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Full-Text Articles in Medical Neurobiology

Cell Specific Control Of The Pallidostriatal Pathway, Shubha Verma '19 Nov 2018

Cell Specific Control Of The Pallidostriatal Pathway, Shubha Verma '19

Student Publications & Research

Parkinson’s Disease is a neurodegenerative disorder of the basal ganglia. The main cause for Parkinson’s Disease is the depletion of dopamine, a neurotransmitter. The basal ganglia contains four major nuclei: the substantia nigra, the subthalamic nucleus, the external globus pallidus, and the striatum. These nuclei communicate with each other by the use of neurons.


How Concussions Alter Brain Network Properties: Towards Better Diagnoses Of Concussions, Sara Krehbiel, Joanna R. Wares Oct 2018

How Concussions Alter Brain Network Properties: Towards Better Diagnoses Of Concussions, Sara Krehbiel, Joanna R. Wares

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


The Evidence For The Benefits From Breast Milk In The Neurodevelopment Of Premature Babies – A Review Of The Recent Literature, Danuta Iulia Paduraru Oct 2018

The Evidence For The Benefits From Breast Milk In The Neurodevelopment Of Premature Babies – A Review Of The Recent Literature, Danuta Iulia Paduraru

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Introduction. The brain in preterm babies is usually not fully developed and therefore early post-term events can have long-lasting neurodevelopment and cognitive outcomes. It is known that cerebral white matter connectivity is important for later intact cognitive functioning amongst children born very preterm and that breast milk imparts neurotrophic factors. The relationship between breastfeeding and child development is a long and well-studied area, and the evidence in support of breast milk is already substantial. Here we review the recent literature on the topic to establish whether additional evidence is available to strengthen the view that breast milk is superior in ...


Predicting Gains With Visuospatial Training After Stroke Using An Eeg Measure Of Frontoparietal Circuit Function, Robert J. Zhou, Hossein M. Hondori, Maryam Khademi, Jessica M. Cassidy, Katherine M. Wu, Derek Z. Yang, Nikhita Kathuria, Fareshte R. Erani, Lucy Dodakian, Alison Mckenzie, Cristina V. Lopes, Walt Scacchi, Ramesh Srinivasan, Steven C. Cramer Jul 2018

Predicting Gains With Visuospatial Training After Stroke Using An Eeg Measure Of Frontoparietal Circuit Function, Robert J. Zhou, Hossein M. Hondori, Maryam Khademi, Jessica M. Cassidy, Katherine M. Wu, Derek Z. Yang, Nikhita Kathuria, Fareshte R. Erani, Lucy Dodakian, Alison Mckenzie, Cristina V. Lopes, Walt Scacchi, Ramesh Srinivasan, Steven C. Cramer

Physical Therapy Faculty Articles and Research

The heterogeneity of stroke prompts the need for predictors of individual treatment response to rehabilitation therapies. We previously studied healthy subjects with EEG and identified a frontoparietal circuit in which activity predicted training-related gains in visuomotor tracking. Here we asked whether activity in this same frontoparietal circuit also predicts training-related gains in visuomotor tracking in patients with chronic hemiparetic stroke. Subjects (n = 12) underwent dense-array EEG recording at rest, then received 8 sessions of visuomotor tracking training delivered via home-based telehealth methods. Subjects showed significant training-related gains in the primary behavioral endpoint, Success Rate score on a standardized test of ...


Defining The Radioresponse Of Mossy Cells, Devon Ivy Jun 2018

Defining The Radioresponse Of Mossy Cells, Devon Ivy

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Clinical radiotherapy is used to treat a variety of brain tumors within the central nervous system. While effective, it can result in progressive and debilitating cognitive impairment that can diminish quality of life. These impairments have been linked to hippocampal dysfunction and corresponding deficits in spatial learning and memory. Mossy cells are a major population of excitatory neurons located within the dentate hilus and highly involved in hippocampal circuitry. They play critical roles in spatial navigation, neurogenesis, memory, and are particularly vulnerable to a variety of neurotoxic insults. However, their sensitivity to ionizing radiation has yet to be investigated in ...


