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Articles 1 - 30 of 20519

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Stability Analysis Of A More General Class Of Systems With Delay-Dependent Coefficients, Chi Jin, Keqin Gu, Islam Boussaada, Silviu-Iulian Niculescu May 2019

Stability Analysis Of A More General Class Of Systems With Delay-Dependent Coefficients, Chi Jin, Keqin Gu, Islam Boussaada, Silviu-Iulian Niculescu

SIUE Faculty Research, Scholarship, and Creative Activity

This paper presents a systematic method to analyse the stability of systems with single delay in which the coefficient polynomials of the characteristic equation depend on the delay. Such systems often arise in, for example, life science and engineering systems. A method to analyze such systems was presented by Beretta and Kuang in a 2002 paper, but with some very restrictive assumptions. This work extends their results to the general case with the exception of some degenerate cases. It is found that a much richer behavior is possible when the restrictive assumptions are removed. The interval of interest for the ...


Decision Making Based On Data Analyses Using Data Warehouses, Valdrin Haxhiu Feb 2019

Decision Making Based On Data Analyses Using Data Warehouses, Valdrin Haxhiu

International Journal of Business and Technology

Data warehouses are a collection of several databases, whose goal is to help different companies and corporations make important decisions about their activities. These decisions are taken from the analyses that are made to the data within the data warehouse. These data are taken from data that companies and corporations collect on daily basis from their branches that may be located in different cities, regions, states and continents. Data that are entered to data warehouses are historical data and they represent that part of data that is important for making decisions. These data go under a transformation process in order ...


Characteristics And Temporal Behavior Of Internet Backbone Traffic, Artan Salihu, Muharrem Shefkiu, Arianit Maraj Feb 2019

Characteristics And Temporal Behavior Of Internet Backbone Traffic, Artan Salihu, Muharrem Shefkiu, Arianit Maraj

International Journal of Business and Technology

With the rapid increase demand for data usage, Internet has become complex and harder to analyze. Characterizing the Internet traffic might reveal information that are important for Network Operators to formulate policy decisions, develop techniques to detect network anomalies, help better provision network resources (capacity, buffers) and use workload characteristics for simulations (typical packet sizes, flow durations, common protocols).

In this paper, using passive monitoring and measurements, we show collected data traffic at Internet backbone routers. First, we reveal main observations on patterns and characteristics of this dataset including packet sizes, traffic volume for inter and intra domain and protocol ...


Permission-Based Privacy Analysis For Android Applications, Erza Gashi, Zhilbert Tafa Feb 2019

Permission-Based Privacy Analysis For Android Applications, Erza Gashi, Zhilbert Tafa

International Journal of Business and Technology

While Information and Communication Technology (ICT) trends are moving towards the Internet of Things (IoT), mobile applications are becoming more and more popular. Mostly due to their pervasiveness and the level of interaction with the users, along with the great number of advantages, the mobile applications bring up a great number of privacy related issues as well. These platforms can gather our very sensitive private data by only granting them a list of permissions during the installation process. Additionally, most of the users can find it difficult, or even useless, to analyze system permissions. Thus, their guess of app’s ...


A Need For An Integrative Security Model For Semantic Stream Reasoning Systems, Admirim Aliti, Edmond Jajaga, Kozeta Sevrani Feb 2019

A Need For An Integrative Security Model For Semantic Stream Reasoning Systems, Admirim Aliti, Edmond Jajaga, Kozeta Sevrani

International Journal of Business and Technology

State-of-the-art security frameworks have been extensively addressing security issues for web resources, agents and services in the Semantic Web. The provision of Stream Reasoning as a new area spanning Semantic Web and Data Stream Management Systems has eventually opened up new challenges. Namely, their decentralized nature, the metadata descriptions, the number of users, agents, and services, make securing Stream Reasoning systems difficult to handle. Thus, there is an inherent need of developing new security models which will handle security and automate security mechanisms to a more autonomous system that supports complex and dynamic relationships between data, clients and service providers ...


