferase, Yuanheng Cai, Kewei Zhang, Hoon Kim, Guichuan Hou, Xuebin Zhang, Huijun Yang, Huan Feng, Lisa Miller, John Ralph, Chang-Jun Liu

Huan Feng

Producing cellulosic biofuels and bio-based chemicals from woody biomass is impeded by the presence of lignin polymer in the plant cell wall. Manipulating the monolignol biosynthetic pathway offers a promising approach to improved processability, but often impairs plant growth and development. Here, we show that expressing an engineered 4-O-methyltransferase that chemically modifies the phenolic moiety of lignin monomeric precursors, thus preventing their incorporation into the lignin polymer, substantially alters hybrid aspens’ lignin content and structure. Woody biomass derived from the transgenic aspens shows a 62% increase in the release of simple sugars and up to a 49% increase in the ...


United States Midwest Soil And Weather Conditions Influence Anaerobic Potentially Mineralizable Nitrogen, Jason D. Clark, Kristen S. Veum, Fabian G. Fernandez, James J. Camberato, Paul R. Carter, Richard B. Ferguson, David W. Franzen, Daniel E. Kaiser, Newell R. Kitchen, Carrie A.M. Laboski, Emerson D. Nafziger, John E. Sawyer, John F. Shanahan Oct 2019

United States Midwest Soil And Weather Conditions Influence Anaerobic Potentially Mineralizable Nitrogen, Jason D. Clark, Kristen S. Veum, Fabian G. Fernandez, James J. Camberato, Paul R. Carter, Richard B. Ferguson, David W. Franzen, Daniel E. Kaiser, Newell R. Kitchen, Carrie A.M. Laboski, Emerson D. Nafziger, John E. Sawyer, John F. Shanahan

Jason Clark

Nitrogen provided to crops through mineralization is an important factor in N management guidelines. Understanding of the interactive effects of soil and weather conditions on N mineralization needs to be improved. Relationships between anaerobic potentially mineralizable N (PMNan) and soil and weather conditions were evaluated under the contrasting climates of eight US Midwestern states. Soil was sampled (0–30 cm) for PMNan analysis before pre-plant N application (PP0N) and at the V5 development stage from the pre-plant 0 (V50N) and 180 kg N ha−1 (V5180N) rates and incubated for 7, 14, and 28 d ...


Tallgrass Prairie Center: A Floral Resource Index To Assess Pollinator Habitat Quality In Eastern Iowa Prairies, Gabrielle Brown, Laura L. Jackson Oct 2019

Tallgrass Prairie Center: A Floral Resource Index To Assess Pollinator Habitat Quality In Eastern Iowa Prairies, Gabrielle Brown, Laura L. Jackson

Laura L. Jackson

Report of an investigation on the impact of biodiversity on the habitat for native pollinators and European honey bees.


Tallgrass Prairie Center: Effects Of Planting Time And Grass-Forb Seeding Ration On Establishment In Crp Pollinator Habitat, Kylie Jonas, Laura L. Jackson Oct 2019

Tallgrass Prairie Center: Effects Of Planting Time And Grass-Forb Seeding Ration On Establishment In Crp Pollinator Habitat, Kylie Jonas, Laura L. Jackson

Laura L. Jackson

Results of an investigation on the creation of habitat for insect pollinators in eastern Iowa.


Tallgrass Prairie Center: Factors Affecting Cirsium Arvense Density In Eastern Iowa Conservation Reserve Program Fields, Esther Edgerton, Laura Jackson Oct 2019

Tallgrass Prairie Center: Factors Affecting Cirsium Arvense Density In Eastern Iowa Conservation Reserve Program Fields, Esther Edgerton, Laura Jackson

Laura L. Jackson

Results of an investigation into the Canada thistle density in prairie restorations.


