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Sports Medicine Commons

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2015

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Articles 1 - 30 of 40

Full-Text Articles in Sports Medicine

Profiling The Incidents And Injuries Of Part-Time And Full-Time Soldiers In The Australian Army, Dylan Macdonald, Rodney Pope, Rob Orr Dec 2015

Profiling The Incidents And Injuries Of Part-Time And Full-Time Soldiers In The Australian Army, Dylan Macdonald, Rodney Pope, Rob Orr

Rodney P Pope

Aim •To profile the incidents & injuries reported in Part-time compared to Full-time soldiers serving in the Australian Army Methods •Retrospective cohort study, covering 01 Jul 2012 –30 Jun 2014 •Incident data for ARES & ARA extracted from WHSCAR database by system administrators & made non-identifiable •Inclusion Criteria: –Incident or injury sustained by Part-time or Full-time personnel –Incident or injury occurred during 01 July 2012-30 June 2014 •Exclusion Criteria: –Foreign defence service on secondment –Missing data •Population sizes ascertained from annual Defence Agency Resources & Planned Performance reports •Total annual numbers of ARES days served provided by AHQ •Data analysis: –Comparison of the types ...


Age-Related Differences In Upper-Body Muscular Endurance Amongst Male Law Enforcement Officers: A Comparison To Civilian Population Norms, Rob Orr, Rodney Pope, Jay Dawes Dec 2015

Age-Related Differences In Upper-Body Muscular Endurance Amongst Male Law Enforcement Officers: A Comparison To Civilian Population Norms, Rob Orr, Rodney Pope, Jay Dawes

Rodney P Pope

Download a PDF of the Conference Abstracts. Access the abstract on page 30-31.


The Perceived Effect Of Load Carriage On Marksmanship In The Tactical Athlete., D Poke, Rob Orr, Michael Stierli, Ben Hinton Dec 2015

The Perceived Effect Of Load Carriage On Marksmanship In The Tactical Athlete., D Poke, Rob Orr, Michael Stierli, Ben Hinton

Rob Marc Orr

Abstract published in the Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport – Supplement, 18(6), pp. 98. Access abstract


Profiling The Incidents And Injuries Of Part-Time And Full-Time Soldiers In The Australian Army, Dylan Macdonald, Rodney Pope, Rob Orr Dec 2015

Profiling The Incidents And Injuries Of Part-Time And Full-Time Soldiers In The Australian Army, Dylan Macdonald, Rodney Pope, Rob Orr

Rob Marc Orr

Aim •To profile the incidents & injuries reported in Part-time compared to Full-time soldiers serving in the Australian Army Methods •Retrospective cohort study, covering 01 Jul 2012 –30 Jun 2014 •Incident data for ARES & ARA extracted from WHSCAR database by system administrators & made non-identifiable •Inclusion Criteria: –Incident or injury sustained by Part-time or Full-time personnel –Incident or injury occurred during 01 July 2012-30 June 2014 •Exclusion Criteria: –Foreign defence service on secondment –Missing data •Population sizes ascertained from annual Defence Agency Resources & Planned Performance reports •Total annual numbers of ARES days served provided by AHQ •Data analysis: –Comparison of the types ...


Age-Related Differences In Upper-Body Muscular Endurance Amongst Male Law Enforcement Officers: A Comparison To Civilian Population Norms, Rob Orr, Rodney Pope, Jay Dawes Dec 2015

Age-Related Differences In Upper-Body Muscular Endurance Amongst Male Law Enforcement Officers: A Comparison To Civilian Population Norms, Rob Orr, Rodney Pope, Jay Dawes

Rob Marc Orr

Download a PDF of the Conference Abstracts. Access the abstract on page 30-31.


