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Full-Text Articles in Sports Medicine

Technical Freediving: An Emerging Breath-Hold Diving Technique, Derek Covington, Robert H. Lee, Steven Toffel, Alberto Bursian, Kirk Krack, Chris Giordano May 2019

Technical Freediving: An Emerging Breath-Hold Diving Technique, Derek Covington, Robert H. Lee, Steven Toffel, Alberto Bursian, Kirk Krack, Chris Giordano

Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments

Technical freediving can be defined as freediving augmented by the use of oxygen-enriched gases or oxygen before, during, or after a freedive. As a result of these techniques, breath-hold divers can visit and enjoy underwater wrecks, reefs, and other diving locations previously located at depths unreachable to apnea divers. By pre-breathing oxygen-enriched gases in conjunction with hyperventilation—which decreases the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2)—the technical freediver now has additional oxygen to facilitate aerobic respiration during the dive. In addition, pre-breathing oxygen decreases tissue nitrogen tensions, which limits inert gas loading and decreases the risk of decompression sickness ...


Spinal Cord Trauma: An Overview Of Normal Structure And Function, Primary And Secondary Mechanisms Of Injury, And Emerging Treatment Modalities, Daniel Morin May 2018

Spinal Cord Trauma: An Overview Of Normal Structure And Function, Primary And Secondary Mechanisms Of Injury, And Emerging Treatment Modalities, Daniel Morin

Senior Honors Theses

The structures of the spinal cord and vertebral column are designed to provide flexibility, while still providing ample protection for the spinal cord deep within. While it does offer remarkable protection against most routine trauma, the spinal cord is still vulnerable to high-force etiologies of trauma and may become damaged as a result. These events are referred to as primary injury. Following the initial injury, the body’s own physiological responses cause a cascade of deleterious effects, known as secondary injury. Secondary injury is a major therapeutic target in mitigating the effects of spinal cord injury (SCI), and much research ...


Body Composition Vs Athletic Performance In Volleyball, Elizabeth Decaro Jan 2018

Body Composition Vs Athletic Performance In Volleyball, Elizabeth Decaro

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Objectives: The goal of this study was to determine if body composition affected athletic performance in the sport of volleyball at the University of Akron.

Methods: The study was conducted in the School of Sports Science & Wellness Education on the 3rd floor of Infocision Stadium at the University of Akron using the computer containing the Bod Pod data for the women’s volleyball team.

Results: 20 subjects of the women’s varsity volleyball team were studied. The averages of each test were varied between the different skills tests in counter-movement vertical jump, approach vertical jump, block, broad jump, chin-ups ...


Cte And The Effects Of Multiple Concussions On College Athletes, Hunter Cote Jan 2018

Cte And The Effects Of Multiple Concussions On College Athletes, Hunter Cote

Honors Theses

The purpose of this research was to determine if signs and symptoms of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) could be detected in college athletes who have suffered multiple concussions. College athletes are likely to be at an increased risk of suffering a concussion, due to the high-impact trauma that is often seen in contact sports. This question was explored through the use of a survey, cognitive test, known as the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), and the Beck Depression Inventory. The questions on the survey included necessary background information (i.e. age and sex), as well as more personal information including ...


Examining Upper Extremity Injuries In Male Baseball Players Between The Ages Of 14 To 22 Years Old, James T. Yancy Jan 2018

Examining Upper Extremity Injuries In Male Baseball Players Between The Ages Of 14 To 22 Years Old, James T. Yancy

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Yancy, James T. (J.T.), MAT., May 2018 AthleticTraining

Examining Upper Extremity Injuries In Male Baseball Players Between The Ages Of 14 To 22 Years Old

Chairperson: Melanie McGrath

The number of upper extremity injuries is increasing in advanced baseball (14 to 22 years old) at an alarming rate. The length of seasons, multiple leagues and the velocity of throwing in overhead sports are the most common causes of elbow and shoulder injuries. In addition, biomechanical variables also influence the risk of injury. Any alteration in range of motion (ROM) directly impacts the biomechanics of overhead activities, such as pitching ...