Harvesting Fertilized Rye Cover Crop: Simulated Revenue, Net Energy, And Drainage Nitrogen Loss, R. W. Malone, J. F. Obrycki, Douglas L. Karlen, T. C. Kaspar, D. B. Jaynes, T. B. Parkin, S. H. Lence, G. W. Feyereisen, Q. X. Fang, T. L. Richard, K. Gillette Aug 2019

Harvesting Fertilized Rye Cover Crop: Simulated Revenue, Net Energy, And Drainage Nitrogen Loss, R. W. Malone, J. F. Obrycki, Douglas L. Karlen, T. C. Kaspar, D. B. Jaynes, T. B. Parkin, S. H. Lence, G. W. Feyereisen, Q. X. Fang, T. L. Richard, K. Gillette

Douglas L Karlen

Harvesting fertilized rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop has been suggested as a method to increase producer revenue and biofuel feedstock production, but drainage N loss impacts are currently unknown. Using the tested Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM) across several N rates, spring application of 120 kg N ha-1 prior to winter rye harvest reduced drainage N loss by 54% compared with no cover crop and by 18% compared with planted rye that was neither fertilized nor harvested. Estimates of producer revenue and net energy were also positive, with 8.3 Mg ha-1 of harvested rye biomass ...


Regenerating Agricultural Landscapes With Perennial Groundcover For Intensive Crop Production, Kenneth J. Moore, Robert P. Anex, Amani E. Elobeid, Shuizhang Fei, Cornelia B. Flora, A. Susana Goggi, Keri L. Jacobs, Prashant Jha, Amy L. Kaleita, Douglas L. Karlen, David A. Laird, Andrew W. Lenssen, Thomas Lubberstedt, Marshall D. Mcdaniel, D. Raj Raman, Sharon L. Weyers Aug 2019

Regenerating Agricultural Landscapes With Perennial Groundcover For Intensive Crop Production, Kenneth J. Moore, Robert P. Anex, Amani E. Elobeid, Shuizhang Fei, Cornelia B. Flora, A. Susana Goggi, Keri L. Jacobs, Prashant Jha, Amy L. Kaleita, Douglas L. Karlen, David A. Laird, Andrew W. Lenssen, Thomas Lubberstedt, Marshall D. Mcdaniel, D. Raj Raman, Sharon L. Weyers

Douglas L Karlen

The Midwestern U.S. landscape is one of the most highly altered and intensively managed ecosystems in the country. The predominant crops grown are maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr]. They are typically grown as monocrops in a simple yearly rotation or with multiple years of maize (2 to 3) followed by a single year of soybean. This system is highly productive because the crops and management systems have been well adapted to the regional growing conditions through substantial public and private investment. Furthermore, markets and supporting infrastructure are highly developed for both crops. As maize ...


Future Prospects For Corn As A Biofuel Crop, Kenneth J. Moore, Douglas L. Karlen, Kendall R. Lamkey Aug 2019

Future Prospects For Corn As A Biofuel Crop, Kenneth J. Moore, Douglas L. Karlen, Kendall R. Lamkey

Douglas L Karlen

Ethanol production from corn grain has increased signifi cantly during the past ten years in the US. This increase was driven by government policy guided by the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) and embodied in the Volumetric Ethanol Excise Tax Credit and other legislation created to promote a biofuels industry. As corn grain ethanol production approaches the target set out in the RFS, the industry is looking to develop capacity for producing advanced biofuels, primarily from agricultural wastes and dedicated energy crops. The residues remaining following corn harvest have been identifi ed as a voluminous and readily available feedstock for advanced ...


Reducing Agriculture's Contribution To Nitrate Contamination Of Surface Waters, Dana L. Dinnes, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Thomas S. Colvin, Daniel B. Jaynes, Douglas L. Karlen Aug 2019

Reducing Agriculture's Contribution To Nitrate Contamination Of Surface Waters, Dana L. Dinnes, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Thomas S. Colvin, Daniel B. Jaynes, Douglas L. Karlen

Douglas L Karlen

One of the most prevalent environmental issues throughout the Midwest is nitrate (N03) contamination of surface waters. Non-point source pollution resulting from nitrogen (N) fertilizer use on artificially drained agricultural land has been identified as a major contributor to this problem. High levels of nitratenitrogen (N03-N) in water supplies pose risks to humans and livestock (Tyson et. al., 1992), and has cost some communities millions of dollars for N03 removal. The city of Des Moines, Iowa alone has spent in excess of 5.3 million dollars, not including labor costs, for nitrate treatment of its drinking waters from 1992-1996 (Graham ...