Leg Power As An Indicator For Risk Of Injury Or Illness In Police Recruits, Rob Orr, Rodney Pope, Samantha Peterson, Michael Stierli, Ben Hinton Dec 2015

Leg Power As An Indicator For Risk Of Injury Or Illness In Police Recruits, Rob Orr, Rodney Pope, Samantha Peterson, Michael Stierli, Ben Hinton

Rob Marc Orr

Access abstract in the Conference Abstract E-book, page 123


Describing The Prevalence And Awareness Of Sport-Related Concussion In University Intramural And Club Sport Participants, Makenzie L. Brown Dec 2015

Describing The Prevalence And Awareness Of Sport-Related Concussion In University Intramural And Club Sport Participants, Makenzie L. Brown

Health, Human Performance and Recreation Undergraduate Honors Theses

Background: Concussion injuries are growing in number among athletes across the nation. The majority of concussion research to date focuses on collegiate and high school athletes. University athletes make up a small percentage of the student body population compared to the large number of students that participate in club and intramural sports. These students participate in the same sports, assume the same risks, and may experience the same adverse effects of concussion, often without appropriate medical oversight.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if concussion is a problem among intramural and club sport participants, if these participants ...


Analysis Of Changes In Muscle Architecture And Explosive Ability In Ncaa Division I Volleyball Players, Caleb D. Bazyler, Jacob R. Goodin, Conrad Rapp, Mark Disanto, Frank Smith, Michael H. Stone Dec 2015

Analysis Of Changes In Muscle Architecture And Explosive Ability In Ncaa Division I Volleyball Players, Caleb D. Bazyler, Jacob R. Goodin, Conrad Rapp, Mark Disanto, Frank Smith, Michael H. Stone

ETSU Faculty Works

Abstract available in the 10th Annual Coaches and Sport Science College .


Reliability Of 3-Dimensional Measures Of Single-Leg Cross Drop Landing Across 3 Different Institutions: Implications For Multicenter Biomechanical And Epidemiological Research On Acl Injury Prevention, Christopher A. Dicesare, Nathaniel A. Bates, Kim D. Barber Foss, Staci M. Thomas, Samuel C. Wordeman, Dai Sugimoto, Benjamin D. Roewer, Jennifer M. Medina Mckeon, Stephanie Di Stasi, Brian W. Noehren, Kevin R. Ford, Adam W. Kiefer, Timothy E. Hewett, Gregory D. Myer Dec 2015

Reliability Of 3-Dimensional Measures Of Single-Leg Cross Drop Landing Across 3 Different Institutions: Implications For Multicenter Biomechanical And Epidemiological Research On Acl Injury Prevention, Christopher A. Dicesare, Nathaniel A. Bates, Kim D. Barber Foss, Staci M. Thomas, Samuel C. Wordeman, Dai Sugimoto, Benjamin D. Roewer, Jennifer M. Medina Mckeon, Stephanie Di Stasi, Brian W. Noehren, Kevin R. Ford, Adam W. Kiefer, Timothy E. Hewett, Gregory D. Myer

Rehabilitation Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are physically and financially devastating but affect a relatively small percentage of the population. Prospective identification of risk factors for ACL injury necessitates a large sample size; therefore, study of this injury would benefit from a multicenter approach.

Purpose: To determine the reliability of kinematic and kinetic measures of a single-leg cross drop task across 3 institutions.

Study Design: Controlled laboratory study.

Methods: Twenty-five female high school volleyball players participated in this study. Three-dimensional motion data of each participant performing the single-leg cross drop were collected at 3 institutions over a period of 4 ...


Herbs, Supplements And Athletes, Neilson Mathews Md Nov 2015

Herbs, Supplements And Athletes, Neilson Mathews Md

Department of Family Medicine

No abstract provided.


Residual Impact Of Previous Injury On Musculoskeletal Characteristics In Special Forces Operators, Jeffrey J. Parr, Nicholas C. Clark, John P. Abt, Julie Y. Kresta, Karen A. Keenan, Shawn F Kane, Scott M. Lephart Nov 2015

Residual Impact Of Previous Injury On Musculoskeletal Characteristics In Special Forces Operators, Jeffrey J. Parr, Nicholas C. Clark, John P. Abt, Julie Y. Kresta, Karen A. Keenan, Shawn F Kane, Scott M. Lephart

Rehabilitation Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: Musculoskeletal injuries are a significant burden to United States Army Special Operations Forces. The advanced tactical skill level and physical training required of Army Special Operators highlights the need to optimize musculoskeletal characteristics to reduce the likelihood of suffering a recurrent injury.

