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Articles 1 - 30 of 337

Full-Text Articles in Nursing Midwifery

Maternal Mortality In Non-Hispanic Black Women, Amelia Major Aug 2018

Maternal Mortality In Non-Hispanic Black Women, Amelia Major

Grace Peterson Nursing Research Colloquium

Background: The United States has the highest maternal mortality among all developed countries, among these mothers, non-Hispanic black women are three times more likely than women of any other racial group to die from pregnancy-related causes.

Purpose: To investigate racial disparities among pregnant women who die from pregnancy related causes (maternal mortality) and determine possible interventions to improve outcomes.

Methods: An integrative literature review was conducted to analyze peer-reviewed articles published from 2007 to 2018; a computerized search of literature was performed using Cumulative Index to Nursing and Health Literature (CINAHL), Proquest Nursing and Allied Health Sources, PubMed and PsycINFO ...


Traumatic Journeys; Understanding The Rhetoric Of Patients' Complaints., May Mccreaddie, Bethan Benwell, Alice Gritti Jul 2018

Traumatic Journeys; Understanding The Rhetoric Of Patients' Complaints., May Mccreaddie, Bethan Benwell, Alice Gritti

School of Nursing and Midwifery MUB Articles

BACKGROUND: Research on patients' complaints about healthcare has tended to focus on the typology of complaints and complainants to homogenise complaints and better understand safety implications. Nonetheless, complaints speak to a broader spectrum of harm and suffering that go beyond formal adverse events. Complaints about care episodes can take considerable time and effort, generate negative energy and may leave a dogged 'minority' embittered.

METHODS: This study provides an overview of the process and rhetoric of how patients formulate written complaints. We collated a data corpus comprising 60 letters of complaints and their responses over a period of one month. This ...


Journey Interrupted: A Phenomenological Exploration Of Miscarriage, Marit A. Watson, Vanessa D. Jewell, Sarah L. Smith Jul 2018

Journey Interrupted: A Phenomenological Exploration Of Miscarriage, Marit A. Watson, Vanessa D. Jewell, Sarah L. Smith

The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy

Background: Miscarriage is a significant life event that impacts occupational performance, identity, and competence and that influences perceptions of motherhood. Because of the lack of social rituals often attributed to the death of a loved one, miscarriages may result in disenfranchised grief, which impedes coping.

Methods: This phenomenological study explored the impact of miscarriage on relationships, perceptions of motherhood, and the meaning of occupation in the context of grief. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews (N = 4) and completion of a brief demographic questionnaire. The interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, and reviewed to ensure accuracy. Using inductive thematic analysis ...


Dose-Response Of Cotton Dust Exposure With Lung Function Among Textile Workers: Multitex Study In Karachi, Pakistan, Naureen Akber Ali, Asaad A. Nafees, Zafar Fatmi, Iqbal Azam Syed Jul 2018

Dose-Response Of Cotton Dust Exposure With Lung Function Among Textile Workers: Multitex Study In Karachi, Pakistan, Naureen Akber Ali, Asaad A. Nafees, Zafar Fatmi, Iqbal Azam Syed

School of Nursing & Midwifery

Background: Cotton dust exposure among textile mill workers lead to impaired lung function. However, only few studies have investigated the dose-response relationship between cotton dust and lung function.
Objective: To determine the dose-response relationship between cotton dust exposure and lung function among textile workers.
Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted from January to March 2016 and included 303 adult male textile workers from spinning and weaving sections of 5 mills in Karachi, Pakistan. We collected data through a translated version of the American Thoracic Society respiratory questionnaire (ATS-DLD-78A) and using spirometry. Mill-level airborne cotton dust was measured ...


