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Articles 1 - 30 of 362

Full-Text Articles in Other Rehabilitation and Therapy

Emg Analysis Of The Neuromuscular Activity During Sit-To-Stand From Different Height Chairs In Water, Antonio Cuesta-Vargas, Cano-Herrera, Carlos Sep 2019

Emg Analysis Of The Neuromuscular Activity During Sit-To-Stand From Different Height Chairs In Water, Antonio Cuesta-Vargas, Cano-Herrera, Carlos

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

The purpose of this study was to use surface electromyography to measure the muscular activity during the sit-to-stand task in water and compare it at three different chair heights. Ten healthy young adults [5 males and 5 females (mean ± SD): age, 22.0 ± 3.1 yr; height, 172.8 ± 9.0 cm; body mass, 63.9 ± 17.2 kg] were recruited for study. We used a telemetry EMG system on the following muscles on the right side of the body: quadriceps (vastus medialis and rectus femoris), long head of the biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius medialis, soleus, rectus abdominis, and ...


Effect Of Aquatic Exercise On Fatigue, Fitness, Arm Edema, Levels Of Distress, And Quality Of Life Among Breast Cancer Survivors, Ellen Broach, Phillip Norrell Sep 2019

Effect Of Aquatic Exercise On Fatigue, Fitness, Arm Edema, Levels Of Distress, And Quality Of Life Among Breast Cancer Survivors, Ellen Broach, Phillip Norrell

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a recreational therapy aquatic intervention on physical and psychosocial performance of breast cancer survivors. Eligible participants were assigned to either a water exercise group or a control group who received standard care treatment for breast cancer. The intervention group attended aquatic exercise sessions three times per week for eight weeks in a heated outdoor pool. Sessions lasted 50 minutes in duration. The aquatic exercise group significantly improved their endurance, body mass, level of distress, and total score for fatigue. No significant differences occurred in the control group. Social validity ...


First Responders' Narratives Of Drowning: Perceptions Of Family And Community Impacts And Policy Implications, John Wells Phd, Michael Bergin Phd, John Connolly B.Ed., Ma In Ed., Suzanne Denieffe Phd Aug 2019

First Responders' Narratives Of Drowning: Perceptions Of Family And Community Impacts And Policy Implications, John Wells Phd, Michael Bergin Phd, John Connolly B.Ed., Ma In Ed., Suzanne Denieffe Phd

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

This is an exploratory study of the impacts of drowning death on local communities and families in the Republic of Ireland as perceived by first responders. The impact of a death may be particularly stressful. The identified population of interest were members of the Garda and first responders from Community Rescue Boats Ireland. The principal data collection method was one-to-one narrative interviews followed by a focus group. Questioning involved asking interviewees to talk about specific events rather than providing general opinions. Community identity was a source of impact, an urban or rural setting was a significant factor, social media was ...


Embedding Interprofessional Activities With Physical Therapy And Athletic Training Students In Shared Professional Course, Katie Sniffen, Anthony P. Breitbach, Erick Briggs, Leslie Hinyard Aug 2019

Embedding Interprofessional Activities With Physical Therapy And Athletic Training Students In Shared Professional Course, Katie Sniffen, Anthony P. Breitbach, Erick Briggs, Leslie Hinyard

International Journal of Health Sciences Education

Introduction and Background: Interprofessional education (IPE) is outlined in many health professions education standards creating an increased demand for its inclusion in already crowded curricula with limited faculty and financial resources. The Interprofessional Education Collaborative (IPEC) developed “Core Competencies for Interprofessional Collaborative Practice” that outline a framework for meaningful IPE experiences. Case-based learning activities have been used to foster improvements in interprofessional role clarity, communication, and rapport among student groups. The authors describe one trial of incorporating interprofessional and team work activities in a shared professional course and report on student learning outcomes in the context of IPEC competencies.

Course ...