Purpose: To identify the residual impact of previous injury on musculoskeletal characteristics.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: Isokinetic strength of the knee, shoulder, and back and flexibility of the shoulder and hamstrings were assessed as part of a comprehensive human performance protocol, and self-reported musculoskeletal injury history was obtained. Subjects were stratified based ...


A Comparison Of Static Stretching Versus Combined Static And Ballistic Stretching In Active Knee Range Of Motion, Nathan R. Blackhurst, James C. Peterson, Valerie W. Herzog, Ericka P. Zimmerman Oct 2015

A Comparison Of Static Stretching Versus Combined Static And Ballistic Stretching In Active Knee Range Of Motion, Nathan R. Blackhurst, James C. Peterson, Valerie W. Herzog, Ericka P. Zimmerman

Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice

Background: There is continued controversy related to flexibility gains from different stretching protocols and within single protocols. Stretching methods include static, ballistic, dynamic, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF). A combination of stretching methods may be an improved way to increase active knee range of motion (ROM). This study evaluated a single program formulated with static and ballistic components. Objective: To compare active knee ROM following stretching programs which either included combined static and ballistic stretching (CSBS) or static stretching (SS) alone. It was hypothesized that CSBS would show a greater increase in active knee ROM than SS. Setting: The pre- ...


A Randomized Clinical Trial To Compare The Effect Of Non Operative Treatment With And Without Autologous Conditioned Plasma (Acp) On Healing And Function In Patients With Achilles Tendon Ruptures, Tyler M. Pratt Sep 2015

A Randomized Clinical Trial To Compare The Effect Of Non Operative Treatment With And Without Autologous Conditioned Plasma (Acp) On Healing And Function In Patients With Achilles Tendon Ruptures, Tyler M. Pratt

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is evidence to support conducting a larger randomized control trial (RCT) to compare the non-operative treatment of Achilles tendon (AT) ruptures with or without Autologous Conditioned Plasma (ACP®). Twenty-four patients were randomized to receive an ACP® or saline injection within seven days and again at two weeks post-rupture. Tendon healing was longitudinally evaluated using ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Functional and patient-reported quality of life measures were also assessed. A small sample size limited our ability to detect statistically significant differences. The mean rankings of healing were slightly ...


A Clinically Relevant Relevant Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis Mouse Model, Chantel P. Arce Aug 2015

A Clinically Relevant Relevant Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis Mouse Model, Chantel P. Arce

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Osteoarthritis affects 13-20% of Canadians with the majority being under 65years of age. Post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) is of great concern in young athletes following knee injury. Current research attempts at modeling the disease fall short. This study aimed to incorporate two important aspects of injury, the nature of the injury and the post-injury standard of care in humans, to a model of PTOA in mice. The study validated a non-invasive protocol to elicit an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury at varying loading speeds addressing the closed capsule nature of an ACL injury that occurs in humans. Secondly, we proposed a ...


An Effective Approach To Diagnosis And Surgical Repair Of Refractory Medial Epicondylitis, Amrit V. Vinod, Glen Ross Aug 2015

An Effective Approach To Diagnosis And Surgical Repair Of Refractory Medial Epicondylitis, Amrit V. Vinod, Glen Ross

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Medial epicondylitis of the elbow, an overuse injury characterized by angiofibroblastic tendinosis of the common flexor-pronator origin, generally responds to nonoperative treatment. Refractory cases may require surgical debridement and repair. This study discusses physical examination and imaging findings and an updated surgical technique used in patients with recalcitrant medial epicondylitis.

METHODS: The surgical records of 60 patients with refractory medial epicondylitis were reviewed. All received a course of nonoperative care. After 3 to 6 months of failed therapy, imaging was obtained, and surgical intervention was offered when indicated. This open procedure consisted of thorough debridement with repair and restoration ...