Adaptation Of An Existing Measure To Assess Professionals’ Attitudes Regarding The Importance Of Involving Fathers In Interventions With Families, Christine Gervais, Sophie Meunier, Francine Demontigny, Diane Dubeau Jun 2018

Adaptation Of An Existing Measure To Assess Professionals’ Attitudes Regarding The Importance Of Involving Fathers In Interventions With Families, Christine Gervais, Sophie Meunier, Francine Demontigny, Diane Dubeau

Science of Nursing and Health Practices - Science infirmière et pratiques en santé

Introduction. Despite greater father participation in child care/rearing nowadays and the challenge of involving fathers in nursing interventions, no instrument exists to measure professional attitudes toward father involvement in family interventions. Objectives. The aim of this study was to adapt an existing measure that assesses nurse attitudes regarding the importance of including families in nursing care into a measure that assesses professionals’ attitudes towards the importance of involving fathers in interventions with families. Method. The Professionals’ Attitudes towards Father Involvement (PAFI) scale was adapted from the Families’ Importance in Nursing Care – Nurse Attitudes (FINC-NA) scale. A total of 297 ...


A Qualitative Exploration Ofdoctors And Nurses Experienceson The Management Of Tubercu-Losis And Hiv Co-Infection In Atuberculosis-Hiv High Burdencommunity In Northernkwazulu-Natal, South Africa, Mbuso Mabuza, Constance Shumba May 2018

A Qualitative Exploration Ofdoctors And Nurses Experienceson The Management Of Tubercu-Losis And Hiv Co-Infection In Atuberculosis-Hiv High Burdencommunity In Northernkwazulu-Natal, South Africa, Mbuso Mabuza, Constance Shumba

School of Nursing & Midwifery, East Africa

South Africa is faced with a huge challenge of addressing the high burden of tuberculosis-human immune virus (TBHIV) co-infection, and this challenge is more pronounced in the province of KwaZulu-Natal which has one of the highest burdens of TB-HIV co-infection in the world. The study explored the experiences of doctors and nurses with regard to the management of tuberculosis and HIV coinfection in a TB-HIV high burden community in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The particular focus was to provide insight and to inform policy and programme development for effective management of TB-HIV co-infection in the TB-HIV high burden community of ...


Book Review: Surrogacy: A Human Rights Violation By Renate Klein, Sheela Saravanan May 2018

Book Review: Surrogacy: A Human Rights Violation By Renate Klein, Sheela Saravanan

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

No abstract provided.


Children’S Perspectives Of Their Psychosocial Wellbeing In Tanzanian Orphanages, Agnes Msoka, Eleanor Holroyd May 2018

Children’S Perspectives Of Their Psychosocial Wellbeing In Tanzanian Orphanages, Agnes Msoka, Eleanor Holroyd

School of Nursing & Midwifery, East Africa

The aim of this study was to explore factors affecting the wellbeing of institutionalized orphaned children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A descriptive qualitative study was used to collect data from Tanzanian orphaned children receiving orphanage care. Purposive sampling was employed to select 10 orphanage centers from which 123 orphaned children were recruited. A semi-structured interview guide relevant to the study objectives was developed from the literature and was used to guide the focus group interviews. Data was analysed by way of thematic analysis. There were 76 male and 47 female orphans; orphans without one or both parents were 87 ...


Maternal Obesity And Fetal Macrosomia: An Integrative Review Of The Literature Regarding Interventions, Charity Stalcup Apr 2018

Maternal Obesity And Fetal Macrosomia: An Integrative Review Of The Literature Regarding Interventions, Charity Stalcup

Senior Honors Theses

Research suggests pre-pregnancy obesity is associated with an increased risk of macrosomia in the newborn. Since women are expected to gain weight during pregnancy, the standard recommendation of weight loss for obesity is not ideal for this population. In this systematic review of the literature regarding interventions for maternal obesity to reduce fetal macrosomia, 149 articles were screened using three different databases to identify recent randomized controlled trials related to this topic. A total of 11 full text articles were analyzed and included in the review. The articles addressed nutritional, lifestyle, and pharmacological interventions. The results indicated there is currently ...


Experiences Of The Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy At A Public Hospital Peshawar Pakistan, Gulzar Habibullah, Raisa Raisa, Shanaz Hussein Cassum Sc, Rehana Elahi Apr 2018

Experiences Of The Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy At A Public Hospital Peshawar Pakistan, Gulzar Habibullah, Raisa Raisa, Shanaz Hussein Cassum Sc, Rehana Elahi

School of Nursing & Midwifery

Objective: This study aimed to explore the experiences of female breast cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT) in a public hospital in Peshawar, Pakistan.
Methods: This study employed a descriptive exploratory method. A purposive sample of 14 breast cancer women undergoing RT was selected for this study. Data were collected over the period of 5 months, using a semi-structured interview guide and conducting in-depth face-to-face interviews. These interviews were audio taped and transcribed by a bilingual transcriber. The translated version of the interview was coded, and the analysis was done manually.
Results: Four main categories emerged from data analysis, which were ...