A Meta-Analysis: A Functional Neuroanatomical Comparison Of Self-Esteem-Related And Postpartum Depression-Related Processing, Meghana Damaraju Jun 2018

A Meta-Analysis: A Functional Neuroanatomical Comparison Of Self-Esteem-Related And Postpartum Depression-Related Processing, Meghana Damaraju

Honors Theses

Background: Postpartum depression (PPD) is a psychiatric mood disorder that effects 1 in 10 women in the United States. There are relatively few behavioral studies looking at the association between PPD and self-esteem. There are even fewer studies looking at neuroimaging comparisons between PPD and self-esteem.. The goal of this study was to look at the neuroanatomical overlap of activated brain regions involved in both self-esteem and PPD processing. We hypothesized that the right amygdala, PCC, and insula would be involved in both processes.

Methods: Maps were created using the MKDA program in MATLAB. These images were extent-based cluster-wise activation ...


Magneto-Electric Nano-Particles For Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation, Kun Yue, Rakesh Guduru, Jeongmin Hong, Ping Liang, Madhavan Nair, Sakhrat Khizroev May 2018

Magneto-Electric Nano-Particles For Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation, Kun Yue, Rakesh Guduru, Jeongmin Hong, Ping Liang, Madhavan Nair, Sakhrat Khizroev

Sakhrat Khizroev

This paper for the first time discusses a computational study of using magneto-electric (ME) nanoparticles to artificially stimulate the neural activity deep in the brain. The new technology provides a unique way to couple electric signals in the neural network to the magnetic dipoles in the nanoparticles with the purpose to enable a non-invasive approach. Simulations of the effect of ME nanoparticles for non-invasively stimulating the brain of a patient with Parkinson’s Disease to bring the pulsed sequences of the electric field to the levels comparable to those of healthy people show that the optimized values for the concentration ...


Treating Adhd With Suggestion: Neurofeedback And Placebo Therapeutics, Robert T. Thibault, Samuel Vassière, Jay A. Olson, Amir Raz May 2018

Treating Adhd With Suggestion: Neurofeedback And Placebo Therapeutics, Robert T. Thibault, Samuel Vassière, Jay A. Olson, Amir Raz

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Objective: We propose that clinicians can use suggestion to help treat conditions such as ADHD. Methods: We use EEG neurofeedback as a case study, alongside evidence from a recent pilot experiment utilizing a sham MRI scanner to highlight the therapeutic potential of suggestion-based treatments. Results: The medical literature demonstrates that many practitioners already prescribe treatments that hardly outperform placebo comparators. Moreover, the sham MRI experiment showed that, even with full disclosure of the procedure, suggestion alone can reduce the symptomatology of ADHD. Conclusion: Non-deceptive suggestion-based treatments, especially those drawing on accessories from neuroscience, may offer a safe complement and potential ...


A Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (Fnirs) Replication Of The Sunscreen Persuasion Paradigm, Shannon M. Burns, Lianne N. Barnes, Perri L. Katzman, Daniel L. Ames, Emily B. Falk, Matthew D. Lieberman May 2018

A Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (Fnirs) Replication Of The Sunscreen Persuasion Paradigm, Shannon M. Burns, Lianne N. Barnes, Perri L. Katzman, Daniel L. Ames, Emily B. Falk, Matthew D. Lieberman

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Activity in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during persuasive messages predicts future message-consistent behavior change, but there are significant limitations to the types of persuasion processes that can be invoked inside an MRI scanner. For instance, real world persuasion often involves multiple people in conversation. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) allows us to move out of the scanner and into more ecologically valid contexts. As a first step, the current study used fNIRS to replicate an existing fMRI persuasion paradigm (i.e. the sunscreen paradigm) to determine if mPFC shows similar predictive value with this technology. Consistent with prior fMRI work ...


