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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Master’S Project: Vermont Town Forest Recreation Planning And Community Assistance Program: The Future Of Forest-Based Outdoor Recreation, Taylor M. Luneau Jan 2019

Master’S Project: Vermont Town Forest Recreation Planning And Community Assistance Program: The Future Of Forest-Based Outdoor Recreation, Taylor M. Luneau

Rubenstein School Masters Project Publications

The Vermont Town Forest Recreation Planning Community Assistance Program (VTFRP) was a comprehensive community planning process held in ten diverse towns across Vermont. Led by the Urban and Community Forestry Program and the SE Group, the VTFRP helped towns develop a vision for the future management of their forests through open house workshops, site visits, steering committee meetings, and community surveys. The process provided towns with a forest recreation planning toolkit and an individualized action-based forest stewardship and recreation plan. By analyzing data from the community surveys and open house activities across all ten towns, my project considered the recreation ...


Call For Abstracts - Resrb 2019, July 8-9, Wrocław, Poland, Wojciech M. Budzianowski Dec 2018

Call For Abstracts - Resrb 2019, July 8-9, Wrocław, Poland, Wojciech M. Budzianowski

Wojciech Budzianowski

No abstract provided.


Evaluation Of A Sequential Pond System For Detention And Treatment Of Runoff At Skypark, Santa's Village, Elizabeth Caporuscio Dec 2018

Evaluation Of A Sequential Pond System For Detention And Treatment Of Runoff At Skypark, Santa's Village, Elizabeth Caporuscio

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Understanding the extent to which human activities impact surface water resources has become increasingly important as both human population growth and related landscape changes impact water quality and quantity across varying geographical scales. Skypark, Santa’s Village is a 233.76-acre tourism-based outdoor recreation area located in Skyforest, California residing within the San Bernardino National Forest. The park is situated at Hooks Creek, the headwaters of the Mojave River Watershed, and is characterized by a diverse landscape that includes forest cover and human development, including impervious surfaces, a restored meadow, and recreational trails. In 2016, Hencks Meadow was considered degraded ...


Landscape Structure And Dynamics Of Recreational Fisheries, Christine N. Ruskamp Dec 2018

Landscape Structure And Dynamics Of Recreational Fisheries, Christine N. Ruskamp

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Angler populations and the waterbodies they use are patchily distributed, creating putatively complex user-resource dynamics on the landscape. Spatially and temporally dynamic relationships between anglers and waterbodies can be difficult to track, understand, and manage. We often focus our efforts on the angler (directly or indirectly) with far less attention devoted to understanding the spatial structure and dynamics of fisheries on the landscape. Waterbodies serve as dynamic attractors on the landscape, shaping landscape patterns in angler participation. We surmise that by understanding the spatial structure and dynamics of recreational fisheries we can gain tremendous insight to cross-scale patterns that shape ...


Managing For Vegetation Heterogeneity On Rangelands: An Exploration Of Rancher Attitudes, Stephanie Marie Kennedy Dec 2018

Managing For Vegetation Heterogeneity On Rangelands: An Exploration Of Rancher Attitudes, Stephanie Marie Kennedy

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Grasslands provide food, fiber, and numerous ecosystem services to human populations as well as habitat for wildlife. They are also some of the most endangered ecosystems in the world because of their productive soils and open topography. This problem is exacerbated by the accelerating conversion of grassland to cropland and encroaching trees and shrubs. The quality of remaining grasslands will be of increasing importance because of the biodiversity and vital ecosystem services they provide. Heterogeneity is a term specific to rangeland science that is illustrative of grassland health. Grassland species require very specific and differing habitats and without the variation ...


Imidacloprid Persistence, Mobility, And Effect On Ecosystem Function, Joanna Hardin Dec 2018

Imidacloprid Persistence, Mobility, And Effect On Ecosystem Function, Joanna Hardin

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid pesticide used to protect against biting and sucking insects. Land managers rely on its systemic properties, however long-term studies investigating imidacloprid effects on ecosystem function are limited. This study investigated imidacloprid applications to Tsuga caroliniana and Tsuga canadensis over time and compared concentrations to measures of ecosystem function including soil respiration, microbial function, and invertebrate density. Results indicate that imidacloprid is persistent (p0.5). Microbial function and invertebrate density were not significantly different between control and treatment locations nor did imidacloprid concentrations correlate with ecosystem functional indicator activity (p>0.05). It is evident that imidacloprid ...