Promoting Productive Aging Among Low-Income Older Adults, Sarah Matsuoka Aug 2019

Promoting Productive Aging Among Low-Income Older Adults, Sarah Matsuoka

Student Capstone Projects

Productive aging is a topic of great significance due to the increasing older adult population. Interfaith provides services to older adults in low-income housing to help support their abilities to remain more independent as they age. The purpose of the capstone was to gain understanding of marginalized older adults instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) performance issues. The preliminary objectives were to (1) establish an understanding of the needs of the older adults; (2) perform in-depth interviews for the needs assessment; (3) assess current resources available in North County San Diego; and (4) develop a program incorporating recommendations to increase ...


Self-Management As A Means To Achieving Client-Centred Care For The Care Partnership Living With Parkinson’S Disease, Danielle M. Hudson Jul 2019

Self-Management As A Means To Achieving Client-Centred Care For The Care Partnership Living With Parkinson’S Disease, Danielle M. Hudson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic condition that manifests through many changing symptoms over time. A person diagnosed with PD is typically supported by a spouse or other family member as their primary care partner, who experiences a host of biopsychosocial challenges associated with their care partner role. The best approach to supporting a care partnership, consisting of the person diagnosed with PD and the primary care partner, through their individualized journey with PD remains to be defined. The aim of this research was to identify clinical insights for providing client-centred care for both members of the PD care ...


Dance As A Protective Measure Against The Cognitive And Physical Declines Associated With Aging: A Proposed Study, Sarah M. Schwanz, Jeffrey Holmes, Jessica Grahn Jun 2019

Dance As A Protective Measure Against The Cognitive And Physical Declines Associated With Aging: A Proposed Study, Sarah M. Schwanz, Jeffrey Holmes, Jessica Grahn

Western Research Forum

Background:

Dance is considered a multimodal activity in that it requires both physical and cognitive engagement. Combining physical activity with music may have a synergistic effect, enabling dance to enhance physical and cognitive functions more than music and physical activity alone. The positive changes attributed to dance training such as improved visuospatial and motor ability, high coordination, greater balance, and increased cognitive ability may also benefit individuals as they age.

Methods:

This proposed study will examine whether dance training has the potential to protect against age-related cognitive and physical decline by assessing the cognitive and physical domains that show decline ...


Critical Appraisal Of “Immediate Changes In Spinal Heights And Pain After Aquatic Vertical Traction In Patients With Persistent Low Back Symptoms: A Crossover Clinical Trial” By Simmerman Et Al -- An Opinion Piece, David C. Berry, Nicole Miela Jun 2019

Critical Appraisal Of “Immediate Changes In Spinal Heights And Pain After Aquatic Vertical Traction In Patients With Persistent Low Back Symptoms: A Crossover Clinical Trial” By Simmerman Et Al -- An Opinion Piece, David C. Berry, Nicole Miela

Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to critically review the article, Immediate changes in spinal height and pain after aquatic vertical traction in patients with persistent low back symptoms: a crossover clinical trial. PM R.2011 May;3(5):447-57. [PMID: 21570033] doi: 10.1016/j.pmrj.2011.01.010. Methods: Study, key evidence including study design, sample population, procedure, outcome measures, and results were summarized. Critical appraisal of the study's internal, external, and statistical validity followed. Results: In a crossover study of 61 total subjects, mean age 59.6 years, fifteen minutes of supine land-based flexion and ...


Elbow Injury Prevention In Youth Dominican Baseball Players: A Training Intervention Pilot Study, Chelsey Erbaugh Franz, Dawn Hall-Bibb, Myra Stockdale, Aliya Thompson, Bailey Biggs Jun 2019

Elbow Injury Prevention In Youth Dominican Baseball Players: A Training Intervention Pilot Study, Chelsey Erbaugh Franz, Dawn Hall-Bibb, Myra Stockdale, Aliya Thompson, Bailey Biggs

Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice

Background: Research suggests deficits in shoulder and elbow strength and flexibility may explain the role of elbow injuries in overhead athletes, specifically ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injury in baseball players. Significant damage to this ligament typically requires operative care for continued activity in the sport. Several studies have demonstrated the success of rehabilitation programs post-surgery; however, few studies have examined the role of UCL injury prevention programs. A recognized upper extremity (UE) injury prevention method is the Thrower’s Ten Program. This program may create elbow stability when pitching and throwing, theoretically reducing the risk of UCL injury. Purpose: The ...