Why Modeling Complex Dynamic Systems Using Fuzzy Cognitive Maps?, Peter P. Groumpos Feb 2019

Why Modeling Complex Dynamic Systems Using Fuzzy Cognitive Maps?, Peter P. Groumpos

International Journal of Business and Technology

The difficult problem of modeling Complex Dynamic Systems (CDS) is carefully reviewed. Main characteristics of CDS are considered and analyzed. Today’s mathematical models and approaches cannot provide satisfactory answers to the challenging problems of the society. The key problem of complex dynamic systems and control theory consists in the development of methods of qualitative analysis of the dynamics and behavior of such systems and in the construction of efficient control algorithms for their efficient operation. The purpose of control to bring the system to a point of its phase space which corresponds to maximal or minimal value of the ...


1995 - Monterey County Water Conservation Alternatives - An Analysis Feb 2019

1995 - Monterey County Water Conservation Alternatives - An Analysis

Monterey County Water Resources Agency Engineering Reports

The major goal of this study ,prepared by Agland Investment Services, Inc. on behalf of the Monterey County Water Resources Agency, was to estimate the direct and regional economic impacts of different policies aimed at encouraging agricultural water conservation in the Salinas Valley. The study also looked at combinations of conservation measures which could provide a least cost conservation contribution to the seawater intrusion problem. Agland concluded that policymakers should consider adopting a least cost approach when they considered the mix of infrastructure projects and urban and rural conservation measures.


Stomatal Conductance Measurement For Toxicity Assessment In Zero-Effluent Constructed Wetlands: Effects Of Landfill Leachate On Hydrophytes, Andrzej Białowiec, Jacek A. Koziel, Piotr Manczarski Feb 2019

Stomatal Conductance Measurement For Toxicity Assessment In Zero-Effluent Constructed Wetlands: Effects Of Landfill Leachate On Hydrophytes, Andrzej Białowiec, Jacek A. Koziel, Piotr Manczarski

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

In this research, we explore for the first time the use of leaf stomatal conductance (gs) for phytotoxicity assessment. Plants respond to stress by regulating transpiration. Transpiration can be correlated with stomatal conductance when the water vapor pressure gradient for transpiration is constant. Thus, our working hypothesis was that the gs measurement could be a useful indicator of the effect of toxic compounds on plants. This lab-scale study aimed to test the measurement of gs as a phytotoxicity indicator. Our model plants were two common hydrophytes used in zero-effluent constructed wetlands for treating landfill leachate. The toxic influence of two ...


Rubik's Cube: A Visual And Tactile Learning Of Algorithms And Patterns, Lawrence Muller Feb 2019

Rubik's Cube: A Visual And Tactile Learning Of Algorithms And Patterns, Lawrence Muller

Open Educational Resources

This is a classroom activity report on teaching algorithms as part of a second course in computer programming. Teaching an algorithm in an introductory level programming class is often a dry task for the instructor and the rewards for the student are abstract. To make the learning of algorithms and software more rewarding, this assignment employs a Rubik’s cube.


Modeling Solid-Phase Microextraction Of Volatile Organic Compounds By Porous Coatings Using Finite Element Analysis, Bulat Kenessov, Miras Derbissalin, Jacek A. Koziel, Dmitry S. Kosyakov Jan 2019

Modeling Solid-Phase Microextraction Of Volatile Organic Compounds By Porous Coatings Using Finite Element Analysis, Bulat Kenessov, Miras Derbissalin, Jacek A. Koziel, Dmitry S. Kosyakov

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Experimental optimization of analytical methods based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is a complex and labor-intensive process associated with uncertainties. Using theoretical basics of SPME and finite element analysis software for the optimization proved to be an efficient alternative. In this study, an improved finite element analysis-based model for SPME of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by porous coatings was developed mainly focussing on the mass transport in coatings. Benzene and the Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (Car/PDMS) coating were used as the model VOC and a porous SPME coating, respectively. It has been established that in the coating, volumetric fractions of Carboxen, PDMS ...


Dynamics Of Directed Self-Assembly Of Ps-B-Pmma During Solvent Annealing, Hiromichi Yamamoto Jan 2019

Dynamics Of Directed Self-Assembly Of Ps-B-Pmma During Solvent Annealing, Hiromichi Yamamoto

Protocols and Reports

The graphoepitaxy of symmetric PS-b-PMMA BCP film on the PS 60 mol% brush layer is carried out using the chemically homogeneous topological pattern of SiO2 layer and the home-made solvent annealing tool. It is confirmed by atomic force microscopy that PS-b-PMMA film on the periphery of the trench flows into the trench during the solvent annealing, so that the film thickness in the trench is thicker than that on the un-patterned area. The solvent annealing time dependence indicates the lamellar orientation in the trench changes from a mixture of the lamellar domain parallel and perpendicular to the side walls to ...