High-Resolution Digital Surface Characterization Of The Rio Chama In New Mexico, Rowan L. Converse Nov 2018

High-Resolution Digital Surface Characterization Of The Rio Chama In New Mexico, Rowan L. Converse

Shared Knowledge Conference

Over the past eighty years, the Rio Chama, a major tributary of the Rio Grande in New Mexico, has been subject to significant disruption of historic hydrological flow regimes due to water use demands. In recent years, a multiagency management effort has been initiated to restore some measure of historic flow regimes in the 39.6 km congressionally designated Wild and Scenic stretch through the Rio Chama Canyon Wilderness. We collaborated with managers at the US Army Corps of Engineers to collect approximately 15,870 frames of 10cm resolution multispectral imagery of the 82 km stretch of the river between ...


Groundwater Contamination At Coal Ash Deposit Sites In Kentucky, Brandon Rose Nov 2018

Groundwater Contamination At Coal Ash Deposit Sites In Kentucky, Brandon Rose

Scholars Week

No abstract provided.


Groundwater Recharge Response To Reduced Irrigation Pumping In Western Nebraska, Justin Philip Gibson Nov 2018

Groundwater Recharge Response To Reduced Irrigation Pumping In Western Nebraska, Justin Philip Gibson

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Given current and continued investment in irrigation scheduling technologies, a need exists to better estimate the longevity and magnitude of water savings at watershed level to avoid the paradox of irrigation efficiency. This paradox occurs within a watershed as not all irrigation inefficiencies lead to the system losing water. For example, irrigation pumping rates in excess of crop water demand may lead to enhanced groundwater recharge or surface runoff that migrates to a stream. Thus, increases in efficiency may not lead to similar magnitudes of water savings. I hypothesize that water savings longevities are short given previous work demonstrating rapid ...


Examining Patterns In Nest Predation Using Artificial Nests, Victoria L. Simonsen Nov 2018

Examining Patterns In Nest Predation Using Artificial Nests, Victoria L. Simonsen

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

The use of artificial nests to study the predation of avian nests has faced disregard by ecologists due to inconsistencies found between the survival rates of real and artificial nests across studies and reviews. The negative perception of artificial nests providing an inconsistent assessment of survival has thus fostered the perception that artificial nests are a secondary option to be used to overcome logistical hurdles associated with achieving sufficient sample sizes in systems where study species are rare or elusive, or as merely a preliminary method to study predation across gradients. We argue that the greatest mistake ecologists have made ...


Spatial Analysis Of Borrow Pits Along The Platte River In South-Central Nebraska, Usa, In 1957 And 2016, Nicole M. Pauley, Mary J. Harner, Emma M. Brinley Buckley, Paul R. Burger, Keith Geluso Oct 2018

Spatial Analysis Of Borrow Pits Along The Platte River In South-Central Nebraska, Usa, In 1957 And 2016, Nicole M. Pauley, Mary J. Harner, Emma M. Brinley Buckley, Paul R. Burger, Keith Geluso

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

The Central Platte River Valley (CPRV) of Nebraska provides critical habitat for wildlife, while serving agricultural, indus­trial, and other human uses. Mining of sand and gravel from the floodplain of the Platte River has supported construction of roads and other uses, and this extraction has created many borrow-pit ponds, lakes, and other small bodies of standing water (hereafter borrow-pits), further transforming riparian and prairie habitats. The objective of this study was to compare the abundance, size, and distribution of borrow pits before construction of Interstate 80 (1957) and at present (2016) from Lexington to Chapman, Nebraska, a length of ...