Oxytocin Promotes Face-Sensitive Neural Responses To Infant And Adult Faces In Mothers, Mikko J. Peltola, Lane Strathearn, Kaija Puura May 2018

Oxytocin Promotes Face-Sensitive Neural Responses To Infant And Adult Faces In Mothers, Mikko J. Peltola, Lane Strathearn, Kaija Puura

Stead Family Department of Pediatrics Publications

Research utilizing intranasal oxytocin (OT) administration has shown that OT may increase attention and sensitivity to social cues, such as faces. Given the pivotal role of OT in parental behaviors across mammals, the paucity of intranasal OT research investigating responses to social cues in parents and particularly mothers of young children is a critical limitation. In the current study, we recorded cortical event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate whether intranasal OT affects the early neural responses to emotional faces in mothers of 1-year-old infants. Using a double-blind, within-subjects design, mothers (n = 38) were administered intranasal OT and placebo on separate sessions ...


Spinal Cord Trauma: An Overview Of Normal Structure And Function, Primary And Secondary Mechanisms Of Injury, And Emerging Treatment Modalities, Daniel Morin May 2018

Spinal Cord Trauma: An Overview Of Normal Structure And Function, Primary And Secondary Mechanisms Of Injury, And Emerging Treatment Modalities, Daniel Morin

Senior Honors Theses

The structures of the spinal cord and vertebral column are designed to provide flexibility, while still providing ample protection for the spinal cord deep within. While it does offer remarkable protection against most routine trauma, the spinal cord is still vulnerable to high-force etiologies of trauma and may become damaged as a result. These events are referred to as primary injury. Following the initial injury, the body’s own physiological responses cause a cascade of deleterious effects, known as secondary injury. Secondary injury is a major therapeutic target in mitigating the effects of spinal cord injury (SCI), and much research ...


Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Review Of Dsm Criteria And Functional Neuroanatomy, Cornelius W. Thomas Apr 2018

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Review Of Dsm Criteria And Functional Neuroanatomy, Cornelius W. Thomas

Marshall Journal of Medicine

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) consist of over twenty possible symptoms that can be divided into six broad categories. These categories correlate with specific brain networks that regulate emotions, behaviors, and autonomic function. Normal functioning of these networks depends on two key regions; the prefrontal cortex and the amygdala. The prefrontal cortex provides top-down executive control over amygdala, whereas the amygdala is critical for threat detection and activation of the ‘fight or flight’ response. Events that trigger extreme and/or prolonged fear can cause persisting dysregulation within the prefrontal-amygdala circuit ...


Dementia Care: Confronting Myths In Clinical Management, Shirley M. Neitch Md, Charles Meadows Md, Eva Patton-Tackett Md, Kevin W. Yingling Md Apr 2018

Dementia Care: Confronting Myths In Clinical Management, Shirley M. Neitch Md, Charles Meadows Md, Eva Patton-Tackett Md, Kevin W. Yingling Md

Kevin W. Yingling

Enormous challenges of this pervasive life-changing condition. Seeking help, often grasping at straws, victims, and their care providers are confronted with misinformation and myths when they search the internet or other sources. When Persons with Dementia (PWD) and their caregivers believe and/or act on false information, proper treatment may be delayed, and ultimately damage can be done. In this paper, we review commonly misunderstood issues encountered in caring for PWD. Our goal is to equip Primary Care Practitioners (PCPs) with accurate information to share with patients and families, to improve the outcomes of PWD to the greatest extent possible ...


Dementia Care: Confronting Myths In Clinical Management, Shirley M. Neitch Md, Charles Meadows Md, Eva Patton-Tackett Md, Kevin W. Yingling Md Apr 2018

Dementia Care: Confronting Myths In Clinical Management, Shirley M. Neitch Md, Charles Meadows Md, Eva Patton-Tackett Md, Kevin W. Yingling Md

Shirley M. Neitch

Enormous challenges of this pervasive life-changing condition. Seeking help, often grasping at straws, victims, and their care providers are confronted with misinformation and myths when they search the internet or other sources. When Persons with Dementia (PWD) and their caregivers believe and/or act on false information, proper treatment may be delayed, and ultimately damage can be done. In this paper, we review commonly misunderstood issues encountered in caring for PWD. Our goal is to equip Primary Care Practitioners (PCPs) with accurate information to share with patients and families, to improve the outcomes of PWD to the greatest extent possible ...