What’S In A Name: Performance Improvement, Evidence-Based Practice, And Research?, Andrea Prentiss, Eve Butler Feb 2018

What’S In A Name: Performance Improvement, Evidence-Based Practice, And Research?, Andrea Prentiss, Eve Butler

Nursing & Health Sciences Research Journal

No abstract provided.


Managing Ambiguity: Nurses Caring For The Mother Of A Stillborn Baby, Natasha J. Nurse Feb 2018

Managing Ambiguity: Nurses Caring For The Mother Of A Stillborn Baby, Natasha J. Nurse

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Abstract

Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe and conceptualize the experiences and processes involved when labor and delivery nurses provide care to women experiencing a stillbirth.

Background: The care of a woman experiencing a stillbirth is an important topic that requires attention, however, there is a paucity of literature on the specifics of a nurse’s experience as she or he cares for a grieving mother. These experiences may shed light on gaps in care that may exist as well as gaps in the resources, education and support needed to appropriately prepare nurses for providing care to ...


Perceptions Of Nursing Students Of Educational Environment At A Private Undergraduate School Of Nursing In Karachi, Salima Farooq, Rehana Rehman, Jacqueline Maria Dias, Mehwish Hussain Feb 2018

Perceptions Of Nursing Students Of Educational Environment At A Private Undergraduate School Of Nursing In Karachi, Salima Farooq, Rehana Rehman, Jacqueline Maria Dias, Mehwish Hussain

School of Nursing & Midwifery

Ojective: To assess educational environment at a nursing school..
Methods: The cross-sectional survey was carried out from May to October 2016 at Aga Khan University School of Nursing and Midwifery, Karachi, using the Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure tool. The scores were obtained by merging five sub-scales of the inventory. The average scores of the scale and sub-scales were compared in terms of age, year of study, and living status using Mann-Whitney U test, and among years of study by Kruskal Wallis test..
Results: Of the 442 students, 228(51.6%) had age below 20 years. Overall, 131(29.1 ...


Factors Affecting Effective Ventilation During Newborn Resuscitation: A Qualitative Study Among Midwives In Rural Tanzania, R. Moshiro, H. L. Ersdal, P. Mdoe, H. L. Kidanto, Columba Mbekenga Jan 2018

Factors Affecting Effective Ventilation During Newborn Resuscitation: A Qualitative Study Among Midwives In Rural Tanzania, R. Moshiro, H. L. Ersdal, P. Mdoe, H. L. Kidanto, Columba Mbekenga

School of Nursing & Midwifery, East Africa

Background: Intrapartum-related hypoxia accounts for 30% of neonatal deaths in Tanzania. This has led to the introduction and scaling-up of the Helping Babies Breathe (HBB) programme, which is a simulation-based learning programme in newborn resuscitation skills. Studies have documented ineffective ventilation of non-breathing newborns and the inability to follow the HBB algorithm among providers.

Objective: This study aimed at exploring barriers and facilitators to effective bag mask ventilation, an essential component of the HBB algorithm, during actual newborn resuscitation in rural Tanzania.

Methods: Eight midwives, each with more than one year’s working experience in the labour ward, were interviewed ...


Preparing Students To Respond: A Pilot Study To Explore Whether Mask-Ed Simulation Can Assist Students In Developing Clinical Judgment, Jane S. Frost, Kathryn Sainsbury, Christine Waller Jan 2018

Preparing Students To Respond: A Pilot Study To Explore Whether Mask-Ed Simulation Can Assist Students In Developing Clinical Judgment, Jane S. Frost, Kathryn Sainsbury, Christine Waller

Australian Journal of Clinical Education

Clinical judgment is a key component of ‘thinking like a nurse’(Tanner, 2006). This pilot project uses Mask-Ed™ simulation in conjunction with Tanners (2006) Clinical Judgment Model to explore clinical judgment in a pre-clinical workshop.

