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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

A Comparison Of Tribal Sovereignty, Self-Determination, And Environmental Justice At The Epa’S Onondaga Lake And Tar Creek Superfund Sites, Thomas Clark Jun 2020

A Comparison Of Tribal Sovereignty, Self-Determination, And Environmental Justice At The Epa’S Onondaga Lake And Tar Creek Superfund Sites, Thomas Clark

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The Environmental Protection Agency’s Superfund program mandates that Native American tribes are afforded the same treatment as states in the implementation of environmental remediation projects; however, the degree of coordination and consultation between the EPA and sovereign tribal governments varies widely between sites. Two of the Superfund program’s highest profile sites with Native American interest, northeast Oklahoma’s Tar Creek and central New York’s Onondaga Lake, are characterized by such a disparity in tribal participation. While Oklahoma’s Quapaw Tribe would ultimately enter into a number of cooperative agreements with the EPA for direct control over remedial ...


Gail Carlson: Inspiring Students To Step Up, Gerry Boyle May 2020

Gail Carlson: Inspiring Students To Step Up, Gerry Boyle

Colby Magazine

"When you become a doomsday person, when you're really pessimistic, it's because you can't see that you can make a difference." -Gail Carlson, associate professor of environmental studies


Updating The Electronics Cycle: Improving Us E-Waste Management Practices, Martin Cooper May 2020

Updating The Electronics Cycle: Improving Us E-Waste Management Practices, Martin Cooper

Master's Projects and Capstones

The United States is one of the largest producers of electronic waste (e-waste), partly due to a lack of federal legislation to regulate e-waste disposal and transport. Increased collection, recycling, and reuse of electronics can reduce pollution from hazardous metals and chemicals found in e-waste, lower the carbon footprint of the electronics industry, and protect the health of workers in the global waste management sector. This paper examines case studies of e-waste management strategies in European Union member nations and US states, and identifies ways to integrate those strategies in US federal and state policy. This paper finds that extended ...


Photographic Validation Of Target Versus Nontarget Take Of Brown Treesnake Baits, Shane R. Siers, Aaron B. Shiels, Cynthia G. Payne, Francinem M. Chlarson, Craig S. Clark, Stephen M. Mosher May 2020

Photographic Validation Of Target Versus Nontarget Take Of Brown Treesnake Baits, Shane R. Siers, Aaron B. Shiels, Cynthia G. Payne, Francinem M. Chlarson, Craig S. Clark, Stephen M. Mosher

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Use of toxic baits or other tools for managing nuisance species must ensure that the species of interest is adequately targeted while exposure to nontarget species is minimized. Nontarget takes of acetaminophen‐laced baits for control of invasive brown treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) on Guam may put those animals at risk of lethal intoxication and render the bait unavailable to the intended target species. We used wildlife cameras to identify species removing toxic and nontoxic baits from brown treesnake bait stations designed to exclude nontarget taxa in 2015 and 2016. Throughout various sites and habitat types, and balanced by season (wet ...


Time Allocation To Resources By Three Species Of Rats (Rattus Spp.) In A Radial Arm Maze, Gary Witmer, Nathan P. Snow, Rachael S. Moulton May 2020

Time Allocation To Resources By Three Species Of Rats (Rattus Spp.) In A Radial Arm Maze, Gary Witmer, Nathan P. Snow, Rachael S. Moulton

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Context. Introduced rats (Rattus spp.) can pose a serious threat to native flora and fauna, especially on islands where most species have evolved in the absence of terrestrial predators. Effective detection and eradication methods for introduced rats are essential to the maintenance of insular ecosystem integrity. Thus, it is important to better understand the behaviour of rats when they first arrive in a new setting.

Aims. To determine whether rats would find some novel stimuli to be significantly more attractive than other novel stimuli.

Methods. An eight-arm radial maze was used to study the behaviour of three species of Rattus ...


Interactions With Humans Shape Coyote Responses To Hazing, Julie K. Young, Edd Hammill, Stewart W. Breck May 2020

Interactions With Humans Shape Coyote Responses To Hazing, Julie K. Young, Edd Hammill, Stewart W. Breck

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Medium and large carnivores coexist with people in urban areas globally, occasionally resulting in

negative interactions that prompt questions about how to reduce human-wildlife conflict. Hazing,

i.e., scaring wildlife, is frequently promoted as an important non-lethal means for urbanites to reduce

conflict but there is limited scientific evidence for its efficacy. We used a population of captive coyotes (Canis latrans) to simulate urban human-coyote interactions and subsequent effects of hazing on coyote behavior. Past experiences with humans significantly affected the number of times a coyoteapproached a human to necessitate hazing. coyotes that had been hand fed by adults had ...