A Method To Concatenate Multiple Short Time Series For Evaluating Dynamic Behaviour During Walking, Niklas König Ignasiak Jun 2019

A Method To Concatenate Multiple Short Time Series For Evaluating Dynamic Behaviour During Walking, Niklas König Ignasiak

Physical Therapy Faculty Articles and Research

Gait variability is a sensitive metric for assessing functional deficits in individuals with mobility impairments. To correctly represent the temporal evolution of gait kinematics, nonlinear measures require extended and uninterrupted time series. In this study, we present and validate a novel algorithm for concatenating multiple time-series in order to allow the nonlinear analysis of gait data from standard and unrestricted overground walking protocols. The fullbody gait patterns of twenty healthy subjects were captured during five walking trials (at least 5 minutes) on a treadmill under different weight perturbation conditions. The collected time series were cut into multiple shorter time series ...


The Consequences Of Cold Water Immersion: Impacts And Treatment, Patrick J. Buck Ph.D., Commander William Roberts, Commander Ken Minehane, Irish Naval Service May 2019

The Consequences Of Cold Water Immersion: Impacts And Treatment, Patrick J. Buck Ph.D., Commander William Roberts, Commander Ken Minehane, Irish Naval Service

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

This paper documents a demonstration project conducted by the authors under the auspices of the Irish Naval service. It explores and describes in detail the consequences that cold water immersion can have on the human body. Further, this study investigates post immersion treatment and survival challenges and proposes appropriate casualty care regimes with specific focus on ‘post rescue collapse’ and ‘afterdrop.’ Observations of individual differences in response are reported.


Exploring The Decisions Involved In Evidence-Based Practice Adoption By Athletic Trainers, Brittany Vorndran Allard May 2019

Exploring The Decisions Involved In Evidence-Based Practice Adoption By Athletic Trainers, Brittany Vorndran Allard

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Background: The governing bodies of athletic training have been putting an emphasis on evidence-based practice (EBP) through college curriculum changes and continuing education requirements. Research has shown these interventions are increasing knowledge, but there is still a knowledge to practice gap.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the decisions involved in EBP adoption by practicing athletic trainers (ATs).

Methods: This study utilized a general qualitative approach that was exploratory in nature. Fifteen participants participated in the study, and all were practicing certified athletic trainers who stated they were using EBP when making treatment decisions.

Data Collection and ...


“There Was Something Magical About This Group”: Building Cohesion In A Psychiatric Hospital, Mariah L. Logan May 2019

“There Was Something Magical About This Group”: Building Cohesion In A Psychiatric Hospital, Mariah L. Logan

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

This capstone details the development and implementation of Hope Notes, an expressive arts therapy intervention used in a private psychiatric hospital setting. Hope Notes was carried out in the group setting with adolescent and adult clients in a partial-hospitalization or inpatient hospitalization with a range of diagnoses and symptoms including, but not limited to, depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, trauma disorders including post-traumatic stress, and obsessive-compulsive disorder with symptoms of delusions, hallucinations, suicidality and homicidally. Using expressive arts therapy the clients worked together to collaboratively discuss, create, design, and build an art piece intended to increase group cohesion and connection ...


Expressive Mindfulness: A Trauma-Sensitive Expressive Arts Therapy Group Method, Meghan Daly May 2019

Expressive Mindfulness: A Trauma-Sensitive Expressive Arts Therapy Group Method, Meghan Daly

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Mindfulness and expressive arts therapy are both supportive of directing attention in a manner that promotes integration and function of a person. In this paper, a trauma-sensitive method was created for use in a day treatment setting for adults with severe and persistent mental illness (SPMI). This method utilized expressive movement, visual art making with three different materials, and creative writing to encourage mindful, non-judgmental acceptance of the present moment; a sense of relaxation; and an overall increase in quality of life. During development of the method arts-based research informed the choice of materials, music, and structure of the group ...