Method: a cross sectional survey was conducted with third year nursing students enrolled in one unit of study.

Results: The confidence of students to respond to a patient, one of the four domains of clinical judgment (Tanner, 2006) was increased.

Conclusion : Mask-Ed™ when used in a pre-clinical workshop shows the potential to positively affect the student nurses ability to respond to a patient cues, a ...


Healthcare Providers’ Perceptions Of Pregnant Women, Allison Goderwis Jan 2018

Healthcare Providers’ Perceptions Of Pregnant Women, Allison Goderwis

Theses and Dissertations--Family Sciences

Health care providers’ (N = 421) implicit perceptions of pregnant women based on age, race or ethnicity, marital status, and socioeconomic status are assessed through a true-experiment design. Ordinal and binary regression analyses revealed that respondents felt more pity for an unmarried than married pregnant woman and more anger toward an unemployed pregnant woman without health insurance compared to a pregnant woman who was employed with health insurance. Male, Asian, and Hispanic respondents were less likely to help the pregnant woman, Black and protestant respondents were more likely to express some degree of anger toward the pregnant woman, and male and ...


Academic Incivility In Modern Generation Of Nursing Students, Laila Akber Cassum Jan 2018

Academic Incivility In Modern Generation Of Nursing Students, Laila Akber Cassum

School of Nursing & Midwifery

Incivility in nursing academia and workplace is one of the emerging and complex issues in recent years, and can have substantial consequences on the organizational benchmark as well as on the teaching and learning milieu of the institution. Growth of academic incivility among the modern and diversified generation of students can have a profound destructive impact on their academic life and professional career. Impolite and discourteous attitude and behavior in a classroom atmosphere can originate from the learners as well the teachers, which can significantly impact the critical thinking and learning outcomes of the learner. This matter needs to be ...


Stop The Stigma! Eliminating Implicit And Explicit Bias Toward Adult Obese Women Receiving Gynecological Care: A Quality Improvement Project To Cultivate Empathy And Increase Knowledge Of Best Practices, Mary Ellen Burke Jan 2018

Stop The Stigma! Eliminating Implicit And Explicit Bias Toward Adult Obese Women Receiving Gynecological Care: A Quality Improvement Project To Cultivate Empathy And Increase Knowledge Of Best Practices, Mary Ellen Burke

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) Projects

Background: Increased weight carries significant health risks, yet obese individuals face stigma, implicit and explicit bias by health care providers that affects quality of care and increases health care avoidance. Obese women may delay or avoid gynecological care due to fear of stigma, inadequate equipment and embarrassment about their weight. Review of Literature: In the United States, 70.7% of adults, almost three quarters of the adult population are overweight or obese. Purpose: The purpose of this quality improvement project was to improve the quality of care and empathy toward obese women by health care providers in an OB/GYN ...


Impact Of Divorce On Students’ Life, Laila Akber Cassum Jan 2018

Impact Of Divorce On Students’ Life, Laila Akber Cassum

School of Nursing & Midwifery

Tensions and anxiety is the common phenomena among the students of modern generation. These students go through stress due to personal, psychosocial, familial and academic matters. Some of the common ones which substantially impact their lives like family disputes, academic challenges, parental conflicts, financial concerns, social isolation and interpersonal matters, parental separation and divorce, separation from family and reduced support system. Untiring conflicts between the parents weakens the lifelong marriage contract to the verge of break down where both the life partners determines to go for the option of divorce. This creates traumatic and nerve wracking atmosphere at home and ...


The Evaluation Of A Breast Cancer Screening Decision Aid In The Community Setting., Kimberly Gibbons Jan 2018

The Evaluation Of A Breast Cancer Screening Decision Aid In The Community Setting., Kimberly Gibbons

DNP Scholarly Projects

Breast cancer screening (BCS) has been recommended to women by healthcare providers as well as professional organizations and non-profit awareness organizations for over four decades. Recently, attention is being paid to quantification of the actual benefits and harms of BCS with mammography. The harms include overdiagnosis, overtreatment and mandate of mammography screening that may not be in alignment with the individual values and preferences of women ages 40-69. This evidence translation project developed a resource for practice that was evaluated by community participants for alignment with personal value and preference-based educational needs about BCS. This project piloted a clinical practice ...