Virtual Reality As A Training Tool To Treat Physical Inactivity In Children, Adam W. Kiefer, David Pincus, Michael J. Richardson, Gregory D. Myer Dec 2017

Virtual Reality As A Training Tool To Treat Physical Inactivity In Children, Adam W. Kiefer, David Pincus, Michael J. Richardson, Gregory D. Myer

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Lack of adequate physical activity in children is an epidemic that can result in obesity and other poor health outcomes across the lifespan. Physical activity interventions focused on motor skill competence continue to be developed, but some interventions, such as neuromuscular training (NMT), may be limited in how early they can be implemented due to dependence on the child’s level of cognitive and perceptual-motor development. Early implementation of motor-rich activities that support motor skill development in children is critical for the development of healthy levels of physical activity that carry through into adulthood. Virtual reality (VR) training may be ...


Inhibiting Axon Degeneration In A Mouse Model Of Acute Brain Injury Through Deletion Of Sarm1, Nils Henninger May 2017

Inhibiting Axon Degeneration In A Mouse Model Of Acute Brain Injury Through Deletion Of Sarm1, Nils Henninger

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of disability worldwide. Annually, 150 to 200/1,000,000 people become disabled as a result of brain trauma. Axonal degeneration is a critical, early event following TBI of all severities but whether axon degeneration is a driver of TBI remains unclear. Molecular pathways underlying the pathology of TBI have not been defined and there is no efficacious treatment for TBI.

Despite this significant societal impact, surprisingly little is known about the molecular mechanisms that actively drive axon degeneration in any context and particularly following TBI. Although severe brain injury may cause ...


Mechanical Loading As Potential Treatment For Wnt Inhibitor Induced Bone Loss, Juraj Zahatnansky Md, Daniel Dick, Gabrielle Foxa, Robert Baker, Bart Williams Phd Jan 2017

Mechanical Loading As Potential Treatment For Wnt Inhibitor Induced Bone Loss, Juraj Zahatnansky Md, Daniel Dick, Gabrielle Foxa, Robert Baker, Bart Williams Phd

Research Day

The Wnt signaling pathway has been shown to play a role in bone homeostasis and carcinogenesis. On the one hand, a decrease in signaling has been associated with a decrease in bone mass, on the other, an increase in signaling with cancer development. LGK974 is a Wnt signaling inhibitor currently being investigated as a potential cancer therapeutic agent. This molecule inhibits Porcupine, a transmembrane protein necessary for Wnt ligand secretion. In light of the above and based on our preliminary data, treatment with LGK974 leads to bone mass loss. Our investigation aims to address whether such bone loss can be ...


A Comparison Of Changes In Women's Cardiovascular Fitness And Body Composition After Performance In Zumba, Tabata, And Cycling, Kristi N. Kester Jan 2017

A Comparison Of Changes In Women's Cardiovascular Fitness And Body Composition After Performance In Zumba, Tabata, And Cycling, Kristi N. Kester

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Aerobic group exercise is important to prevent against cardiovascular, pulmonary, and metabolic diseases. Regular exercise can help to reduce the risk of these diseases and premature death. Group exercise classes have shown to be effective in reducing weight, blood pressure, and body composition Further research is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of these aerobic group exercise classes to one another. PURPOSE: To evaluate and compare the potential health benefits that may occur for women who participate in regular group exercise classes at the Kohl Family YMCA. METHODS: A surrey and body measurements were taken of females enrolled an eight-week aerobic ...