Patterned Sensory Enhancement-Based Interventions In An Acute Rehabilitation Setting: Development Of A Method, Lionel Cheong May 2019

Patterned Sensory Enhancement-Based Interventions In An Acute Rehabilitation Setting: Development Of A Method, Lionel Cheong

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Constraint-induced therapy (CIT) or Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) is used in rehabilitation to improve upper extremity function in patients who suffer from brain injuries, such as stroke or cerebral palsy. By engaging in repetitive exercises and increasing the use of the affect area of the upper extremity, the brain develops a change in neural pathways that helps recover the use of limbs by these patients. Unfortunately, one of the main limitations of CIT is the low compliance with patients involved in CIT, due to the stopping of use of compensation strategies, and the intensity and duration of the treatment, especially ...


How To Help People Float, Andrea Andrews May 2019

How To Help People Float, Andrea Andrews

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

This manuscript examines how to help more people learn to float because this skill is taking a much more central role in the latest drowning prevention advice in the UK. In 2017 BBC Radio Two show presenter, Simon Mayo, declared that he ‘could not float.’ Many persons in the UK identified with this claim. Despite having been an activity in many traditional swimming lessons floating is not a straight-forward skill for all to master. It requires a high degree of personal trust to have developed in the water. I discuss what learning to float fundamentally entails based on recent publications ...


Innovative Care Of Individuals In The Athletic Training Room: A Case Series, Kathryn E. Young May 2019

Innovative Care Of Individuals In The Athletic Training Room: A Case Series, Kathryn E. Young

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

This work follows three unique cases of athletic injuries and/or injuries in patients. These cases were selected because of the innovative nature of the rehabilitation process conducted by the sports medicine team via the athletic training room or the unique nature of the injury/case.

The first is a concussion sustained from a motor vehicle accident in a collegiate female thrower. This is unique because it’s a non-sport related concussion handled as an athletic trainer would handle a sports related concussion. It also demonstrates a new unique protocol for concussion management.

The second case is a patient with ...


Saudade: An Exploration Of The Choreographic Process And The Power Of Dance, Audrey Erickson May 2019

Saudade: An Exploration Of The Choreographic Process And The Power Of Dance, Audrey Erickson

Honors Theses

This paper serves as a reflection on my choreographic process as a LINES BFA senior and as an investigation into the innate power of human creative movement. I will document the challenges and joys of producing movement in the dancing arts, as well as illuminate the physical and psychological power of movement harbored within the practice of Dance Movement Therapy, an enduring form of psychotherapeutic movement used to promote emotional, social, cognitive, and physical well-being. The main goals of my personal choreographic experience, as well as those of my fellow Dance Majors were three-fold: 1) the cultivation of an encouraging ...


Proprioceptive Cross Stroking Exercises: A Preliminary Retrospective Chart Review Of Its Developmental Impact, Laura Elaine Sisk May 2019

Proprioceptive Cross Stroking Exercises: A Preliminary Retrospective Chart Review Of Its Developmental Impact, Laura Elaine Sisk

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


American Sign-Language (Asl) For Audiologists, Colette Vossler-Welch May 2019

American Sign-Language (Asl) For Audiologists, Colette Vossler-Welch

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The goal of this project is to provide a means for Audiologists, Speech-Language-pathologists and related personnel to improve their ability to communicate and connect with culturally Deaf individuals through the use of video-animated sign-language interpretations. Arguments for or against the bilingual approach of using ASL and the spoken language with regards to Deaf education will be discussed through both a personal memoir and a review of current literature. This study will also shed light upon the history of the American Deaf population, American Sign-Language (ASL) and will conclude with a training module in ASL. The training module will be available ...


The Effects Of Equine-Assisted Therapy On Social Function In Children With Autism: A Systematic Review, Carleigh Thurman Apr 2019

The Effects Of Equine-Assisted Therapy On Social Function In Children With Autism: A Systematic Review, Carleigh Thurman

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Abstract

Objective: This systematic review was conducted to examine the effectiveness of equine assisted therapy on social function in children with autism.