The Role Of Reactive Astrocitose In The Chronological Evolution Of Traumatic Brain Injury, Roxana M. Duncea-Borca, Vladimir Belis, Mihnea Costescu, Relu G. Calota, Reka Kutasi, Cosmin A. Moldovan Mar 2018

The Role Of Reactive Astrocitose In The Chronological Evolution Of Traumatic Brain Injury, Roxana M. Duncea-Borca, Vladimir Belis, Mihnea Costescu, Relu G. Calota, Reka Kutasi, Cosmin A. Moldovan

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Introduction and objectives. This study aims to investigate whether the cerebral modifications of posttraumatic reactive astrocitose can be considered an objective criterion for determining the age of traumatic cranio-cerebral lesions.

Materials and methods. The present study consists of a series of 23 medico-legal cases that underwent autopsy inTeleormanCounty(Romania) Department of Forensic Medicine during 2007–2016, with full immune-histochemical microscopic examination using GFAP staining. The study consists of two groups, a series of 13 cases with cranio-cerebral trauma with different posttraumatic survival periods and 9 cases as a control group.

Results and discussions. We discovered GFAP+ reactive astrocytes even when ...


Variant Intestinal-Cell Kinase In Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy, J. N. Bailey, L. De Nijs, D. Bai, T. Suzuki, H. Miyamoto, M. Tanaka, C. Patterson, Y.-C. Lin, M. T. Medina, M. E. Alonso, J. M. Serratosa, R. M. Durón, Viet-Hong Nguyen, J. E. Wight, I. E. Martínez‑Juárez, A. Ochoa, A. Jara-Prado, L. Guilhoto, Y. Molina, E. M. Yacubian, M. López‑Ruiz, Y. Inoue, S. Kaneko, S. Hirose, M. Osawa, H. Oguni, S. Fujimoto, T. M. Grisar, J. M. Stern, K. Yamakawa, B. Lakaye, A. V. Delgado-Escueta Mar 2018

Variant Intestinal-Cell Kinase In Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy, J. N. Bailey, L. De Nijs, D. Bai, T. Suzuki, H. Miyamoto, M. Tanaka, C. Patterson, Y.-C. Lin, M. T. Medina, M. E. Alonso, J. M. Serratosa, R. M. Durón, Viet-Hong Nguyen, J. E. Wight, I. E. Martínez‑Juárez, A. Ochoa, A. Jara-Prado, L. Guilhoto, Y. Molina, E. M. Yacubian, M. López‑Ruiz, Y. Inoue, S. Kaneko, S. Hirose, M. Osawa, H. Oguni, S. Fujimoto, T. M. Grisar, J. M. Stern, K. Yamakawa, B. Lakaye, A. V. Delgado-Escueta

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

BACKGROUND

In juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, data are limited on the genetic basis of networks promoting convulsions with diffuse polyspikes on electroencephalography (EEG) and the subtle microscopic brain dysplasia called microdysgenesis.

METHODS

Using Sanger sequencing, we sequenced the exomes of six members of a large family affected with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and confirmed cosegregation in all 37 family members. We screened an additional 310 patients with this disorder for variants on DNA melting-curve analysis and targeted real-time DNA sequencing of the gene encoding intestinal-cell kinase (ICK). We calculated Bayesian logarithm of the odds (LOD) scores for cosegregating variants, odds ratios in ...


Acute Vitreoretinal Trauma And Inflammation After Traumatic Brain Injury In Mice, Lucy P. Evans, Elizabeth A. Newell, Maryann Mahajan, Stephen H. Tsang, Polly J. Ferguson, Jolonda Mahoney, Christopher D. Hue, Edward W. Vogel, Barclay Morrison, Ottavio Arancio, Russell Nichols, Alexander G. Bassuk, Vinit B. Mahajan Mar 2018