Building A New Generation Of Midwifery Faculty Members In Bangladesh, Malin Bogren, Sathyanarayanan Doraiswamy, Kerstin Erlandsson Dec 2017

Building A New Generation Of Midwifery Faculty Members In Bangladesh, Malin Bogren, Sathyanarayanan Doraiswamy, Kerstin Erlandsson

Journal of Asian Midwives (JAM)

This paper presents an initiative to build a new generation of midwifery faculty in Bangladesh, with the ultimate objective of providing insight into how to build capacity in the midwifery faculty to best utilize the existing academic, health care and policy environment. The initiative focuses on a promising approach that starts with a new generation of midwifery faculty who can lead a chain of change when separating midwifery teaching from nursing. The initiative identified four different interdependent components of equal importance, namely the initiation of master’s and bachelor’s degrees, development of accreditation guidelines and tools, and a mentorship ...


Determinants Of Quality Of Care And Access To Basic Emergency Obstetric And Neonatal Care Facilities And Midwife-Led Facilities In Low And Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review, Preeti K. Mahato, Edwin Van Teijlingen, Padam P. Simkhada, Catherine Angell Dec 2017

Determinants Of Quality Of Care And Access To Basic Emergency Obstetric And Neonatal Care Facilities And Midwife-Led Facilities In Low And Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review, Preeti K. Mahato, Edwin Van Teijlingen, Padam P. Simkhada, Catherine Angell

Journal of Asian Midwives (JAM)

Background: Maternal mortality is a major challenge to health systems in Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) where almost 99% of maternal deaths occurred in 2015. Primary-care facilities providing Basic Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care (BEmONC) facilities, and facilities that are midwife-led are appropriate for normal birth in LMICs and have been proposed as the best approach to reduce maternal deaths. However, the poor quality of maternal services that leads to decreased utilisation of these facilities is among the major causes of maternal deaths worldwide. This systematic review studied factors affecting the quality of care in BEmONC and midwife-led facilities in ...


Exploring The Fears Of Pakistani Primi Gravidas About Childbirth, Zohra Kurji, Amina Aijaz Khowaja, Zahra Shaheen, Yasmin Mithani, Naveeda Haq Dec 2017

Exploring The Fears Of Pakistani Primi Gravidas About Childbirth, Zohra Kurji, Amina Aijaz Khowaja, Zahra Shaheen, Yasmin Mithani, Naveeda Haq

Journal of Asian Midwives (JAM)

Background: Childbirth can be a very painful experience as it brings a lot of physiological and psychological changes in women’s lives. The literature demonstrates that anxiety and fear during the birthing process is related to a woman’s ability to give birth safely; fear can lead to complications such as emergency caesarean section and a reduced ability to tolerate pain. Therefore, health care professionals need to explore fears and educate expectant mothers, most especially primi gravidas, about the birthing process.
Method: A qualitative descriptive exploratory design was used to investigate fears about childbirth. Purposive sampling was used to recruit ...


Implementation Of A Bachelor’S In Midwifery Programme In Pakistan: Reflections Of Midwifery Faculty, Arusa Lakhani, Sadia Abbas Ali, Kiran Mubeen, Marina Baig, Shahnaz Shahid, Rafat Jan, Karyn Kaufman Dec 2017

Implementation Of A Bachelor’S In Midwifery Programme In Pakistan: Reflections Of Midwifery Faculty, Arusa Lakhani, Sadia Abbas Ali, Kiran Mubeen, Marina Baig, Shahnaz Shahid, Rafat Jan, Karyn Kaufman

Journal of Asian Midwives (JAM)

Introduction/Objective: There is an international consensus on the significant role of competent midwives in improving maternal and newborn health indicators. Midwives and midwifery education in the developing world including Pakistan have lagged behind in being part of higher education. To enhance the quality of maternal and newborn services through competency based higher education in midwifery, the first Bachelors of Science in Midwifery (BScM) programme was introduced in Pakistan. As part of a larger study about establishing this programme, this paper focuses on the reflective logs of midwifery faculty members who initiated this new programme in Pakistan.
Method: The team ...