A Qualitative Investigation Of Farmer And Rancher Perceptions Of Trees And Woody Biomass Production On Marginal Agricultural Land, Ashley Hand, John Tyndall Oct 2018

A Qualitative Investigation Of Farmer And Rancher Perceptions Of Trees And Woody Biomass Production On Marginal Agricultural Land, Ashley Hand, John Tyndall

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Bioenergy produced from perennial feedstocks such as woody biomass could serve as an opportunity to strengthen local and regional economies and also jointly produce various environmental services. In order to assess the potential for biomass- based bioenergy, it’s essential to characterize the interest that potential biomass suppliers have in such an endeavor. In the U.S. Great Plains region, this largely means assessing relevant perceptions of farmers and ranchers. We conducted a series of farmer and rancher oriented focus groups in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska and Kansas to qualitatively explore opinions about the role that trees can play ...


Ecosystem Services And U.S. Stormwater Planning: An Approach For Improving Urban Stormwater Decisions, Todd K. Bendor, Vivek Shandas, Brian Miles, Kenneth Belt, Lydia Olander Oct 2018

Ecosystem Services And U.S. Stormwater Planning: An Approach For Improving Urban Stormwater Decisions, Todd K. Bendor, Vivek Shandas, Brian Miles, Kenneth Belt, Lydia Olander

Urban Studies and Planning Faculty Publications and Presentations

Green stormwater infrastructure (GI) is gaining traction as a viable complement to traditional “gray” infrastructure in cities across the United States. As cities struggle with decisions to replace deteriorating stormwater infrastructure in the face of looming issues such as population growth and climate change, GI may offer a costeffective, efficient, and sustainable approach. However, decision makers confront challenges when integrating GI within city plans, including uncertainties around GI capacity and maintenance, resistance to collaboration across city governance, increasingly inflexible financing, accounting practices that do not incorporate the multiple values of GI, and difficulties in incorporating ecological infrastructure into stormwater management ...


Motivations, Specializations, Identities, And Constraints Associated With Hunting In Nebraska, Alisha Grams Oct 2018

Motivations, Specializations, Identities, And Constraints Associated With Hunting In Nebraska, Alisha Grams

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

This research herein examines the statewide motivations, specializations, identities, and constraints of Nebraska resident hunters. An online survey was conducted in the fall of 2017 asking respondents about their motivations, skills, demographics, and constraints to personal hunting experiences to determine what factors affect hunters. We used factor analysis to examine the effect of motivations, specializations, and constraints to see which factors influence participation. By understanding multiple attributes of our hunters, we gain further insight into participation trends and recreationists needs and expectations. Results suggested that our biggest constraint to overcome is land access, while most people are motivated to hunt ...


Improving Our Understanding Of Demographic Monitoring: Avian Breeding Productivity In A Tropical Dry Forest, M. Edye Kornegay, Amber N. M. Wiewel, Jaime A. Collazo, James F. Saracco, Stephen J. Dinsmore Sep 2018

Improving Our Understanding Of Demographic Monitoring: Avian Breeding Productivity In A Tropical Dry Forest, M. Edye Kornegay, Amber N. M. Wiewel, Jaime A. Collazo, James F. Saracco, Stephen J. Dinsmore

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

The ratio of juvenile to adult birds in mist‐net samples is used to monitor avian productivity, but whether it is a “true” estimate of per capita productivity or an index proportional to productivity depends on whether capture probability is not age‐dependent (true estimate) or age difference in capture probability is consistent among years (index). Better understanding of the processes affecting age‐ and year‐specific capture probabilities is needed to advance the application of constant‐effort mist‐netting for monitoring and conservation, particularly in many tropical settings where capture rates are often low. We ranked members of the avian ...


Occupancy And Habitat Use By Six Species Of Forest Ungulates On Tiwai Island, Sierra Leone, Kathryn R. Mccollum, Emily Belinfante, April L. Conway, John P. Carroll Aug 2018

Occupancy And Habitat Use By Six Species Of Forest Ungulates On Tiwai Island, Sierra Leone, Kathryn R. Mccollum, Emily Belinfante, April L. Conway, John P. Carroll

Papers in Natural Resources

Forest ungulates in West Africa are common bushmeat species and are subject to habitat degradation through deforestation. Based on historical data, there are possibly 12 species of forest Bovidae and Tragulidae found in eastern Sierra Leone. We used camera trapping to assess occupancy by forest ungulates on and around a small protected area, Tiwai Island, Sierra Leone. We then assessed habitat over two field seasons during 2008–2011 for those species where we had sufficient numbers of detections. We detected 6 of 12 potential species and obtained enough data to further assess the habitat of two species. Species detected included ...