1886 - Physical Data And Statistics Of California Jan 2019

1886 - Physical Data And Statistics Of California

Miscellaneous Documents and Reports

A reporting of water supply and related data collected in accordance with the law of 1878, creating the office of and defining the duties of the State Engineer, and upon which to base reports on the problems of irrigation and arterial drainage in California.


On The Role Of Composition And Processing Parameters On The Microstructure Evolution Of Ti-Xmo Alloys, Michael Y. Mendoza, Peyman Samimi, David A. Brice, Iman Ghamarian, Matt Rolchigo, Richard Lesar, Peter Collins Jan 2019

On The Role Of Composition And Processing Parameters On The Microstructure Evolution Of Ti-Xmo Alloys, Michael Y. Mendoza, Peyman Samimi, David A. Brice, Iman Ghamarian, Matt Rolchigo, Richard Lesar, Peter Collins

Materials Science and Engineering Publications

Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS™) was used to produce a compositionally graded Ti-xMo (0 ≤ x ≤ 12 wt %) specimen and nine Ti-15Mo (fixed composition) specimens at different energy densities to understand the composition–processing–microstructure relationships operating using additive manufacturing. The gradient was used to evaluate the effect of composition on the prior-beta grain size. The specimens deposited using different energy densities were used to assess the processing parameters influence the microstructure evolutions. The gradient specimen did not show beta grain size reduction with the Mo content. The analysis from the perspective of the two grain refinement mechanisms based on a ...


Pre-Methylation Of Lignin To Improve Storage Stability Of Oil Produced By Solvent Liquefaction, Jae-Young Kim, Parinaz Hafezi-Sefat, Sarah D. Cady, Ryan G. Smith, Robert C. Brown Jan 2019

Pre-Methylation Of Lignin To Improve Storage Stability Of Oil Produced By Solvent Liquefaction, Jae-Young Kim, Parinaz Hafezi-Sefat, Sarah D. Cady, Ryan G. Smith, Robert C. Brown

Mechanical Engineering Publications

In this study, we methylated hydroxyl groups (phenolic hydroxyl: Phe-OH and aliphatic hydroxyl: Aliph-OH) in soda lignin (SL) prior to solvent liquefaction to improve storage stability of the resulting oil. We investigated two methylating reagents, dimethyl sulfate (DMS) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC), for selective Phe-OH and total hydroxyl group (Phe-OH and Aliph-OH) blocking. Samples of SL, DMS-SL, and DMC-SL were depolymerized into oils under supercritical ethanol (350 °C). Both methylated lignins produced higher amounts of oils and smaller amounts of char compared to untreated SL due to suppressed charring reactions. Oil produced from SL had relatively higher functional group contents ...


Funding Opportunities Specifically For Early Career Unh Investigators: Science, Technology, Engineering, And Math (Stem) – Sponsors Other Than Federal Agencies -- 1.28.19, Lynnette Hentges Jan 2019

Funding Opportunities Specifically For Early Career Unh Investigators: Science, Technology, Engineering, And Math (Stem) – Sponsors Other Than Federal Agencies -- 1.28.19, Lynnette Hentges

Early Career Investigators

This comprehensive list of funding opportunities specifically for early career investigators offered by foundations and other nonprofit sponsors that are appropriate for UNH researchers working in the areas of science, technology, engineering, and math provides information about program focus, eligibility requirements, funding amount and time period, as well as deadlines and links to program web sites and application instructions.


An Internet Based Intelligent Argumentation System For Collaborative Engineering Design, Xiaoqing Frank Liu, Samir Raorane, Man Zheng, Ming-Chuan Leu Jan 2019

An Internet Based Intelligent Argumentation System For Collaborative Engineering Design, Xiaoqing Frank Liu, Samir Raorane, Man Zheng, Ming-Chuan Leu

Ming C. Leu

Modern product design is a very complicated process which involves groups of designers, manufacturers, suppliers, and customer representatives. Conflicts are unavoidable in collaboration among multiple stakeholders, who have different objectives, requirements, and priorities. Unfortunately, current web-based collaborative engineering design systems do not support collaborative conflict resolution. In this paper, we will develop an intelligent computational argumentation model to enable management of a large scale argumentation network, and resolution of conflicts based on argumentation from many participants. A web-based intelligent argumentation tool is developed as a part of a web-based collaborative engineering design system based on the above model to resolve ...