Developments In Midwifery In Asia In 2017, Rafat Jan, Edwin Van Teijlingen Dec 2017

Developments In Midwifery In Asia In 2017, Rafat Jan, Edwin Van Teijlingen

Journal of Asian Midwives (JAM)

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Continuous Insulin Pump Therapy On Glycemic Control In Pregnant Type 1 Diabetics, Kimberly Kelsey Dec 2017

The Effects Of Continuous Insulin Pump Therapy On Glycemic Control In Pregnant Type 1 Diabetics, Kimberly Kelsey

Senior Theses and Capstone Projects

Type 1 Diabetics have various ways of managing their diabetes that have been studied for their effectiveness. Pregnancy in the Type 1 Diabetic has been understudied. It is known that Diabetics in general have poorer pregnancy outcomes because of poor glycemic control. This coupled with the fact that the body needs 3-4 times more insulin as pregnancy comes to an end makes managing blood glucose levels challenging for diabetics (Lowdermilk, 2016, p. 689). For the Type 1 Diabetic, there are two main ways to control diabetes: multiple daily injections using at least two type of insulin and continuous subcutaneous insulin ...


Discharge Readiness For Families With A Premature Infant Living In Appalachia, Kathy Zimmerman Dec 2017

Discharge Readiness For Families With A Premature Infant Living In Appalachia, Kathy Zimmerman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

With increased advances in technology, the overall survival rates in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) for premature infants at lower gestational ages, has also increased. Although premature infants survive at lower gestational ages, they are often discharged to home with unresolved medical issues. While the birth of a new baby for parents is a joyous occasion, they often have difficulty coping and transitioning into a parental role. Premature infants also have ongoing complications such as difficulty with feeding, developmental delays in growth, and long-term eye and respiratory complications. As a result of chronic health sequelae, premature infants require extensive ...


Why American Parents Circumcise Their Sons: An Integrative Review Of Literature, Lacy Lauber Nov 2017

Why American Parents Circumcise Their Sons: An Integrative Review Of Literature, Lacy Lauber

Grace Peterson Nursing Research Colloquium

Background: Since medical evidence supports both pros and cons of routine neonatal male circumcision, expectant and new parents are left to make the decision to circumcise their sons on their own. There is limited research as to why American parents choose to circumcise their newborn sons.

Objectives: The purpose of this integrative literature review is to identify the reasons behind parental decision making in neonatal male circumcision in the United States. Understanding motivating factors in parental decision-making can highlight areas of prenatal education for expectant parents.

Method: An integrative literature review was conducted utilizing these online databases: PubMed, The Cumulative ...


College Students, Experiences On Smart Phone Technology Usage: A Qualitative Content Analysis Study, Fatemeh Jafarzadeh-Kenarsari, Parand Pourghane Nov 2017

College Students, Experiences On Smart Phone Technology Usage: A Qualitative Content Analysis Study, Fatemeh Jafarzadeh-Kenarsari, Parand Pourghane

The Qualitative Report

Besides many benefits of the cell phone technology, numerous arguments are raised on the different and important negative effects of such a technology. This qualitative content analysis study explored the common usages of smart phone technology, its challenges, and benefits among Iranian college students. Participants were 32 bachelor degree students who were recruited using purposive sampling method with maximum variation. Data were collected through 11 individual semi-structured interviews and 3 focus group discussions (5-8 students in each group). Data analysis was done based on a conventional content analysis approach. Data analysis resulted in 3 main themes and 12 sub-themes. The ...


Risk Factors Of Cardiovascular Disease And Its Recommendations In Pakistani Context., Rubina Barolia, Amber Hussain Sayani Nov 2017

Risk Factors Of Cardiovascular Disease And Its Recommendations In Pakistani Context., Rubina Barolia, Amber Hussain Sayani

School of Nursing & Midwifery

Cardiovascular diseases possess a major cause for fatality and disability the world over. Since last several decades, the rates of cardiovascular diseases-related deaths have decreased in a number of high-income countries but increased in low- and middle-income countries with around 80% of the burden. Despite the seriousness of cardiovascular diseases in low- and middle-income countries, minimal attention is given to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases risk factors in South Asia, particularly in Pakistan. In addition, economic and political instability is accelerating the rates of cardiovascular diseases in the country. Practical efforts are required to enhance the understanding of cardiovascular diseases ...