Hawaii As A Microcosm: Advancing The Science And Practice Of Managing Introduced And Invasive Species, Liba Pejchar, Christopher A. Lepczyk, Jean E. Fantle-Lepczyk, Steven C. Hess, M. Tracy Johnson, Christina R. Leopold, Michael Marchetti, Katherine M. Mcclure, Aaron B. Shiels May 2020

Hawaii As A Microcosm: Advancing The Science And Practice Of Managing Introduced And Invasive Species, Liba Pejchar, Christopher A. Lepczyk, Jean E. Fantle-Lepczyk, Steven C. Hess, M. Tracy Johnson, Christina R. Leopold, Michael Marchetti, Katherine M. Mcclure, Aaron B. Shiels

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Invasive species are a leading driver of global change, with consequences for biodiversity and society. Because of extraordinary rates of endemism, introduction, and extinction, Hawaii offers a rich platform for exploring the cross-disciplinary challenges of managing invasive species in a dynamic world. We highlight key successes and shortcomings to share lessons learned and inspire innovation and action in and beyond the archipelago. We then discuss thematic challenges and opportunities of broad relevance to invaded ecosystems and human communities. Important research needs and possible actions include eradicating mammals from mainland island sanctuaries, assessing hidden threats from poorly known introduced species, harnessing ...


Deciphering Interactions Between White-Tailed Deer And Approaching Vehicle, Morgan Pfeiffer, Raymond B. Iglay, Thomas W. Seamans, Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. Devault May 2020

Deciphering Interactions Between White-Tailed Deer And Approaching Vehicle, Morgan Pfeiffer, Raymond B. Iglay, Thomas W. Seamans, Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. Devault

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Deer-vehicle collisions are a major transportation hazard, but factors affecting deer escape decision-making in response to vehicle approach remain poorly characterized. We made opportunistic observations of deer response to vehicle approach during daylight hours on a restricted- access facility in Ohio, USA (vehicle speeds were ≤64 km/h). We hypothesized that animal proximity to the road, group size, vehicle approach, and ambient conditions would affect perceived risk by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to vehicle approach, as measured by flight-initiation distance (FID). We constructed a priori models for FID, as well as road-crossing behavior. Deer responses were variable and did not ...


Evaluating The Success Of Compensatory Wetland Mitigation In The California Coastal Zone, Tommy Alexander May 2020

Evaluating The Success Of Compensatory Wetland Mitigation In The California Coastal Zone, Tommy Alexander

Master's Projects and Capstones

Compensatory mitigation is a practice whereby a government agency requires the creation, restoration, enhancement, or preservation of ecological resources to offset unavoidable adverse impacts to environmentally sensitive habitat caused by some form of development. Compensatory wetland mitigation programs have slowed the rate of wetland loss in California and elsewhere, but they have largely failed to offset impacts with a sufficient amount of functional mitigation acreage. In California, more than 90% of the state’s historical wetlands have been drained, diked, filled, or dredged over the past 100 years. This report evaluates the success of compensatory wetland mitigation required by the ...


What Is The U.S. Drought Monitor?, National Drought Mitigation Center May 2020

What Is The U.S. Drought Monitor?, National Drought Mitigation Center

Publications of the National Drought Mitigation Center

The USDA uses the map as a trigger for programs that help agricultural producers recover from drought and other natural disasters:

Livestock Forage Disaster Program (LFP)

Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm Raised Fish Program (ELAP)

Fast-Track Secretarial Disaster Declarations

Emergency Loans Program


The U.S. Drought Monitor Network: Improving Drought Early Warning, The U.S. Drought Monitor Network May 2020

The U.S. Drought Monitor Network: Improving Drought Early Warning, The U.S. Drought Monitor Network

Publications of the National Drought Mitigation Center

WHAT IS THE U.S. DROUGHT MONITOR NETWORK?

WHO ARE THE OBSERVERS?

WHAT BENEFITS?

The network in action

HOW DOES IT WORK?

WHO CREATES THE MAP?


Shifting Public Perception: Climate Change Means Living With Fire And Smoke, Robert Froembling May 2020

Shifting Public Perception: Climate Change Means Living With Fire And Smoke, Robert Froembling

Seattle Journal of Technology, Environmental & Innovation Law

The urgency to prepare for the climate crisis has never been greater. We are currently living in the sixth mass extinction and the effects are only going to accelerate. We will inherit more wildfires, larger wildfires, and more frequent wildfires.

This piece is not meant to stoke fear in its readers or be depressing, but to shift public perception on what our future holds by evaluating the laws and science presented to us. This piece will look at regional and federal regulations and assess the increased rate of forest fires and the grave public health concerns from stagnant smoke specifically ...