Modeling Of Cloud-Based Digital Twins For Smart Manufacturing With Mt Connect, Liwen Hu, Ngoc-Tu Nguyen, Wenjin Tao, Ming-Chuan Leu, Xiaoqing Frank Liu, Rakib Shahriar, S M Nahian Al Sunny Jan 2019

Modeling Of Cloud-Based Digital Twins For Smart Manufacturing With Mt Connect, Liwen Hu, Ngoc-Tu Nguyen, Wenjin Tao, Ming-Chuan Leu, Xiaoqing Frank Liu, Rakib Shahriar, S M Nahian Al Sunny

Ming C. Leu

The common modeling of digital twins uses an information model to describe the physical machines. The integration of digital twins into productive cyber-physical cloud manufacturing (CPCM) systems imposes strong demands such as reducing overhead and saving resources. In this paper, we develop and investigate a new method for building cloud-based digital twins (CBDT), which can be adapted to the CPCM platform. Our method helps reduce computing resources in the information processing center for efficient interactions between human users and physical machines. We introduce a knowledge resource center (KRC) built on a cloud server for information intensive applications. An information model ...


Effect Of Polymer-Surface Mobility On Adhesion In Poly(Methyl Methacrylate)-Tape System, Bhavesh C. Gandhi, Frank D. Blum, Lokeswarappa R. Dharani Jan 2019

Effect Of Polymer-Surface Mobility On Adhesion In Poly(Methyl Methacrylate)-Tape System, Bhavesh C. Gandhi, Frank D. Blum, Lokeswarappa R. Dharani

Lokeswarappa Dharani

The interaction between two polymer layers, especially adhesion between them, plays an important role in polymer processing and other applications. Detailed knowledge of the molecular structure and dynamics of polymer interfaces, and how they relate to macroscopic mechanical properties, should help designers construct more functional systems. Unfortunately, there have been few studies where both molecular and macroscopic studies have been performed on similar systems. In previous studies from our group, we have probed the dynamics of poly(methyl acrylate) (PMA) and thermal behavior of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) on silica. These studies helped us paint a picture for strongly bound ...


Effect Of Interfacial Mobility On Flexural Strength And Fracture Toughness Of Glass/Epoxy Laminates, T. W. H. Wang, Frank D. Blum, Lokeswarappa R. Dharani Jan 2019

Effect Of Interfacial Mobility On Flexural Strength And Fracture Toughness Of Glass/Epoxy Laminates, T. W. H. Wang, Frank D. Blum, Lokeswarappa R. Dharani

Lokeswarappa Dharani

Mechanical testing and surface fractography were used to characterize the fracture of E-glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites as a function of the silane coupling agent used. gamma-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS) and delta-aminobutyltriethoxysilane (ABS) were used because these have been shown to have different interfacial mobilities at multilayer coverage. The values of the properties studied generally increased from untreated c, as determined from a Mode I translaminar fracture toughness tests, for the untreated composites (10.5 ± 0.4 kJ/m2) was lower than that for the ABS-treated composites (14.3 ± 2.1 kJ/m2) which was lower than that for the APS-treated composites ...


1884 – Outline Of Matter And Advance Sheets On The Report On The Legislative, Administrative, Technical And Practical Problems Of Irrigation, William Ham. Hall Jan 2019

1884 – Outline Of Matter And Advance Sheets On The Report On The Legislative, Administrative, Technical And Practical Problems Of Irrigation, William Ham. Hall

Miscellaneous Documents and Reports

Prepared by William Ham. Hall, this publication was an exhibit transmitted to the California State Legislature concerning the extent and character of the Report on the Problems of Irrigation then in the course of preparation and publication by the State Engineer. While the first 32 pages of this book contain a Table of Contents or Outline of Matter for each chapter of the entire work, from which a fair idea could be formed of its scope, system of arrangement, and degree of completeness. The remaining 272 pages contain the text of about three-fifths of the First Book of the work ...