Acute Vitreoretinal Trauma And Inflammation After Traumatic Brain Injury In Mice, Lucy P. Evans, Elizabeth A. Newell, Maryann Mahajan, Stephen H. Tsang, Polly J. Ferguson, Jolonda Mahoney, Christopher D. Hue, Edward W. Vogel, Barclay Morrison, Ottavio Arancio, Russell Nichols, Alexander G. Bassuk, Vinit B. Mahajan

Stead Family Department of Pediatrics Publications

Objective: Limited attention has been given to ocular injuries associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The retina is an extension of the central nervous system and evaluation of ocular damage may offer a less-invasive approach to gauge TBI severity and response to treatment. We aim to characterize acute changes in the mouse eye after exposure to two different models of TBI to assess the utility of eye damage as a surrogate to brain injury.

Methods: A model of blast TBI (bTBI) using a shock tube was compared to a lateral fluid percussion injury model (LFPI) using fluid pressure applied directly ...


Binge Alcohol Exposure Causes Neurobehavioral Deficits And Gsk3Β Activation In The Hippocampus Of Adolescent Rats, Zhe Ji, Lin Yuan, Xiong Lu, Hanqing Ding, Jia Luo, Zun-Ji Ke Feb 2018

Binge Alcohol Exposure Causes Neurobehavioral Deficits And Gsk3Β Activation In The Hippocampus Of Adolescent Rats, Zhe Ji, Lin Yuan, Xiong Lu, Hanqing Ding, Jia Luo, Zun-Ji Ke

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Heavy alcohol exposure causes profound damage to the adolescent brain, particularly the hippocampus, which underlie some behavioral deficits. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain inconclusive. The current study sought to determine whether binge alcohol exposure affects the hippocampus-related behaviors and key signaling proteins that may mediate alcohol neurotoxicity in adolescent rats. Alcohol exposure reduced the number of both NeuN-positive and doublecortin-positive cells in the hippocampus. Alcohol also induced neurodegeneration which was confirmed by ultrastructural analysis by electronic microscopy and was accompanied with the activation of microglia. Binge alcohol exposure impaired spatial learning and memory which was evaluated by the Morris ...


Closed-Loop Stimulation Of Temporal Cortex Rescues Functional Networks And Improves Memory, Yousseff Ezzyat, Paul A. Wanda, Deborah F. Levy, Allison Kadel, Ada Aka, Isaac Pedisich, Michael R. Sperling, Ashwini D. Sharan, Bradley C. Lega, Alexis Burks, Robert E. Gross, Cory S. Inman, Barbara C. Jobst, Mark A. Gorenstein Feb 2018

Closed-Loop Stimulation Of Temporal Cortex Rescues Functional Networks And Improves Memory, Yousseff Ezzyat, Paul A. Wanda, Deborah F. Levy, Allison Kadel, Ada Aka, Isaac Pedisich, Michael R. Sperling, Ashwini D. Sharan, Bradley C. Lega, Alexis Burks, Robert E. Gross, Cory S. Inman, Barbara C. Jobst, Mark A. Gorenstein

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Memory failures are frustrating and often the result of ineffective encoding. One approach to improving memory outcomes is through direct modulation of brain activity with electrical stimulation. Previous efforts, however, have reported inconsistent effects when using open-loop stimulation and often target the hippocampus and medial temporal lobes. Here we use a closed-loop system to monitor and decode neural activity from direct brain recordings in humans. We apply targeted stimulation to lateral temporal cortex and report that this stimulation rescues periods of poor memory encoding. This system also improves later recall, revealing that the lateral temporal cortex is a reliable target ...


Marijuana And The Teenage Brain: Public Health Impact, Katie C. Warther Jan 2018

Marijuana And The Teenage Brain: Public Health Impact, Katie C. Warther

Family Medicine Clerkship Student Projects

This project explores the neurobiological impact of teenage marijuana use, and the ways that public health interventions can help educate adolescents and delay the onset of use.