Statistical And Machine Learning Methods Evaluated For Incorporating Soil And Weather Into Corn Nitrogen Recommendations, Curtis J. Ransom, Newell R. Kitchen, James J. Camberato, Paul R. Carter, Richard B. Ferguson, Fabián G. Fernández, David W. Franzen, Carrie A. M. Laboski, D. Brenton Myers, Emerson D. Nafziger, John E. Sawyer, John F. Shanahan Aug 2019

Statistical And Machine Learning Methods Evaluated For Incorporating Soil And Weather Into Corn Nitrogen Recommendations, Curtis J. Ransom, Newell R. Kitchen, James J. Camberato, Paul R. Carter, Richard B. Ferguson, Fabián G. Fernández, David W. Franzen, Carrie A. M. Laboski, D. Brenton Myers, Emerson D. Nafziger, John E. Sawyer, John F. Shanahan

John E. Sawyer

Nitrogen (N) fertilizer recommendation tools could be improved for estimating corn (Zea mays L.) N needs by incorporating site-specific soil and weather information. However, an evaluation of analytical methods is needed to determine the success of incorporating this information. The objectives of this research were to evaluate statistical and machine learning (ML) algorithms for utilizing soil and weather information for improving corn N recommendation tools. Eight algorithms [stepwise, ridge regression, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso), elastic net regression, principal component regression (PCR), partial least squares regression (PLSR), decision tree, and random forest] were evaluated using a dataset containing ...


Hierarchical Modeling And Differential Expression Analysis For Rna-Seq Experiments With Inbred And Hybrid Genotypes, Andrew Lithio, Dan Nettleton Jul 2019

Hierarchical Modeling And Differential Expression Analysis For Rna-Seq Experiments With Inbred And Hybrid Genotypes, Andrew Lithio, Dan Nettleton

Dan Nettleton

The performance of inbred and hybrid genotypes is of interest in plant breeding and genetics. High-throughput sequencing of RNA (RNA-seq) has proven to be a useful tool in the study of the molecular genetic responses of inbreds and hybrids to environmental stresses. Commonly used experimental designs and sequencing methods lead to complex data structures that require careful attention in data analysis. We demonstrate an analysis of RNA-seq data from a split-plot design involving drought stress applied to two inbred genotypes and two hybrids formed by crosses between the inbreds. Our generalized linear modeling strategy incorporates random effects for whole-plot experimental ...


Nested Hierarchical Functional Data Modeling And Inference For The Analysis Of Functional Plant Phenotypes, Yuhang Xu, Yehua Li, Dan Nettleton Jul 2019

Nested Hierarchical Functional Data Modeling And Inference For The Analysis Of Functional Plant Phenotypes, Yuhang Xu, Yehua Li, Dan Nettleton

Dan Nettleton

In a plant science Root Image Study, the process of seedling roots bending in response to gravity is recorded using digital cameras, and the bending rates are modeled as functional plant phenotype data. The functional phenotypes are collected from seeds representing a large variety of genotypes and have a three-level nested hierarchical structure, with seeds nested in groups nested in genotypes. The seeds are imaged on different days of the lunar cycle, and an important scientific question is whether there are lunar effects on root bending. We allow the mean function of the bending rate to depend on the lunar ...


Root Type-Specific Reprogramming Of Maize Pericycle Transcriptomes By Local High Nitrate Results In Disparate Lateral Root Branching Patterns, Peng Yu, Jutta A. Baldauf, Andrew Lithio, Caroline Marcon, Dan Nettleton, Chunjian Li, Frank Hochholdinger Jul 2019

Root Type-Specific Reprogramming Of Maize Pericycle Transcriptomes By Local High Nitrate Results In Disparate Lateral Root Branching Patterns, Peng Yu, Jutta A. Baldauf, Andrew Lithio, Caroline Marcon, Dan Nettleton, Chunjian Li, Frank Hochholdinger

Dan Nettleton

The adaptability of root system architecture to unevenly distributed mineral nutrients in soil is a key determinant of plant performance. The molecular mechanisms underlying nitrate dependent plasticity of lateral root branching across the different root types of maize are only poorly understood. In this study, detailed morphological and anatomical analyses together with cell type-specific transcriptome profiling experiments combining laser capture microdissection with RNA-seq were performed to unravel the molecular signatures of lateral root formation in primary, seminal, crown, and brace roots of maize (Zea mays) upon local high nitrate stimulation. The four maize root types displayed divergent branching patterns of ...