Retrospective Analysis Of Contact Sport Participation On Cognitive Function In Healthy Athletes, Lisa C. Martinez Jan 2017

Retrospective Analysis Of Contact Sport Participation On Cognitive Function In Healthy Athletes, Lisa C. Martinez

Theses and projects

This study explored the effects of contact and limited contact sport participation on neurocognitive function in non-concussed collegiate and adolescent athletes over time. Athletes participating in contact and limited contact sports have an increased risk of sustaining neurocognitive injuries, known as subconcussive blows, compared to non-contact sport athletes. We hypothesized that athletes participating in contact and limited contact sports, would exhibit a deficit in neurocognitive function following multiple seasons of play when compared to athletes participating in non-contact sports. Using a mixed repeated measures MANOVA statistical design, we analyzed computerized neurocognitive baseline ImPACT composite scores (verbal memory, visual memory, visual ...


The Assessment Of Medial Stability Of The Elbow Using Sonography And Three Clinical Tests, Andrew Michael Demoss Jan 2017

The Assessment Of Medial Stability Of The Elbow Using Sonography And Three Clinical Tests, Andrew Michael Demoss

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Introduction: Injuries to the Ulnar Collateral Ligament of the elbow are a common occurrence in overhead throwing athletes. Clinical assessment of the medial elbow can be assisted using Sonography. Ultrasound imaging can be used to determine the width of the medial joint space. This study will determine whether altering the joint angle in the elbow during various clinical tests has an effect on the width of the medial joint space.

Methods: Ultrasound images of the non-dominant elbow were collected during three clinical tests of medial elbow stability; valgus stress test, weighted valgus test and the milking maneuver. The width of ...


Impact Of Exercise Selection On Hamstring Muscle Activation [Accepted Manuscript], Matthew N. Bourne, Morgan Williams, David Opar, Aiman Al Najjar, Graham K. Kerr, Anthony J. Shield Jan 2017

Impact Of Exercise Selection On Hamstring Muscle Activation [Accepted Manuscript], Matthew N. Bourne, Morgan Williams, David Opar, Aiman Al Najjar, Graham K. Kerr, Anthony J. Shield

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objective To determine which strength training exercises selectively activate the biceps femoris long head (BFLH) muscle.

Methods We recruited 24 recreationally active men for this two-part observational study. Part 1: We explored the amplitudes and the ratios of lateral (BF) to medial hamstring (MH) normalised electromyography (nEMG) during the concentric and eccentric phases of 10 common strength training exercises. Part 2: We used functional MRI (fMRI) to determine the spatial patterns of hamstring activation during two exercises which (1) most selectively and (2) least selectively activated the BF in part 1.

Results Eccentrically, the largest BF/MH nEMG ratio occurred ...


The Reliability Of The Navicular Drop Test And Its Transferability To Dynamic Movement, Joshua Krispin Jan 2017

The Reliability Of The Navicular Drop Test And Its Transferability To Dynamic Movement, Joshua Krispin

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: Navicular drop can be defined as the distance the navicular tuberosity moves from a standing weight bearing to a standing neutral position, as the subtalar joint moves from a relaxed position to a neutral position. Navicular drop is an important measurement for clinicians used to describe foot function, pronation, and excessive movement seen in several pathologies. Objective: The purpose of this study is to see if navicular drop is influenced by mode or speed of locomotion, if it is will there be other influences such as the forefoot and heel soft tissue, and will those factors influence those measures ...


Post-Concussion Experiences Of Collegiate Student-Athletes, Kaitlin Iris Singer Dec 2016

Post-Concussion Experiences Of Collegiate Student-Athletes, Kaitlin Iris Singer

Doctoral Dissertations

Sports-related concussions are a major public health concern affecting a significant number of collegiate student-athletes. Medical and public health research has addressed every aspect of concussion management processes including concussion education, medical diagnosis, recovery, and returning to sport and classroom. This research has led to several best-practices for concussion management. Since 2010, the NCAA has mandated that its member institutions maintain concussion management policies and procedures. However, the current recommendations, based primarily on medical research, have been found in quantitative studies of the behaviors and practices of athletic trainers, coaches, and student-athletes to be ineffective. To date, no studies have ...