Using The Elaboration Likelihood Model As A Method To Teach Science Communication, Ann Briggs May 2020

Using The Elaboration Likelihood Model As A Method To Teach Science Communication, Ann Briggs

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

For most scientists, researchers, and resource professionals, the act of communicating their science is not the focus of their training or practice. While the importance of sharing information with the general public is widely accepted, many professionals have not been taught how to communicate with the public. They rely on trial and error and other methods that often lead to misunderstanding and miscommunication. Science communication is a necessary step to keep society engaged and informed about science and the scientific process, and a lack of science communication to the public leads to misinformation, and ultimately a lack of trust in ...


Building Adaptive Capacity In Tribal Communities Of The Missouri River Basin To Manage Drought And Climate Extremes: A Case Study From The Wind River Indian Reservation, Crystal J. Stiles, Natalie Umphlett, Mitch Cottenoir May 2020

Building Adaptive Capacity In Tribal Communities Of The Missouri River Basin To Manage Drought And Climate Extremes: A Case Study From The Wind River Indian Reservation, Crystal J. Stiles, Natalie Umphlett, Mitch Cottenoir

HPRCC Personnel Publications

Native American peoples of the Northern and Central Plains have long endured harsh climate conditions, such as floods and droughts, and they possess valuable traditional knowledges that have enhanced their resilience to these extreme events. However, in recent times, limited capacity to adapt to a rapidly changing climate combined with a lack of resources have increased tribes’ vulnerability to climate extremes and their associated impacts. In response, a number of projects have been developed to assist tribes with their self-identified climate- and drought-related needs, particularly in the context of on-reservation decision-making. In this case study, we present an engagement strategy ...


Charismatic Predators In Modern Africa: Spotted Hyena (Crocuta Crocuta) And Human Coexistence In The Northern Tuli Game Reserve, Botswana, Jazmin Castillo May 2020

Charismatic Predators In Modern Africa: Spotted Hyena (Crocuta Crocuta) And Human Coexistence In The Northern Tuli Game Reserve, Botswana, Jazmin Castillo

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Increasing human populations has led researchers to investigate the impacts of high human population density and its impact on carnivore populations. Spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) hold a unique place in African ecosystems due to being a very successful top predator with an adaptable diet whereas other top predators, like the African lion, are rapidly decreasing in abundance. We investigated past and current spotted hyena abundance within the Northern Tuli Game Reserve to better aid in wildlife management. Spotted hyenas showed no significant difference in the change in population abundance throughout the different years of the study (2008-2016). Spotted hyena populations ...


Recreational Activity Dynamics At Valentine National Wildlife Refuge, Olivia A. Darugna May 2020

Recreational Activity Dynamics At Valentine National Wildlife Refuge, Olivia A. Darugna

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Many parks and protected areas are managed for a dual purpose to conserve ecological systems and to provide wildlife-compatible recreational opportunities for visitors. Managing parks and protected areas to meet this dual goal entails progressive management approaches that incorporate information about social and ecological components of these systems. Current management regimes focus heavily on the ecological component with little or no information concerning the social component of parks and protected areas. Incorporating social information is essential for understanding and accounting for social conflicts and ecological impacts that result from a diversity of recreational activities. We examined recreational activities at Valentine ...


Private Land, Public Trust: Strategic Conservation Planning For Public Wildlife On Private Lands Through The Usfws Partners For Fish And Wildlife Program, Clint Wirick May 2020

Private Land, Public Trust: Strategic Conservation Planning For Public Wildlife On Private Lands Through The Usfws Partners For Fish And Wildlife Program, Clint Wirick

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Law requires federal agencies to develop long-term strategic plans. Strategic plans define goals, objectives, and performance measures defining how the agencies and programs will reach their stated goals. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Partners for Fish and Wildlife (PFW) develops strategic plans every five years. Each individual state develops a plan for their respective state. Those state plans are compiled for the region and become part of Regional Comprehensive Strategic Plan. The current strategic plan expires in 2021. States will begin the strategic planning process in 2020. In Utah, PFW staff will also begin developing a strategic plan ...


Stage-Structured Blue Crab Population Model With Fishing, Predation And Cannibalism, Fangming Xu May 2020

Stage-Structured Blue Crab Population Model With Fishing, Predation And Cannibalism, Fangming Xu

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Blue crab is a species of crab commonly found in the waters of the western Atlantic Ocean. It is one of the most important shellfish in the Chesapeake Bay. The blue crab fishing industry has a notable impact on the local economy, and blue crabs form a key link in the Chesapeake Bay food web. Between the mid-1990s and 2004, the blue crab population dropped by two thirds. Factors such as habitat loss, harvest pressure and climate change may have contributed to the decline. However, there hasn’t been enough research on the long term dynamic equilibrium, making it difficult ...