Stability Of Single-Parent Gene Expression Complementation In Maize Hybrids Upon Water Deficit Stress, Caroline Marcon, Anja Paschold, Waqas Ahmed Malik, Andrew Lithio, Jutta A. Baldauf, Lena Altrogge, Nina Opitz, Christa Lanz, Heiko Schoof, Dan Nettleton, Hans-Peter Piepho, Frank Hochholdinger Jul 2019

Stability Of Single-Parent Gene Expression Complementation In Maize Hybrids Upon Water Deficit Stress, Caroline Marcon, Anja Paschold, Waqas Ahmed Malik, Andrew Lithio, Jutta A. Baldauf, Lena Altrogge, Nina Opitz, Christa Lanz, Heiko Schoof, Dan Nettleton, Hans-Peter Piepho, Frank Hochholdinger

Dan Nettleton

Heterosis is the superior performance of F1 hybrids compared with their homozygous, genetically distinct parents. In this study, we monitored the transcriptomic divergence of the maize (Zea mays) inbred lines B73 and Mo17 and their reciprocal F1 hybrid progeny in primary roots under control and water deficit conditions simulated by polyethylene glycol treatment. Single-parent expression (SPE) of genes is an extreme instance of gene expression complementation, in which genes are active in only one of two parents but are expressed in both reciprocal hybrids. In this study, 1,997 genes only expressed in B73 and 2,024 genes only expressed ...


Laser Microdissection Of Narrow Sheath Mutant Maize Uncovers Novel Gene Expression In The Shoot Apical Meristem, Xiaolan Zhang, Shahinez Madi, Lisa Borsuk, Dan Nettleton, Robert J. Elshire, Brent Buckner, Diane Janick-Buckner, Jon Beck, Marja Timmermans, Patrick S. Schnable, Michael J. Scanlon Jul 2019

Laser Microdissection Of Narrow Sheath Mutant Maize Uncovers Novel Gene Expression In The Shoot Apical Meristem, Xiaolan Zhang, Shahinez Madi, Lisa Borsuk, Dan Nettleton, Robert J. Elshire, Brent Buckner, Diane Janick-Buckner, Jon Beck, Marja Timmermans, Patrick S. Schnable, Michael J. Scanlon

Dan Nettleton

Microarrays enable comparative analyses of gene expression on a genomic scale, however these experiments frequently identify an abundance of differentially expressed genes such that it may be difficult to identify discrete functional networks that are hidden within large microarray datasets. Microarray analyses in which mutant organisms are compared to nonmutant siblings can be especially problematic when the gene of interest is expressed in relatively few cells. Here, we describe the use of laser microdissection microarray to perform transcriptional profiling of the maize shoot apical meristem (SAM), a ~100-μm pillar of organogenic cells that is required for leaf initiation. Microarray analyses ...


Scanning Microarrays At Multiple Intensities Enhances Discovery Of Differentially Expressed Genes, David S. Skibbe, Xiujuan Wang, Xuefeng Zhao, Lisa A. Borsuk, Dan Nettleton, Patrick S. Schnable Jul 2019

Scanning Microarrays At Multiple Intensities Enhances Discovery Of Differentially Expressed Genes, David S. Skibbe, Xiujuan Wang, Xuefeng Zhao, Lisa A. Borsuk, Dan Nettleton, Patrick S. Schnable

Dan Nettleton

Motivation: Scanning parameters are often overlooked when optimizing microarray experiments. A scanning approach that extends the dynamic data range by acquiring multiple scans of different intensities has been developed.

Results: Data from each of three scan intensities (low, medium, high) were analyzed separately using multiple scan and linear regression approaches to identify and compare the sets of genes that exhibit statistically significant differential expression. In the multiple scan approach only one-third of the differentially expressed genes were shared among the three intensities, and each scan intensity identified unique sets of differentially expressed genes. The set of differentially expressed genes from ...