Health Benefits Of Endurance Training Alone Or Combined With Diet For Obese Patients Over 60: A Review, Walid Bouaziz May 2015

Health Benefits Of Endurance Training Alone Or Combined With Diet For Obese Patients Over 60: A Review, Walid Bouaziz

Walid Bouaziz

The prevalence of obesity is rapidly increasing in older patients and it is ubiquitous in many developed countries. Obesity is related to various negative health outcomes, making it a major public health target for intervention. The aim of this study was to explore and summarise the literature that addresses endurance training alone or combined with nutrition interventions to combat obesity in obese patients over age 60. We searched online electronic databases up to September 2014 for original observational and intervention studies published between 1995 and 2014 on the relationship between endurance training alone or combined with a diet in obese ...


Emergency Cardiac Care In Athletic Training Education, Erica M. Filep May 2015

Emergency Cardiac Care In Athletic Training Education, Erica M. Filep

Masters Theses

In the field of athletic training, preventing sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) has become a vital component of undergraduate athletic training students’ education. Specifically, SCA is the “leading cause of death in young athletes due to a structural cardiac abnormality” (Casa et. al, 2012, p. 15). Numerous studies about sudden death in athletics have been conducted but there is a gap in educational literature. Teaching students how to respond to catastrophic injury or illness is still an area that needs to be expanded upon. Educational competencies and standards have rapidly evolved with each edition of the National Athletic Trainers’ Association (NATA ...


Concussion Education And The Self-Reporting Rate Of Concussion Symptoms Among College Athletes, Brian J. Hyma May 2015

Concussion Education And The Self-Reporting Rate Of Concussion Symptoms Among College Athletes, Brian J. Hyma

Ed.D. Dissertations

This study addressed the effectiveness of a structured concussion education tool in order to increase the knowledge of concussion symptoms among college athletes. Also, efforts were made to determine if the gained knowledge from the education tool would lead to an increase in the self-reporting of acquired concussion symptoms. For the study, pre and postseason surveys were administered to athletes among six universities. Athletes representing the experimental group received pre-season concussion education while the control group did not receive the education. Data concerning the athlete’s history of structured concussion education, retained knowledge of concussion symptoms, along with the rate ...


Correlations Between The Functional Movement Screen (Fms), The Balance Error Scoring System (Bess), And Injury, Jamie Perry May 2015

Correlations Between The Functional Movement Screen (Fms), The Balance Error Scoring System (Bess), And Injury, Jamie Perry

Graduate Theses

Men’s ice hockey is a fast and exciting sport that draws elite athletes into its rink. The demands of the sport place athletes at an exceptionally high risk for musculoskeletal injury if they are not properly conditioned. Determining at risk athletes during pre-season screenings is of particular importance to the medical staff, and any opportunity to provide prophylactic treatment is sought after. The purpose of this study was to investigate a potential correlation between a) total FMS scores and total BESS scores, b) total FMS scores and the incidence of injury, c) total BESS scores and the incidence of ...


Descriptive Analysis Of Common Functional Limitations Identified By Patients With Shoulder Pain, Enrique V. Smith-Forbes, Stephanie D. Moore-Reed, Williab Ben Kibler, Phillip M. Westgate, Tim L. Uhl Apr 2015

Descriptive Analysis Of Common Functional Limitations Identified By Patients With Shoulder Pain, Enrique V. Smith-Forbes, Stephanie D. Moore-Reed, Williab Ben Kibler, Phillip M. Westgate, Tim L. Uhl

Timothy L. Uhl

CONTEXT: Recent establishment of G-codes by the US government requires therapists to report function limitations at initial evaluation. Limited information exists specific to the most common limitations in patients with shoulder pain.

OBJECTIVE: To describe the most commonly expressed shoulder limitations with activities and their severity/level of impairment from a patient's perspective on the initial evaluation.

DESIGN: Descriptive.

SETTING: Patients reporting pain with overhead activity and seeking medical attention from one orthopedic surgeon were recruited as part of a cohort study.

PATIENTS: 176 with shoulder superior labral tear from anterior to posterior (SLAP), subacromial impingement, combined SLAP and ...