Methods: Articles related to this topic were screened on the database PubMed for relationship between equine assisted therapy and social function in children with autism.

Results: When participating in equine assisted therapy, there appears to be an increase in social function. Seven of the Ten articles concluded that equine assisted therapy increased social function. One concluded that removing the intervention reverted patients back to pre-study baselines and the last two were inconclusive.

Conclusion: Parents of children with autism ...


The Role Of Horticultural Therapy In The Treatment Of Refugees With Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Molly Nadeau Apr 2019

The Role Of Horticultural Therapy In The Treatment Of Refugees With Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Molly Nadeau

Senior Honors Theses

The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) cites that there are an unprecedented number of refugees. As of 2017, over 68.5 million people have been forcibly displaced from their homes, with 25.4 million of this group being classified as refugees (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 2018). Often, mental health issues arise from the trauma that they face. Recently, the use of horticultural therapy, which uses gardening and plant-based activities as a form of treatment, has shown mental health improvements in military veterans and active duty soldiers diagnosed with stress related disorders. This paper will describe the ...


Plantar Fasciitis: Steroid Injections Vs. Prp Injections, Abigail R. Snyder Apr 2019

Plantar Fasciitis: Steroid Injections Vs. Prp Injections, Abigail R. Snyder

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Plantar fasciitis is a common complaint of many people at some point throughout their lifetime. The aim of this presentation is to provide an in-depth clinical review and comparison of two treatment options for chronic plantar fasciitis; steroid injections and platelet-rich plasma injections. Acute cases of plantar fasciitis are caused by inflammation of the plantar fascia of the foot. Therefore, common initial treatments include stretching of the calf muscle, stretching of the plantar fascia itself, rest, use of night splints, and orthotics. However, for some people these conservative treatments fail. In those situations, the pain is assumed to be caused ...


The Pairing Of Trigger Point Dry Needling With Rehabilitation Techniques, Karle Kotze Apr 2019

The Pairing Of Trigger Point Dry Needling With Rehabilitation Techniques, Karle Kotze

Senior Honors Theses

Trigger point dry needling is a manual treatment modality used for individuals experiencing tightness, pain, and inhibited range of motion in any region of the body. Dry needling can be described as the insertion of a blunt, microfilament non-medicated needle into the skin for the purpose of targeting specific muscles, which contain tight bands known as trigger points. When the needle is inserted into the trigger point the muscle contracts, holds tight to the needle, and elicits a neural twitch response. This ultimately causes the muscle to relax, allowing for reduction in pain and improvements in range of motion. Although ...


The Effect Of Sensory Input On The Temporal Structure Of Center Of Pressure In Stroke Survivors, Samantha Chong Mar 2019

The Effect Of Sensory Input On The Temporal Structure Of Center Of Pressure In Stroke Survivors, Samantha Chong

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Stroke is the leading cause of disability that affects 17 million people worldwide. Patients post stroke suffer from maintaining balance because the brain may not be able to receive or process visual, vestibular and proprioceptive sensory information: all of which contribute towards maintaining stability. Information provided by vision is important for spatial orientation, as it develops an environmental perspective. Proprioception is detected through the stretching of tendonsand surrounding tissue, and is able to help the brain determine spatial location. The vestibular system provides the sense of balance detecting rotations and linear accelerations through the vestibulo-ocular reflex. The vestibular system is ...


Temporal Step Coordination While Walking With A Single-Point Cane, Monica Barajas Mar 2019

Temporal Step Coordination While Walking With A Single-Point Cane, Monica Barajas

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

TEMPORAL STEP COORDINATION WHILE WALKING WITH A SINGLE-POINT CANE

Monica Barajas, Russel Buffum, Tyler Hamer, Brian A. Knarr

University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE

Stroke is the primary cause of long-term adult disability in the United States. Some physical limitations that a stroke survivor may encounter are foot drop, unilateral muscle weakness, limited coordination and muscle movement, among other effects that may directly affect gait. To address weakness and poor coordination post-stroke, a cane is commonly used. While a cane can help with balance, coordinating steps with an additional device can prove difficult to learn and may alter natural ...