Soil Amendment And Soil Testing As Nutrient Reduction Strategies For The Peel Integrated Water Initiative, Robert Summers, Peta Richards, David Weaver, David Rowe May 2020

Soil Amendment And Soil Testing As Nutrient Reduction Strategies For The Peel Integrated Water Initiative, Robert Summers, Peta Richards, David Weaver, David Rowe

Resource management technical reports

The Transform Peel program focuses on 42 000 hectares (ha) due east of Mandurah called the Peel Food Zone, 75 kilometres (km) south of Perth in the shires of Murray and Serpentine Jarrahdale and includes an assessment of intensified and enclosed agriculture and a business park. The Peel Integrated Water Initiative was developed through Transform Peel to identify water sources and minimise the effect of these projects on water quality by reducing the nutrient loads discharged into the Peel–Harvey Estuarine System, which has been suffering from poor water quality for this reason.

The mineral sand miner MZI Resources Pty ...


Genetic Studies Of Wildlife, Brittaney L. Buchanan Apr 2020

Genetic Studies Of Wildlife, Brittaney L. Buchanan

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Genetic techniques are being more frequently used to understand the biology and management of wildlife species. The wild turkey is one species of genetic interest because the correct identification of individuals to the subspecies level is difficult using traditional methods. Currently phenotypic differences in plumage, especially the upper tail coverts, are used to assign individuals to subspecies. To hunters wanting to complete a “grand slam,” identification of birds’ subspecies is important. This study focuses on the five extant subspecies: Eastern (M. g. silvestris), Osceola (M. g. osceola), Rio Grande (M. g. intermedia), Merriam’s (M. g. merriami), and Gould’s ...


Comprehensive And Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventories For Nebraska And The Midwest As Baselines For Climate Change Mitigation, Eric R. Holley Apr 2020

Comprehensive And Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventories For Nebraska And The Midwest As Baselines For Climate Change Mitigation, Eric R. Holley

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Climate change is the paramount challenge of today for a sustainable future. Mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is necessary to reduce the associated risks and impacts on society. Using the EPA’s SIT and literature review, comprehensive GHG-emissions inventories were developed for the state of Nebraska over 25 years (1990-2015) and agricultural GHG emissions inventories were developed for the Midwest U.S for one year (2016). Nebraska’s net emissions increased from 56.2 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (MMtCO2e) in 1990 to 87.4 MMtCO2e in 2016. Agriculture was found to be ...


The Effects Of Temperature On Evacuation Rates And Absorption Efficiency Of Flathead Catfish, Zach Horstman Apr 2020

The Effects Of Temperature On Evacuation Rates And Absorption Efficiency Of Flathead Catfish, Zach Horstman

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Knowledge of fish gastric evacuation rates are a necessary component for both field and laboratory studies when trying to understand feeding rates, modeling energy budgets, and understanding trophic dynamics of aquatic ecosystems. Many freshwater fish encounter a broad range of environmental temperatures across life history stages, but the mechanistic link between temperature and physiological processes often remains poorly understood. We designed three recirculating aquatic systems capable of rearing Flathead Catfish Plyodictis olivaris in order to quantify gastric evacuation rates and gross energy absorption at three temperatures (17º C, 22º C and 25º C). We examined the relationship between temperature and ...


In Hot Water: Influence Of Multiple Stressors On Thermal Tolerance Of Fathead Minnows Pimephales Promelas, Alexander Engel Apr 2020

In Hot Water: Influence Of Multiple Stressors On Thermal Tolerance Of Fathead Minnows Pimephales Promelas, Alexander Engel

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Freshwater aquatic systems around the globe are often subjected to physical, biological, and chemical alterations to support societal needs. The Great Plains contains one of the largest agricultural industries in North America, but its productivity has ecological repercussions for adjacent freshwater ecosystems. Specifically, the dependency on surface water irrigation and application of chemical treatments has altered the thermal and chemical composition of freshwater ecosystems throughout the region. Stressors such as elevated temperatures, altered flow regimes, increased contaminant loads affect the physiology and behavior of fishes and can lead to long-term population effects. We examined thermal tolerance of Fathead minnows Pimephales ...