Human Performance Lab Newsletter, March 2015, St. Cloud State University Mar 2015

Human Performance Lab Newsletter, March 2015, St. Cloud State University

Human Performance Lab Newsletter

Contents for this issue include:

  • Kelly's Corner by David Bacharach
  • Maintaining a Healthy Weight in a Land of Plenty by Glenn Street
  • Exercise in the Heat and Thermoregulation by Luke Weyrauch
  • Exercise and the Mind by Jeff Bohlman
  • Parkinson’s Disease by Brian Traeger
  • Heel Height and Pain in the Lower Back by Ke Shi


Neurocognitive Patterns, Symptom Clusters, And Premorbid Factors That Predict Protracted Recovery From Concussion In Females, Sarah Pulaski Jan 2015

Neurocognitive Patterns, Symptom Clusters, And Premorbid Factors That Predict Protracted Recovery From Concussion In Females, Sarah Pulaski

PCOM Psychology Dissertations

Concussion is an increasingly diagnosed injury that affects individuals of all ages. Although the underlying cause is unknown, research has demonstrated that females who sustain a concussion experience longer recoveries. Existing research has documented a relationship between age, gender, post-concussive headache and mental health conditions, and recovery; however, limited research has investigated the relationship between premorbid clinical variables and recovery. Research on post-injury neurocognitive declines and recovery has also demonstrated varied findings. Moreover, dizziness has been identified as significantly predictive of prolonged recovery, but no studies have investigated the effect of premorbid headache conditions on the development of dizziness. The ...


Do Mouth Guards Prevent Concussions In Contact Sports?, Lindsey Siemens Jan 2015

Do Mouth Guards Prevent Concussions In Contact Sports?, Lindsey Siemens

Physician Assistant Scholarly Project Posters

• Concussion is one of the leading cause of traumatic brain injury in 13-22 year olds

• The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not mouth guards provide protection from sports-related concussions in 13-22 year old athletes participating in contact sports

• Which type of mouth guard is the most effective in preventing or reducing the severity of these injuries?


The Efficacy Of Electrocardiograms As A Screening Tool To Detect Cardiac Abnormalities In Young Athletes, Cody William Jan 2015

The Efficacy Of Electrocardiograms As A Screening Tool To Detect Cardiac Abnormalities In Young Athletes, Cody William

Physician Assistant Scholarly Project Posters

• Sudden cardiac death (SCD) among athletes can be attributed to increased cardiovascular demands associated with vigorous exercise.

• The majority of athletes who experience sudden cardiac death are asymptomatic.

• Pre-participation history and physicals, (H&P) help to identify underlying cardiovascular disorders with the potential to increase the risk of SCD in an athlete.

• The efficacy of pre-participation H&Ps to identify underlying cardiac etiology has been debated.

• The purpose of this research is to:

---Determine incidence and cause of SCD among athletes (Table 1).

---Determine the efficacy and evidenced-based criteria for the interpretation of ECGs in athletes.

---Evaluate cost-effectiveness of screening ...


Pitch-Count And Its Effects On Shoulder Injuries: How To Keep A Pitcher Healthy, Alexander Malek Jan 2015

Pitch-Count And Its Effects On Shoulder Injuries: How To Keep A Pitcher Healthy, Alexander Malek

The Science Journal of the Lander College of Arts and Sciences

Baseball is currently the fourth most popular sport in high schools across the country. However, pitchers are at a high risk to develop career ending injuries. Overuse can result in SLAP tears as well as torn rotator cuff muscles that can end a dream of pitching professionally. Major League Baseball has teamed up with leading sports medicine researchers to determine safe pitch-count guidelines for pitchers of all ages. Articles were found using Touro’s e-Journal database as well as Pubmed.gov to find pertinent research on this topic. Studies on ball velocity and scapular kinematics were done on three different ...


Exergaming As A Viable Therapeutic Tool To Improve Static And Dynamic Balance Among Older Adults And People With Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Dale M. Harris, Timo Rantalainen, Makii Muthalib, Liam G. Johnson, Wei-Peng Teo Jan 2015

Exergaming As A Viable Therapeutic Tool To Improve Static And Dynamic Balance Among Older Adults And People With Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Dale M. Harris, Timo Rantalainen, Makii Muthalib, Liam G. Johnson, Wei-Peng Teo

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

The use of virtual reality games ( known as “exergaming” ) as a neurorehabilitation tool is gaining interest. Therefore, we aim to collate evidence for the effects of exergaming on the balance and postural control of older adults and people with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease ( IPD ). Six electronic databases were searched, from inception to April 2015, to identify relevant studies. Standardized mean differences ( SMDs ) and 95% confidence intervals ( CI ) were used to calculate effect sizes between experimental and control groups. I2 statistics were used to determine levels of heterogeneity. 325 older adults and 56 people with IPD who were assessed across 11 ...