Development Of Time-Weighted Average Sampling Of Odorous Volatile Organic Compounds In Air With Solid-Phase Microextraction Fiber Housed Inside A Gc Glass Liner: Proof Of Concept, Madina Tursumbayeva, Jacek A. Koziel, Devin L. Maurer, Bulat Kenessov, Somchai Rice Jan 2019

Development Of Time-Weighted Average Sampling Of Odorous Volatile Organic Compounds In Air With Solid-Phase Microextraction Fiber Housed Inside A Gc Glass Liner: Proof Of Concept, Madina Tursumbayeva, Jacek A. Koziel, Devin L. Maurer, Bulat Kenessov, Somchai Rice

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Finding farm-proven, robust sampling technologies for measurement of odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and evaluating the mitigation of nuisance emissions continues to be a challenge. The objective of this research was to develop a new method for quantification of odorous VOCs in air using time-weighted average (TWA) sampling. The main goal was to transform a fragile lab-based technology (i.e., solid-phase microextraction, SPME) into a rugged sampler that can be deployed for longer periods in remote locations. The developed method addresses the need to improve conventional TWA SPME that suffers from the influence of the metallic SPME needle on the ...


1901 - Soil Survey Of The Lower Salinas Valley California, Macy H. Lapham And W. H. Heileman Jan 2019

1901 - Soil Survey Of The Lower Salinas Valley California, Macy H. Lapham And W. H. Heileman

Miscellaneous Monterey and San Luis Obispo County Documents and Reports

Prepared by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Soils, this report addresses the conditions found in the Lower Salinas Valley of Monterey County, California in 1901, including the development of agriculture, climate, geology, soil types, cultivation, irrigation. groundwater, and alkali found in the soil.


Enhancing The Co-Utilization Of Biomass-Derived Mixed Sugars By Yeasts, Meirong Gao, Deon Ploessl, Zengyi Shao Jan 2019

Enhancing The Co-Utilization Of Biomass-Derived Mixed Sugars By Yeasts, Meirong Gao, Deon Ploessl, Zengyi Shao

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Plant biomass is a promising carbon source for producing value-added chemicals, including transportation biofuels, polymer precursors, and various additives. Most engineered microbial hosts and a select group of wild-type species can metabolize mixed sugars including oligosaccharides, hexoses, and pentoses that are hydrolyzed from plant biomass. However, most of these microorganisms consume glucose preferentially to non-glucose sugars through mechanisms generally defined as carbon catabolite repression. The current lack of simultaneous mixed-sugar utilization limits achievable titers, yields, and productivities. Therefore, the development of microbial platforms capable of fermenting mixed sugars simultaneously from biomass hydrolysates is essential for economical industry-scale production, particularly for ...


1901 - Irrigation In The United States - Testimony Of Elwood Mead Before U.S. Industrial Commission, June 11-12, 1901 Jan 2019

1901 - Irrigation In The United States - Testimony Of Elwood Mead Before U.S. Industrial Commission, June 11-12, 1901

Miscellaneous Federal Documents & Reports

Professor Elwood Mead, expert in charge of the Irrigation Investigations of the United States Department of Agriculture, appeared before the United States Industrial Commission on June 11 and 12, 1901, to testify on the subject of irrigation in the United States. His testimony presented a review of the irrigation situation in the United States, including not only the arid region of the West, but also the humid sections of the South and East, where in two States alone more land had been brought under irrigation during the past five years than in any single State in the arid region during ...


Observational Time Series For Lakes Azuei And Enriquillo: Surface Area, Volume, And Elevation, Mahrokh Moknatian, Michael Piasecki Jan 2019

Observational Time Series For Lakes Azuei And Enriquillo: Surface Area, Volume, And Elevation, Mahrokh Moknatian, Michael Piasecki

Publications and Research

In this report, we present historical time series of surface area, volume, and elevation for lakes Azuei (Haiti) and Enriquillo (Dominican Republic). The intention is to present a history of the lakes’ levels for both bodies of water as derived from Landsat imagery that is augmented by reports and narratives that reach further back in time. We also summarize lake level time series data collected and developed through various other efforts and compare these data sets to our time series. The time series contains 45 years’ worth of data ranging from 1972 to 2017 which we developed from Landsat imagery ...