Comparative Gene Expression Profiles Between Heterotic And Non-Heterotic Hybrids Of Tetraploid Medicago Sativa, Xuehui Li, Yanling Wei, Dan Nettleton, E. Charles Brummer Jul 2019

Comparative Gene Expression Profiles Between Heterotic And Non-Heterotic Hybrids Of Tetraploid Medicago Sativa, Xuehui Li, Yanling Wei, Dan Nettleton, E. Charles Brummer

Dan Nettleton

Background: Heterosis, the superior performance of hybrids relative to parents, has clear agricultural value, but its genetic control is unknown. Our objective was to test the hypotheses that hybrids expressing heterosis for biomass yield would show more gene expression levels that were different from midparental values and outside the range of parental values than hybrids that do not exhibit heterosis.

Results: We tested these hypotheses in three Medicago sativa (alfalfa) genotypes and their three hybrids, two of which expressed heterosis for biomass yield and a third that did not, using Affymetrix M. truncatula GeneChip arrays. Alfalfa hybridized to approximately 47 ...


Use Of Legume Green Manures As Nitrogen Sources For Corn Production, Matt Liebman, Rhonda L. Graef, Daniel Nettleton, Cynthia A. Cambardella Jul 2019

Use Of Legume Green Manures As Nitrogen Sources For Corn Production, Matt Liebman, Rhonda L. Graef, Daniel Nettleton, Cynthia A. Cambardella

Dan Nettleton

Recent volatility in supplies and prices of natural gas and synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer suggests a need to develop and refine alternative strategies for supplying N to corn. In this study, conducted in north-eastern Iowa, we examined the use of red clover and alfalfa green manures as means of supplying N to a succeeding corn crop. Red clover intercropped with oat produced significantly more biomass and contained more N than alfalfa intercropped with oat. Tilling green manures in the fall or delaying tillage until the following spring did not have a consistent effect on green manure N content. Without N ...


Complementation Contributes To Transcriptome Complexity In Maize (Zea Mays L.) Hybrids Relative To Their Inbred Parents, Anja Paschold, Yi Jia, Caroline Marcon, Steve Lund, Nick B. Larson, Cheng-Ting Yeh, Stephan Ossowski, Christa Lanz, Dan Nettleton, Patrick S. Schnable, Frank Hochholdinger Jul 2019

Complementation Contributes To Transcriptome Complexity In Maize (Zea Mays L.) Hybrids Relative To Their Inbred Parents, Anja Paschold, Yi Jia, Caroline Marcon, Steve Lund, Nick B. Larson, Cheng-Ting Yeh, Stephan Ossowski, Christa Lanz, Dan Nettleton, Patrick S. Schnable, Frank Hochholdinger

Dan Nettleton

Typically, F1-hybrids are more vigorous than their homozygous, genetically distinct parents, a phenomenon known as heterosis. In the present study, the transcriptomes of the reciprocal maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids B73×Mo17 and Mo17×B73 and their parental inbred lines B73 and Mo17 were surveyed in primary roots, early in the developmental manifestation of heterotic root traits. The application of statistical methods and a suitable experimental design established that 34,233 (i.e., 86%) of all high-confidence maize genes were expressed in at least one genotype. Nearly 70% of all expressed genes were differentially expressed between the two ...


Extreme‐Phenotype Genome‐Wide Association Study (Xp‐Gwas): A Method For Identifying Trait‐Associated Variants By Sequencing Pools Of Individuals Selected From A Diversity Panel, Jinliang Yang, Haiying Jiang, Cheng-Ting Yeh, Jianming Yu, Jeffrey A. Jeddeloh, Dan Nettleton, Patrick S. Schnable Jun 2019

Extreme‐Phenotype Genome‐Wide Association Study (Xp‐Gwas): A Method For Identifying Trait‐Associated Variants By Sequencing Pools Of Individuals Selected From A Diversity Panel, Jinliang Yang, Haiying Jiang, Cheng-Ting Yeh, Jianming Yu, Jeffrey A. Jeddeloh, Dan Nettleton, Patrick S. Schnable

Dan Nettleton

Although approaches for performing genome‐wide association studies (GWAS) are well developed, conventional GWAS requires high‐density genotyping of large numbers of individuals from a diversity panel. Here we report a method for performing GWAS that does not require genotyping of large numbers of individuals. Instead XP‐GWAS (extreme‐phenotype GWAS) relies on genotyping pools of individuals from a diversity panel that have extreme phenotypes. This analysis measures allele frequencies in the extreme pools, enabling discovery of associations between genetic variants and traits of interest. This method was evaluated in maize (Zea mays) using the well‐characterized kernel row number ...