The Relevance Of Sex Differences In Performance Fatigability, Sandra K. Hunter Nov 2016

The Relevance Of Sex Differences In Performance Fatigability, Sandra K. Hunter

Exercise Science Faculty Research and Publications

Performance fatigability differs between men and women for a range of fatiguing tasks. Women are usually less fatigable than men, and this is most widely described for isometric fatiguing contractions and some dynamic tasks. The sex difference in fatigability is specific to the task demands so that one mechanism is not universal, including any sex differences in skeletal muscle physiology, muscle perfusion, and voluntary activation. However, there are substantial knowledge gaps about the task dependency of the sex differences in fatigability, the involved mechanisms, and the relevance to clinical populations and with advanced age. The knowledge gaps are in part ...


An Epidemiological Look At Injuries Among High School Athletes Participating In A Variety Of Sports For Both Sexes, Emily H. Wills May 2016

An Epidemiological Look At Injuries Among High School Athletes Participating In A Variety Of Sports For Both Sexes, Emily H. Wills

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Physical activity is part of a healthy lifestyle, but participating in athletic activities like team sports can lead to injury. This study was designed to find the differences in types of high school sports injuries and how frequently these injuries occur among different sports and between males and females. A survey was given to members of the football, boys’ basketball, girls’ basketball, baseball, softball, and volleyball teams of a central Appalachian high school. The highest rate of injury was found in girls’ basketball at 86.7%, followed by football at 85.2%, boys’ basketball at 70.6%, softball and volleyball ...


Exploring Oculomotor Trends In Collegiate Athletes, Brett Whorley, Julie A. Honaker Apr 2016

Exploring Oculomotor Trends In Collegiate Athletes, Brett Whorley, Julie A. Honaker

UCARE Research Products

Collaborative efforts to improve athlete safety without significantly hindering the rules of the games aim to develop a novel system to better measure and diagnose concussions. Provided that common signs of concussions include blurred vision, distant gaze, and dizziness, the Dizziness and Balance Disorders Lab at UNL believes that the simple oculomotor exam studied in this project may be applied to this procedure. Within the broader goal to better understand the causes, signs, symptoms, and prognosis of concussions, researchers desired to further investigate the results of this oculomotor test. The aim was to identify and interpret correlations between collegiate athlete ...


Optimizing The Rehabilitation Of Elbow Lateral Collateral Ligament Injuries, Ranita Harpreet Kaur Manocha Mar 2016

Optimizing The Rehabilitation Of Elbow Lateral Collateral Ligament Injuries, Ranita Harpreet Kaur Manocha

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Elbow lateral collateral ligament (LCL) injuries frequently arise following trauma, and can result in disabling instability. Typically such injuries are managed with immobilization followed by a graduated exercise regime; however there is minimal biomechanical evidence to support current treatment protocols. This investigation examines the in vitro effectiveness of several rehabilitation techniques using a custom elbow motion simulator. It was found that active range of motion is safest in the overhead position (n = 7). Early motion in this position may reduce the incidence of elbow stiffness without compromising ligament healing following LCL injury. Forearm pronation and active motion stabilize the LCL-deficient ...


A Randomized Clinical Trial To Compare The Effect Of Non Operative Treatment With And Without Autologous Conditioned Plasma (Acp) On Healing And Function In Patients With Achilles Tendon Ruptures, Tyler M. Pratt Sep 2015

A Randomized Clinical Trial To Compare The Effect Of Non Operative Treatment With And Without Autologous Conditioned Plasma (Acp) On Healing And Function In Patients With Achilles Tendon Ruptures, Tyler M. Pratt

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is evidence to support conducting a larger randomized control trial (RCT) to compare the non-operative treatment of Achilles tendon (AT) ruptures with or without Autologous Conditioned Plasma (ACP®). Twenty-four patients were randomized to receive an ACP® or saline injection within seven days and again at two weeks post-rupture. Tendon healing was longitudinally evaluated using ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Functional and patient-reported quality of life measures were also assessed. A small sample size limited our ability to detect statistically significant differences. The mean rankings of healing were slightly ...