Impact Of Streambank Stabilization On Sediment Deposition And Erosion In Central Nebraska Streams, Matthew Russell Apr 2020

Impact Of Streambank Stabilization On Sediment Deposition And Erosion In Central Nebraska Streams, Matthew Russell

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Stabilization projects are increasingly used to mitigate the effects of anthropogenic streambank erosion, yet the effectiveness of these practices has been insufficiently monitored and assessed to date. Sound monitoring practices promote engineered effectiveness, in addition to allowing adjustments in implementation and maintenance to improve practices over time. However, current methods to quickly and efficiently quantify deposition and erosion within a stream continue to be costly and inefficient. Therefore, the objectives of this project were to 1) Measure streambank migration of three reaches at Cedar River in Nebraska, from 1993 to 2006 (pre-stabilization) and from 2006 to 2018 (post-stabilization) using aerial ...


Assessing The Potential For Industrial Activities To Disturb Polar Bears Denning On The Arctic Coastal Plain, Patricia A. Terletzky-Gese Apr 2020

Assessing The Potential For Industrial Activities To Disturb Polar Bears Denning On The Arctic Coastal Plain, Patricia A. Terletzky-Gese

Funded Research Records

No abstract provided.


Using Gis To Analyze Graminoid And Shrub Composition Change From 1997 To 2017 At Atqasuk, Alaska, Rebecca Daigle Apr 2020

Using Gis To Analyze Graminoid And Shrub Composition Change From 1997 To 2017 At Atqasuk, Alaska, Rebecca Daigle

Student Scholars Day Posters

Shrubs are expanding across the Arctic due to longer growing seasons and rapidly increasing air temperatures. Likewise, graminoid height is increasing. Changes in community composition may impact critical feedback loops and result in trophic cascades. Here, we analyzed vegetation cover change at a long-term research site in Atqasuk, Alaska. We compared cover across forty-eight, one-square-meter plots between 1997 and 2017. Shrubs and graminoids increased significantly over time, while bryophytes decreased over time. Other functional groups were inconsistent or showed no trend. We mapped the shrub and graminoid vegetation change in order to examine cover trends within the context of the ...


Exploring The Effects Of Biases In Mark-Recapture Fish Abundance Estimation With Software Simulations, Christian Yap Apr 2020

Exploring The Effects Of Biases In Mark-Recapture Fish Abundance Estimation With Software Simulations, Christian Yap

Student Scholars Day Posters

Two-sample mark-recapture sampling is a common method used to estimate fish abundance. The idea is to capture and mark fish in an initial sample. The fish are then released to mix randomly with the whole population. A second sample is obtained, and the number of marked and unmarked fish is recorded. The Chapman estimator uses the number of fish marked in the first sample, the total number of fish captured in the second sample, and the number of recaptured fish to estimate abundance. The assumptions are: 1) the population is closed, meaning no immigration/emigration, and births/deaths occur, 2 ...


Exploring How Graduates Of The Nebraska Water Leaders Academy Influence Community Capitals: Two Case Studies, Dakota Staggs Apr 2020

Exploring How Graduates Of The Nebraska Water Leaders Academy Influence Community Capitals: Two Case Studies, Dakota Staggs

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Natural resources are foundational to any community and so leadership regarding those resources is a key factor to consider in order to understand communities. The vitality and strength of a community, however, is not solely dependent upon the natural resources available to it but depends on the collection of assets and individuals within it. This study sought to understand how individual leaders, graduates of the Nebraska Water Leaders Academy, influence each of the seven community capitals outlined by Flora, Flora, and Gasteyer (2016), and how their individual civic capacity, as defined by Sun and Anderson (2012), contribute to community capacity ...


The Responsibility Of Scientists In Public Policy, Samuel S. Otálvaro Apr 2020

The Responsibility Of Scientists In Public Policy, Samuel S. Otálvaro

Bridgewater Review

No abstract provided.


Impacts Of Human Recreation On Nutrient Availability And Periphyton Abundance On The Niobrara River, Matthew Chen, Jessica Corman, Sydney Kimnach, Kayla Vondracek Apr 2020

Impacts Of Human Recreation On Nutrient Availability And Periphyton Abundance On The Niobrara River, Matthew Chen, Jessica Corman, Sydney Kimnach, Kayla Vondracek

UCARE Research Products

In freshwater ecosystems, eutrophication can create many problems. Excess nutrients, like nitrogen or phosphorus, promote algal or cyanobacterial growth. This growth also leads to increased organic matter production and decomposition, a process that can reduce oxygen concentration in the water. When this happens, species diversity declines, transparency of the water declines, and anoxia may lead to fish kills . Of particular concern is the possibility of cyanobacteria blooms that create compounds toxic for humans. Many of the waters across Nebraska receive excessive nutrients from human activities, largely related to agriculture (Dickey 1982). However, there is one river, the Niobrara River, that ...