Extensive Tissue-Specific Transcriptomic Plasticity In Maize Primary Roots Upon Water Deficit, Nina Opitz, Caroline Marcon, Anja Paschold, Waqas Ahmed Malik, Andrew Lithio, Ronny Brandt, Hans-Peter Piepho, Dan Nettleton, Frank Hochholdinger Jun 2019

Extensive Tissue-Specific Transcriptomic Plasticity In Maize Primary Roots Upon Water Deficit, Nina Opitz, Caroline Marcon, Anja Paschold, Waqas Ahmed Malik, Andrew Lithio, Ronny Brandt, Hans-Peter Piepho, Dan Nettleton, Frank Hochholdinger

Dan Nettleton

Water deficit is the most important environmental constraint severely limiting global crop growth and productivity. This study investigated early transcriptome changes in maize (Zea mays L.) primary root tissues in response to moderate water deficit conditions by RNA-Sequencing. Differential gene expression analyses revealed a high degree of plasticity of the water deficit response. The activity status of genes (active/inactive) was determined by a Bayesian hierarchical model. In total, 70% of expressed genes were constitutively active in all tissues. In contrast, <3% (50 genes) of water deficit-responsive genes (1915) were consistently regulated in all tissues, while >75% (1501 genes) were specifically regulated in a single root tissue. Water deficit-responsive genes were most numerous in the ...


Non-Syntenic Genes Drive Rtcs-Dependent Regulation Of The Embryo Transcriptome During Formation Of Seminal Root Primordia In Maize (Zea Mays L.), Huanhuan Tai, Nina Opitz, Andrew Lithio, Xin Lu, Dan Nettleton, Frank Hochholdinger Jun 2019

Non-Syntenic Genes Drive Rtcs-Dependent Regulation Of The Embryo Transcriptome During Formation Of Seminal Root Primordia In Maize (Zea Mays L.), Huanhuan Tai, Nina Opitz, Andrew Lithio, Xin Lu, Dan Nettleton, Frank Hochholdinger

Dan Nettleton

Seminal roots of maize are pivotal for early seedling establishment. The maize mutant rootless concerning crown and seminal roots (rtcs) is defective in seminal root initiation during embryogenesis. In this study, the transcriptomes of wild-type and rtcs embryos were analyzed by RNA-Seq based on histological results at three stages of seminal root primordia formation. Hierarchical clustering highlighted that samples of each genotype grouped together along development. Determination of their gene activity status revealed hundreds of genes specifically transcribed in wild-type or rtcs embryos, while K-mean clustering revealed changes in gene expression dynamics between wild-type and rtcs during embryo development. Pairwise ...


Substantial Contribution Of Genetic Variation In The Expression Of Transcription Factors To Phenotypic Variation Revealed By Erd-Gwas, Hung-Ying Lin, Qiang Liu, Xiao Li, Jinliang Yang, Sanzhen Liu, Yinlian Huang, Michael J. Scanlon, Dan Nettleton, Patrick S. Schnable Jun 2019

Substantial Contribution Of Genetic Variation In The Expression Of Transcription Factors To Phenotypic Variation Revealed By Erd-Gwas, Hung-Ying Lin, Qiang Liu, Xiao Li, Jinliang Yang, Sanzhen Liu, Yinlian Huang, Michael J. Scanlon, Dan Nettleton, Patrick S. Schnable

Dan Nettleton

Background: There are significant limitations in existing methods for the genome-wide identification of genes whose expression patterns affect traits.

Results: The transcriptomes of five tissues from 27 genetically diverse maize inbred lines were deeply sequenced to identify genes exhibiting high and low levels of expression variation across tissues or genotypes. Transcription factors are enriched among genes with the most variation in expression across tissues, as well as among genes with higher-than-median levels of variation in expression across genotypes. In contrast, transcription factors are depleted among genes whose expression is either highly stable or highly variable across genotypes. We developed a ...