A Clinically Relevant Relevant Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis Mouse Model, Chantel P. Arce Aug 2015

A Clinically Relevant Relevant Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis Mouse Model, Chantel P. Arce

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Osteoarthritis affects 13-20% of Canadians with the majority being under 65years of age. Post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) is of great concern in young athletes following knee injury. Current research attempts at modeling the disease fall short. This study aimed to incorporate two important aspects of injury, the nature of the injury and the post-injury standard of care in humans, to a model of PTOA in mice. The study validated a non-invasive protocol to elicit an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury at varying loading speeds addressing the closed capsule nature of an ACL injury that occurs in humans. Secondly, we proposed a ...


Emergency Cardiac Care In Athletic Training Education, Erica M. Filep May 2015

Emergency Cardiac Care In Athletic Training Education, Erica M. Filep

Masters Theses

In the field of athletic training, preventing sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) has become a vital component of undergraduate athletic training students’ education. Specifically, SCA is the “leading cause of death in young athletes due to a structural cardiac abnormality” (Casa et. al, 2012, p. 15). Numerous studies about sudden death in athletics have been conducted but there is a gap in educational literature. Teaching students how to respond to catastrophic injury or illness is still an area that needs to be expanded upon. Educational competencies and standards have rapidly evolved with each edition of the National Athletic Trainers’ Association (NATA ...


Concussion Education And The Self-Reporting Rate Of Concussion Symptoms Among College Athletes, Brian J. Hyma May 2015

Concussion Education And The Self-Reporting Rate Of Concussion Symptoms Among College Athletes, Brian J. Hyma

Ed.D. Dissertations

This study addressed the effectiveness of a structured concussion education tool in order to increase the knowledge of concussion symptoms among college athletes. Also, efforts were made to determine if the gained knowledge from the education tool would lead to an increase in the self-reporting of acquired concussion symptoms. For the study, pre and postseason surveys were administered to athletes among six universities. Athletes representing the experimental group received pre-season concussion education while the control group did not receive the education. Data concerning the athlete’s history of structured concussion education, retained knowledge of concussion symptoms, along with the rate ...


Satellite Cells In Human Skeletal Muscle Plasticity, Tim Snijders, Joshua P. Nederveen, Bryon R. Mckay, Sophie Joanisse, Lex B. Verdijk, Luc J. C. Van Loon, Gianni Parise Jan 2015

Satellite Cells In Human Skeletal Muscle Plasticity, Tim Snijders, Joshua P. Nederveen, Bryon R. Mckay, Sophie Joanisse, Lex B. Verdijk, Luc J. C. Van Loon, Gianni Parise

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Skeletal muscle satellite cells are considered to play a crucial role in muscle fiber maintenance, repair and remodeling. Our knowledge of the role of satellite cells in muscle fiber adaptation has traditionally relied on in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. Over the past decade, a genuine effort has been made to translate these results to humans under physiological conditions. Findings from in vivo human studies suggest that satellite cells play a key role in skeletal muscle fiber repair/remodeling in response to exercise. Mounting evidence indicates that aging has a profound impact on the regulation of satellite cells ...


Sports Related Traumatic Brain Injuries, Ky Parrott Oct 2014

Sports Related Traumatic Brain Injuries, Ky Parrott

Nursing Student Class Projects (Formerly MSN)

Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) are the leading cause of long-term disability and injury death in the United States of America (Dash, Oh, Santiago, & Wade, 2012, p. 108). It is estimated that approximately 75% of all TBI’s are sports related. Recently, sports related TBI’s have received increased awareness due to the $765 million settlement between 18,000 retired football players who suffer from long-term concussive injuries and the National Football Association (NFL) (Mason, 2013, p. 267). Education regarding the pathophysiology of TBI’s is beneficial to understanding what changes the brain is enduring and why it is important to ...