Preventing Extinction Of At-Risk Plant Species In A Complex World, Holly Lee Bernardo Aug 2018

Preventing Extinction Of At-Risk Plant Species In A Complex World, Holly Lee Bernardo

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Earthճ current biodiversity crisis is now considered a true mass extinction event, with species level extinction rates well above background rates and population level extinction rates orders of magnitude more common that species extinctions. There are many threats driving this loss of biodiversity. How each threat impacts the viability of a species is highly context dependent, but all are anthropogenic in origin and so as the human population continues to increase, so too will the pressure of these threats on our natural systems. Ultimately, how much a threat decreases the viability of a species depends on how that threat influences ...


Testing The Utility Of Dna Barcodes And A Preliminary Phylogenetic Framework For Chinese Freshwater Mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) From The Middle And Lower Yangtze River, Rui-Wen Wu, Yi-Tong Liu, Sa Wang, Xiong-Jun Liu, David T. Zanatta, Kevin J. Roe, Xue-Lin Song, Chang-Ting An, Xiao-Ping Wu Aug 2018

Testing The Utility Of Dna Barcodes And A Preliminary Phylogenetic Framework For Chinese Freshwater Mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) From The Middle And Lower Yangtze River, Rui-Wen Wu, Yi-Tong Liu, Sa Wang, Xiong-Jun Liu, David T. Zanatta, Kevin J. Roe, Xue-Lin Song, Chang-Ting An, Xiao-Ping Wu

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

The middle and lower portions of the Yangtze River basin is the most species-rich region for freshwater mussels in Asia. The management and conservation of the taxa in this region has been greatly hampered by the lack of a well-developed phylogeny and species-level taxonomic framework. In this study, we tested the utility of two mitochondrial genes commonly used as DNA barcodes: the first subunit of the cytochrome oxidase c gene (COI) and the first subunit of the NADH dehydrogenase gene (ND1) for 34 putative species representing 15 genera, and also generated phylogenetic hypotheses for Chinese unionids based on the combined ...


A Comparison Of Vnir And Mir Spectroscopy For Predicting Various Soil Properties, Joshua R. Gates Aug 2018

A Comparison Of Vnir And Mir Spectroscopy For Predicting Various Soil Properties, Joshua R. Gates

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Soil plays an important role in our daily lives, namely producing food, cleaning water and storing carbon. The ability to rapidly and cost-effectively quantify the various components of soils can help us understand and better manage this important resource. This study aims to compare the ability of visible near-infrared (VNIR) spectroscopy and mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy to quickly and accurately predict various important soil properties (electrical conductivity, soil pH, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable cations, phosphorus, carbon, beta-glucosidase enzyme activity and nitrogen). Prediction models were developed using partial least squares regression (PLSR) techniques. Three different calibration sampling methods were tested along with ...


Boundary Spanners And Trust Development Between Stakeholders In Integrated Water Resource Management: A Mixed Methods Study, Jodi L. Delozier Aug 2018

Boundary Spanners And Trust Development Between Stakeholders In Integrated Water Resource Management: A Mixed Methods Study, Jodi L. Delozier

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Natural resource issues are inherently complex, even more so are those that involve the management of water. Because watersheds tend to cross multiple jurisdictional and geographical boundaries, a diverse set of stakeholders are needed to develop appropriate and sustainable management policy. This research sheds light on the importance of boundary spanners assisting in the development of trust between stakeholders in integrated water resource management (IWRM). Previous literature has explored the advantages to boundary spanning leadership in business practice, emergency management, university and community management as well as fish and wildlife management, but has failed to address the area of integrated ...