Parallel Genome-Wide Expression Profiling Of Host And Pathogen During Soybean Cyst Nematode Infection Of Soybean, Nagabhushana Ithal, Justin Recknor, Dan Nettleton, Leonard Hearne, Tom Maier, Thomas J. Baum, Melissa G. Mitchum Jun 2019

Parallel Genome-Wide Expression Profiling Of Host And Pathogen During Soybean Cyst Nematode Infection Of Soybean, Nagabhushana Ithal, Justin Recknor, Dan Nettleton, Leonard Hearne, Tom Maier, Thomas J. Baum, Melissa G. Mitchum

Dan Nettleton

Global analysis of gene expression changes in soybean (Glycine max) and Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode [SCN]) during the course of infection in a compatible interaction was performed using the Affymetrix GeneChip soybean genome array. Among 35,611 soybean transcripts monitored, we identified 429 genes that showed statistically significant differential expression between uninfected and nematode-infected root tissues. These included genes encoding enzymes involved in primary metabolism; biosynthesis of phenolic compounds, lignin, and flavonoids; genes related to stress and defense responses; cell wall modification; cellular signaling; and transcriptional regulation. Among 7,431 SCN transcripts monitored, 1,850 genes showed statistically significant ...


Sequence Mining And Transcript Profiling To Explore Cyst Nematode Parasitism, Axel A. Elling, Makedonka Mitreva, Xiaowu Gai, John Martin, Justin Recknor, Eric L. Davis, Richard S. Hussey, Dan Nettleton, James P. Mccarter, Thomas J. Baum Jun 2019

Sequence Mining And Transcript Profiling To Explore Cyst Nematode Parasitism, Axel A. Elling, Makedonka Mitreva, Xiaowu Gai, John Martin, Justin Recknor, Eric L. Davis, Richard S. Hussey, Dan Nettleton, James P. Mccarter, Thomas J. Baum

Dan Nettleton

Background: Cyst nematodes are devastating plant parasites that become sedentary within plant roots and induce the transformation of normal plant cells into elaborate feeding cells with the help of secreted effectors, the parasitism proteins. These proteins are the translation products of parasitism genes and are secreted molecular tools that allow cyst nematodes to infect plants.

Results: We present here the expression patterns of all previously described parasitism genes of the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, in all major life stages except the adult male. These insights were gained by analyzing our gene expression dataset from experiments using the Affymetrix Soybean ...


Mu Transposon Insertion Sites And Meiotic Recombination Events Co-Localize With Epigenetic Marks For Open Chromatin Across The Maize Genome, Sanzhen Liu, Cheng-Ting Yeh, Tieming Ji, Kai Ying, Haiyan Wu, Ho Man Tang, Yan Fu, Daniel S. Nettleton, Patrick S. Schnable Jun 2019

Mu Transposon Insertion Sites And Meiotic Recombination Events Co-Localize With Epigenetic Marks For Open Chromatin Across The Maize Genome, Sanzhen Liu, Cheng-Ting Yeh, Tieming Ji, Kai Ying, Haiyan Wu, Ho Man Tang, Yan Fu, Daniel S. Nettleton, Patrick S. Schnable

Dan Nettleton

The Mu transposon system of maize is highly active, with each of the ∼50–100 copies transposing on average once each generation. The approximately one dozen distinct Mutransposons contain highly similar ∼215 bp terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) and generate 9-bp target site duplications (TSDs) upon insertion. Using a novel genome walking strategy that uses these conserved TIRs as primer binding sites, Mu insertion sites were amplified from Mu stocks and sequenced via 454 technology. 94% of ∼965,000 reads carried Mu TIRs, demonstrating the specificity of this strategy. Among these TIRs, 21 novel Mu TIRs were discovered, revealing additional ...


Flor Revisited (Again): Eqtl And Mutational Analysis Of Nb-Lrr Mediated Immunity To Powdery Mildew In Barley, Roger P. Wise, Priyanka Surana, Gregory S. Fuerst, Ruo Xu, Divya Mistry, Julie A. Dickerson, Dan Nettleton Dr. Jun 2019

Flor Revisited (Again): Eqtl And Mutational Analysis Of Nb-Lrr Mediated Immunity To Powdery Mildew In Barley, Roger P. Wise, Priyanka Surana, Gregory S. Fuerst, Ruo Xu, Divya Mistry, Julie A. Dickerson, Dan Nettleton Dr.