1901 - Soil Survey Of The Lower Salinas Valley California, Macy H. Lapham And W. H. Heileman Jan 2019

1901 - Soil Survey Of The Lower Salinas Valley California, Macy H. Lapham And W. H. Heileman

Miscellaneous Documents and Reports

Prepared by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Soils, this report addresses the conditions found in the Lower Salinas Valley of Monterey County, California in 1901, including the development of agriculture, climate, geology, soil types, cultivation, irrigation. groundwater, and alkali found in the soil.


Pedestrian Safety -- Fundamental To A Walkable City, Joshua Herrera, Patrick Mcdevitt, Preeti Swaminathan, Raghuram Srinivas Jan 2019

Pedestrian Safety -- Fundamental To A Walkable City, Joshua Herrera, Patrick Mcdevitt, Preeti Swaminathan, Raghuram Srinivas

SMU Data Science Review

In this paper, we present a method to identify urban areas with a higher likelihood of pedestrian safety related events. Pedestrian safety related events are pedestrian-vehicle interactions that result in fatalities, injuries, accidents without injury, or near--misses between pedestrians and vehicles. To develop a solution to this problem of identifying likely event locations, we assemble data, primarily from the City of Cincinnati and Hamilton County, that include safety reports from a five year period, geographic information for these events, citizen survey of pedestrian reported concerns, non-emergency requests for service for any cause in the city, property values and public transportation ...


Comparative Study Of Sentiment Analysis With Product Reviews Using Machine Learning And Lexicon-Based Approaches, Heidi Nguyen, Aravind Veluchamy, Mamadou Diop, Rashed Iqbal Jan 2019

Comparative Study Of Sentiment Analysis With Product Reviews Using Machine Learning And Lexicon-Based Approaches, Heidi Nguyen, Aravind Veluchamy, Mamadou Diop, Rashed Iqbal

SMU Data Science Review

In this paper, we present a comparative study of text sentiment classification models using term frequency inverse document frequency vectorization in both supervised machine learning and lexicon-based techniques. There have been multiple promising machine learning and lexicon-based techniques, but the relative goodness of each approach on specific types of problems is not well understood. In order to offer researchers comprehensive insights, we compare a total of six algorithms to each other. The three machine learning algorithms are: Logistic Regression (LR), Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Gradient Boosting. The three lexicon-based algorithms are: Valence Aware Dictionary and Sentiment Reasoner (VADER), Pattern ...


Improving Vix Futures Forecasts Using Machine Learning Methods, James Hosker, Slobodan Djurdjevic, Hieu Nguyen, Robert Slater Jan 2019

Improving Vix Futures Forecasts Using Machine Learning Methods, James Hosker, Slobodan Djurdjevic, Hieu Nguyen, Robert Slater

SMU Data Science Review

The problem of forecasting market volatility is a difficult task for most fund managers. Volatility forecasts are used for risk management, alpha (risk) trading, and the reduction of trading friction. Improving the forecasts of future market volatility assists fund managers in adding or reducing risk in their portfolios as well as in increasing hedges to protect their portfolios in anticipation of a market sell-off event. Our analysis compares three existing financial models that forecast future market volatility using the Chicago Board Options Exchange Volatility Index (VIX) to six machine/deep learning supervised regression methods. This analysis determines which models provide ...


Improving Gas Well Economics With Intelligent Plunger Lift Optimization Techniques, Atsu Atakpa, Emmanuel Farrugia, Ryan Tyree, Daniel W. Engels, Charles Sparks Jan 2019

Improving Gas Well Economics With Intelligent Plunger Lift Optimization Techniques, Atsu Atakpa, Emmanuel Farrugia, Ryan Tyree, Daniel W. Engels, Charles Sparks

SMU Data Science Review

In this paper, we present an approach to reducing bottom hole plunger dwell time for artificial lift systems. Lift systems are used in a process to remove contaminants from a natural gas well. A plunger is a mechanical device used to deliquefy natural gas wells by removing contaminants in the form of water, oil, wax, and sand from the wellbore. These contaminants decrease bottom-hole pressure which in turn hampers gas production by forming a physical barrier within the well tubing. As the plunger descends through the well it emits sounds which are recorded at the surface by an echo-meter that ...