Cardiorespiratory Responses To Shallow Water Exercise: A Sex Comparison, Mitchell Garant Fisher, Laura Jean Miller, Jerusalem Tesfaye, Karen Roemer, Debra Mary D'Acquisto, Leo Joseph D'Acquisto Mar 2019

Cardiorespiratory Responses To Shallow Water Exercise: A Sex Comparison, Mitchell Garant Fisher, Laura Jean Miller, Jerusalem Tesfaye, Karen Roemer, Debra Mary D'Acquisto, Leo Joseph D'Acquisto

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

This investigation examined physiological responses to shallow water exercise (SWE) and to a high-intensity interval SWE workout (HIISWE) in males (M, n=9) and females (F, n=9). Participants performed 5 X 5 min. SWE bouts (bts.) at ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) 9, 11, 13, 15 and 17 (Borg scale) and a maximal bout of SWE with metabolic, heart rate (HR), and blood lactate (BLa) responses monitored. The same measurements were performed during HIISWE (4 X 4-min bts., alternating 20-s “all-out” and 10-s rest). Peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2) and BLa were greater in M (3.6 ± 0 ...


Use Of Plumage And Gular Pouch Color To Evaluate Condition Of Oil Spill Rehabilitated California Brown Pelicans (Pelecanus Occidentalis Californicus) Post-Release, Deborah L. Jaques, Kyra L. Mills, Barton G. Selby, Richard R. Veit, Michael H. Ziccardi Feb 2019

Use Of Plumage And Gular Pouch Color To Evaluate Condition Of Oil Spill Rehabilitated California Brown Pelicans (Pelecanus Occidentalis Californicus) Post-Release, Deborah L. Jaques, Kyra L. Mills, Barton G. Selby, Richard R. Veit, Michael H. Ziccardi

Publications and Research

Sublethal effects of oil spills may dampen seabird rehabilitation success due to lingering negative impacts of contamination and stress on reproduction and long-term survival. These effects can be difficult to measure while birds are in care as well as once birds are released. Expression of sexually selected traits that are sensitive to condition can provide information on physiological status of birds. We evaluated plumage molt and gular pouch skin color of California brown pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis californicus) following oil contamination and rehabilitation to test for differences between previously oiled and rehabilitated (post-spill) and presumably uncontaminated pelicans. Post-spill pelicans released with ...


An Investigation Of Youth Swimming Skills And Method Of Instruction, Carol C. Irwin, Jennifer R. Pharr, Todd E. Layne, Richard L. Irwin Feb 2019

An Investigation Of Youth Swimming Skills And Method Of Instruction, Carol C. Irwin, Jennifer R. Pharr, Todd E. Layne, Richard L. Irwin

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Drowning is a leading cause of death for US children. Teaching youth to swim in a formal setting from certified instructors is a consistent drowning prevention recommendation. Purposes for this investigation was to examine type of swimming instruction and ability to swim and compare to attitudes toward swimming among US youth. Methods were similar to previous USA Swimming studies in 2008 and 2010. YMCA associations in five cities were used to recruit adolescent survey respondents (n=600) aged 12-18 years. Results showed African American youth had the lowest rate of formal swimming instruction (29%) compared to White (32%) and Hispanic ...


Risk Factors For Boating Incidents In Inuvik, Northwest Territories, Canada, Catherine Tr Glass, Audrey R. Giles Jan 2019

Risk Factors For Boating Incidents In Inuvik, Northwest Territories, Canada, Catherine Tr Glass, Audrey R. Giles

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Injury prevention programs that focus on boating and water safety in the Northwest Territories (NWT) have existed for decades; however, rates of boating incidents are much higher in the NWT than southern Canada. To better understand this health disparity, we engaged in community-based participatory research informed by postcolonial feminist theory to examine Aboriginal men’s understandings of the risk factors that contribute to boating incidents in Inuvik, NWT. Participants identified four main risk factors for boating incidents in Inuvik: 1) Gender, 2) age, 3) place, and 4) lack of boating safety education. As a result of these findings and the ...