Dan Nettleton

Genes encoding early signaling events in pathogen defense often are identified only by their phenotype. Such genes involved in barley-powdery mildew interactions include Mla, specifying race-specific resistance; Rar1 (Required for Mla12-specified resistance1), and Rom1 (Restoration of Mla-specified resistance1). The HSP90-SGT1-RAR1 complex appears to function as chaperone in MLA-specified resistance, however, much remains to be discovered regarding the precise signaling underlying plant immunity. Genetic analyses of fast-neutron mutants derived from CI 16151 (Mla6) uncovered a novel locus, designated Rar3 (Required for Mla6-specified resistance3). Rar3 segregates independent of Mla6 and Rar1, and rar3 mutants are susceptible to Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei ...


Developmental Transcript Profiling Of Cyst Nematode Feeding Cells In Soybean Roots, Nagabhushana Ithal, Justin Recknor, Dan Nettleton, Tom Maier, Thomas J. Baum, Melissa G. Mitchum Jun 2019

Developmental Transcript Profiling Of Cyst Nematode Feeding Cells In Soybean Roots, Nagabhushana Ithal, Justin Recknor, Dan Nettleton, Tom Maier, Thomas J. Baum, Melissa G. Mitchum

Dan Nettleton

Cyst nematodes of the genus Heterodera are obligate, sedentary endoparasites that have developed highly evolved relationships with specific host plant species. Successful parasitism involves significant physiological and morphological changes to plant root cells for the formation of specialized feeding cells called syncytia. To better understand the molecular mechanisms that lead to the development of nematode feeding cells, transcript profiling was conducted on developing syncytia induced by the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines in soybean roots by coupling laser capture microdissection with high-density oligonucleotide microarray analysis. This approach has identified pathways that may play intrinsic roles in syncytium induction, formation, and ...


Comparison Of Transcript Profiles In Wild-Type And O2 Maize Endosperm In Different Genetic Backgrounds, Hongwu Jia, Dan Nettleton, Joan M. Peterson, Gricelda Vasquez-Carrillo, Jean-Luc Jannink, M. Paul Scott Jun 2019

Comparison Of Transcript Profiles In Wild-Type And O2 Maize Endosperm In Different Genetic Backgrounds, Hongwu Jia, Dan Nettleton, Joan M. Peterson, Gricelda Vasquez-Carrillo, Jean-Luc Jannink, M. Paul Scott

Dan Nettleton

Mutations in the Opaque2 (O2) gene of maize (Zea mays L.) improve the nutritional value of maize by reducing the level of zeins in the kernel. The phenotype of o2 grain is controlled by many modifier genes and is therefore strongly dependent on genetic background. We propose two hypotheses to explain differences in phenotypic severity in different genetic backgrounds: (i) Specific genes are differentially (o2 vs. wild-type) expressed only in certain genotypes, and (ii) A set of genes are differentially expressed in all backgrounds, but the degree of differential expression differs in different backgrounds. To determine the extent to which ...


A Diallel Analysis Of A Maize Donor Population Response To In Vivo Maternal Haploid Induction I: Inducibility, Gerald N. De La Fuente, Ursula K. Frei, Benjamin Trampe, Daniel Nettleton, Wei Zhang, Thomas Lubberstedt Jun 2019

A Diallel Analysis Of A Maize Donor Population Response To In Vivo Maternal Haploid Induction I: Inducibility, Gerald N. De La Fuente, Ursula K. Frei, Benjamin Trampe, Daniel Nettleton, Wei Zhang, Thomas Lubberstedt

Dan Nettleton

The maize in vivo maternal doubled haploid (DH) system is an important tool used by maize breeders and geneticists around the world. The ability to rapidly produce DH lines of maize for breeding allows breeders to quickly respond to new selection criteria based on the ever changing biotic and abiotic stresses that maize is subjected to across its growing area. There are two important steps in the generation of DH lines using the in vivo maternal DH system: 1) the production and identification of haploid progeny, and 2) the doubling of genomes to create fertile, diploid inbred lines that can ...