Perils Of The Fungal Kingdom: Mycotoxins In Food And Feed, Adrianna Isobel Pribil Jul 2018

Perils Of The Fungal Kingdom: Mycotoxins In Food And Feed, Adrianna Isobel Pribil

LSU Master's Theses

Humans and fungi have a complex relationship, especially in regards to the many fungal secondary metabolites that can be produced. When secondary metabolites are toxic to animals and humans they are defined as mycotoxins. Fungi can grow on crops pre-harvest and post-harvest, and have the potential to produce mycotoxins which occur regularly in animal feed and food for human consumption. In high doses, mycotoxins cause variety of problems that result in economic losses and extreme health issues. However, multiple mycotoxins will co-occur in nature and commonly occur in low doses. Thus chronic low daily doses of multiple mycotoxins overtime may ...


Exploring The Amphibian Exposome In An Agricultural Landscape Using Telemetry And Passive Sampling, Jennifer E. Swanson, Erin Muths, Clay L. Pierce, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Mark W. Vandever, Michelle L. Hladik, Kelly L. Smalling Jul 2018

Exploring The Amphibian Exposome In An Agricultural Landscape Using Telemetry And Passive Sampling, Jennifer E. Swanson, Erin Muths, Clay L. Pierce, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Mark W. Vandever, Michelle L. Hladik, Kelly L. Smalling

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

This is the first field study of its kind to combine radio telemetry, passive samplers, and pesticide accumulation in tissues to characterize the amphibian exposome as it relates to pesticides. Understanding how habitat drives exposure in individuals (i.e., their exposome), and how that relates to individual health is critical to managing species in an agricultural landscape where pesticide exposure is likely. We followed 72 northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) in two agricultural wetlands for insight into where and when individuals are at high risk of pesticide exposure. Novel passive sampling devices (PSDs) were deployed at sites where telemetered frogs ...


Improving The Calibration Of Silicon Photodiode Pyranometers, Elizabeth Walter-Shea, Kenneth Hubbard, Mark A. Mesarch, Glen Roebke Jul 2018

Improving The Calibration Of Silicon Photodiode Pyranometers, Elizabeth Walter-Shea, Kenneth Hubbard, Mark A. Mesarch, Glen Roebke

Papers in Natural Resources

Reliable measurements of global irradiance are essential for research and practical applications. Silicon photodiode pyranometers (SiPs) offer low-cost sensors to measure direct and diffuse irradiance despite their non-uniform spectral response over the 300–1000 nm spectral range. In this study, non-adjusted linear and adjusted calibrations were applied at different times of the year to determine sources of estimated errors in global irradiance due to the two calibration approaches, calibration time, and sensor age. 16 SiPs, along with two standards, measured incident global irradiance over a 5-year period under a range of sky conditions. Sensors performed best in the months in ...


Analysis Of Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (Grace) Satellite-Derived Data As A Groundwater And Drought Monitoring Tool, Anthony James Mucia Jul 2018

Analysis Of Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (Grace) Satellite-Derived Data As A Groundwater And Drought Monitoring Tool, Anthony James Mucia

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

This research compares Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) groundwater storage (GWS) and root zone soil moisture (RZSM) percentiles to measured data, other drought indicators (DIs) and indices, and stakeholder observations for the purpose of assessing the feasibility and usefulness of these products to detect drought conditions. GRACE percentiles were directly compared to historic groundwater percentiles at 89 Nebraska well locations. Spatial time-series correlations over CONUS were performed between GRACE GWS and RZSM and the U.S. Drought Monitor (USDM), Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), and soil moisture parameters from several North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) models. A survey ...


Recognition Of Regional Water Table Patterns For Estimating Recharge Rates In Shallow Aquifers, Troy E. Gilmore, Vitaly A. Zlotnik, Mason Johnson Jul 2018

Recognition Of Regional Water Table Patterns For Estimating Recharge Rates In Shallow Aquifers, Troy E. Gilmore, Vitaly A. Zlotnik, Mason Johnson

Papers in Natural Resources

We propose a new method for groundwater recharge rate estimation in regions with stream-aquifer interactions, at a linear scale on the order of 10 km and more. The method is based on visual identification and quantification of classically recognized water table contour patterns. Simple quantitative analysis of these patterns can be done manually from measurements on a map, or from more complex GIS data extraction and curve fitting. Recharge rate is then estimated from the groundwater table contour parameters, streambed gradients, and aquifer transmissivity using an analytical model for groundwater flow between parallel perennial streams. Recharge estimates were obtained in ...