Satellite Cells In Human Skeletal Muscle Plasticity, Tim Snijders, Joshua P. Nederveen, Bryon R. Mckay, Sophie Joanisse, Lex B. Verdijk, Luc J. C. Van Loon, Gianni Parise Jan 2015

Satellite Cells In Human Skeletal Muscle Plasticity, Tim Snijders, Joshua P. Nederveen, Bryon R. Mckay, Sophie Joanisse, Lex B. Verdijk, Luc J. C. Van Loon, Gianni Parise

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Skeletal muscle satellite cells are considered to play a crucial role in muscle fiber maintenance, repair and remodeling. Our knowledge of the role of satellite cells in muscle fiber adaptation has traditionally relied on in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. Over the past decade, a genuine effort has been made to translate these results to humans under physiological conditions. Findings from in vivo human studies suggest that satellite cells play a key role in skeletal muscle fiber repair/remodeling in response to exercise. Mounting evidence indicates that aging has a profound impact on the regulation of satellite cells ...


Relationship Of Leg And Joint Stiffness During Basic And Sports Specific Tasks In High Level Athletes, Emma Millett, Mark Moresi, Mark Watsford, Paul Taylor, David Greene Jan 2015

Relationship Of Leg And Joint Stiffness During Basic And Sports Specific Tasks In High Level Athletes, Emma Millett, Mark Moresi, Mark Watsford, Paul Taylor, David Greene

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

No abstract provided.


The Impact Of Previous Hamstring Strain Injury On The Change In Eccentric Hamstring Strength During Pre-Season Training In Elite Australian Footballers [Accepted Manuscript], David Opar, Morgan Williams, Ryan Timmins, Jack Hickey, Steven Duhig, Anthony Shield Jan 2015

The Impact Of Previous Hamstring Strain Injury On The Change In Eccentric Hamstring Strength During Pre-Season Training In Elite Australian Footballers [Accepted Manuscript], David Opar, Morgan Williams, Ryan Timmins, Jack Hickey, Steven Duhig, Anthony Shield

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Hamstring strain injuries (HSIs) are the most common injury type in Australian football, and the rate of recurrence has been consistently high for a number of years. Long-lasting neuromuscular inhibition has been noted in previously injured athletes, but it is not known if this influences the athlete’s adaptive response to training.

Purpose: To determine if elite Australian footballers with a prior unilateral HSI (previously injured group) display less improvement in eccentric hamstring strength during preseason training compared with athletes without a history of HSIs (control group).

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2.

Methods: A total of ...


Lower Limb Progressive Resistance Training Improves Leg Strength But Not Gait Speed Or Balance In Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Alex Tillman Tillman, Makii Muthalib, Ashlee M. Hendy, Liam G. Johnson, Timo Rantalainen, Dawson J. Kidgell, Peter G. Enticott, Wei-Peng Teo Jan 2015

Lower Limb Progressive Resistance Training Improves Leg Strength But Not Gait Speed Or Balance In Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Alex Tillman Tillman, Makii Muthalib, Ashlee M. Hendy, Liam G. Johnson, Timo Rantalainen, Dawson J. Kidgell, Peter G. Enticott, Wei-Peng Teo

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

The use of progressive resistance training ( PRT ) to improve gait and balance in people with Parkinson’s disease ( PD ) is an emerging area of interest. However, the main effects of PRT on lower limb functions such as gait, balance, and leg strength in people with PD remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the meta-analysis is to evaluate the evidence surrounding the use of PRT to improve gait and balance in people with PD. Five electronic databases, from inception to December 2014, were searched to identify the relevant studies. Data extraction was performed by two independent reviewers and methodological quality was ...