Water Current, Volume 50, No. 2, Summer 2018 Jul 2018

Water Current, Volume 50, No. 2, Summer 2018

Water Current Newsletter

Reflections on Nebraska’s Irrigation Legacy

Water Management in a Season of Extremes


Using Transboundary Wildfire Exposure Assessments To Improve Fire Management Programs: A Case Study In Greece, Palaiologos Palaiologou, Alan A. Ager, Max Nielsen-Pincus, Cody Evers, Kostas Kalabokidis Jul 2018

Using Transboundary Wildfire Exposure Assessments To Improve Fire Management Programs: A Case Study In Greece, Palaiologos Palaiologou, Alan A. Ager, Max Nielsen-Pincus, Cody Evers, Kostas Kalabokidis

Environmental Science and Management Faculty Publications and Presentations

Numerous catastrophic wildfires in Greece have demonstrated that relying on fire suppression as the primary risk-management strategy is inadequate and that existing wildfire-risk governance needs to be re-examined. In this research, we used simulation modelling to assess the spatial scale of wildfire exposure to communities and cultural monuments in Chalkidiki, Greece. The study area typifies many areas in Greece in terms of fire regimes, ownership patterns and fire-risk mitigation. Fire-transmission networks were built to quantify connectivity among land tenures and populated places. We found that agricultural and unmanaged wildlands are key land categories that transmit fire exposure to other land ...


Assessment Of The Ponderosa Woodlands In Nebraska's Wildcat Hills: Implications For Juniperus Encroachment And Management, Allie Victoria Schiltmeyer Jul 2018

Assessment Of The Ponderosa Woodlands In Nebraska's Wildcat Hills: Implications For Juniperus Encroachment And Management, Allie Victoria Schiltmeyer

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) is a dominant tree species across western North America. Its eastern distribution includes three populations in western Nebraska. This study assesses the distribution, structure and age of ponderosa pine woodlands in one of those regions, the Wildcat Hills. The Wildcat Hills have escaped severe wildfires seen in recent decades in other ponderosa pine regions. Nevertheless, the Wildcat Hills woodlands face multiple threats including climate change, wildfire, drought, pine beetles, and invasive species. Key to these threats is the stand structure of pine woodlands, which have increased in density across much of ponderosa pine’s range. These ...


International Energy Geopolitics, Bert Chapman Jun 2018

International Energy Geopolitics, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Presentations

Overview of international energy geopolitical trends. Emphasizes the importance of the Persian Gulf, South China Sea, East China Sea, Russia, and the Arctic to U.S. and international economic and strategic developments. Stresses the continuing importance of fossil fuels in domestic and international energy consumption, the variety of energy sources being used by various global regions, the potential for military conflict over access to natural resources, and how emerging energy leaders will determine global energy, environmental, and international security developments.


Shifting Niche Space In Coastal Landscapes: Spatio-Temporal Patterns Driving Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Across The Northern Gulf Of Mexico, Kristin Elise Demarco Jun 2018

Shifting Niche Space In Coastal Landscapes: Spatio-Temporal Patterns Driving Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Across The Northern Gulf Of Mexico, Kristin Elise Demarco

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Identifying distributions of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) across the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) coastal landscape necessitates describing ecological processes in estuarine gradients. SAV assemblages are ecological indicators of aquatic ecosystem health; spatial and temporal distributions are strongly correlated to environmental conditions. Many wildlife species, including waterfowl, are dependent on SAV and seeds in NGOM coastal marshes for food and habitat. To understand SAV distributions at multiple spatial and temporal scales a multi-tiered project was designed to collect SAV presence, species assemblage, and cover data, and cores to describe seed food. The first tier sampled inter-annually in the growing seasons ...