Biosocial Criminology Versus The Constitution, Karen E. Balter Jan 2018

Biosocial Criminology Versus The Constitution, Karen E. Balter

All Regis University Theses

The continually emerging field of biosocial criminology provides a basis for productively merging biology with sociological reasonings for criminal behavior. Mainstream research in criminology focuses on environmental factors as the sole reason individuals exhibit antisocial behavior patterns and may ultimately commit crimes. Criminological research has travelled in this direction for decades. The current climate within this community subscribes heavily to the notion that biology has very little to do with why people behave the way they do, and if it did, government control would be the norm. The nature of biocriminology opens a door through which constitutional issues may enter ...


Investigations Of Interleukin-1 Alpha As A Novel Stroke Therapy In Experimental Ischemic Stroke, Kathleen Elizabeth Salmeron Jan 2018

Investigations Of Interleukin-1 Alpha As A Novel Stroke Therapy In Experimental Ischemic Stroke, Kathleen Elizabeth Salmeron

Theses and Dissertations--Neuroscience

Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Although rapid recognition and prompt treatment have dropped mortality rates, most stroke survivors are left with permanent disability. Approximately 87% of all strokes result from the thromboembolic occlusion of the cerebrovasculature (ischemic strokes). Potential stroke therapeutics have included anti-inflammatory drugs, as well as many other targets with the goal of mitigating the acute and chronic inflammatory responses typically seen in an ischemic stroke. While these approaches have had great success in preclinical studies, their clinical translation has been less successful. Master inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1, are of particular interest ...


Studying Vascular Morphologies In The Aged Human Brain Using Large Autopsy Datasets, Eseosa T. Ighodaro Jan 2018

Studying Vascular Morphologies In The Aged Human Brain Using Large Autopsy Datasets, Eseosa T. Ighodaro

Theses and Dissertations--Neuroscience

Cerebrovascular disease is a major cause of dementia in elderly individuals, especially Black/African Americans. Within my dissertation, we focused on two vascular morphologies that affect small vessels: brain arteriolosclerosis (B-ASC) and multi-vascular profiles (MVPs). B-ASC is characterized by degenerative thickening of the wall of brain arterioles. The risk factors, cognitive sequelae, and co-pathologies of B-ASC are not fully understood. To address this, we used multimodal data from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center, Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, and brain-banked tissue samples from the University of Kentucky Alzheimer’s Disease Center (UK-ADC) brain repository. We analyzed two age at ...


The Potential Synergistic Behaviour Of Inter- And Intra-Genus Probiotic Combinations In The Pattern And Rate Of Short Chain Fatty Acids Formation During Fibre Fermentation, Warnakulasuriya M. A. D. B. Fernando, Steve H. Flint, K. K. D. S. Ranaweera, Arthur Bamunuarachchi, Stuart K. Johnson, Charles S. Brennan Jan 2018

The Potential Synergistic Behaviour Of Inter- And Intra-Genus Probiotic Combinations In The Pattern And Rate Of Short Chain Fatty Acids Formation During Fibre Fermentation, Warnakulasuriya M. A. D. B. Fernando, Steve H. Flint, K. K. D. S. Ranaweera, Arthur Bamunuarachchi, Stuart K. Johnson, Charles S. Brennan

ECU Publications Post 2013

This study compared the rate of short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production by different probiotic combinations of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium to determine any synergistic effects. Six different fibre fractions were fermented with nine combinations of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR), Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA), Bifidobacterium longum (BL) and Bifidobacterium breve (BB) for 0, 6, 24 and 48 h. SCFAs were quantified by gas chromatography. Inter-genus combinations of bacteria produced more SCFA, especially BB + BL + LR, compared to intra-genus that yielded the lowest SCFA production. Acetate was the most abundant, while propionate and butyrate were the most utilised. The SCFA formation was as acetate ...


Cte And The Effects Of Multiple Concussions On College Athletes, Hunter Cote Jan 2018

Cte And The Effects Of Multiple Concussions On College Athletes, Hunter Cote

Honors Theses

The purpose of this research was to determine if signs and symptoms of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) could be detected in college athletes who have suffered multiple concussions. College athletes are likely to be at an increased risk of suffering a concussion, due to the high-impact trauma that is often seen in contact sports. This question was explored through the use of a survey, cognitive test, known as the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), and the Beck Depression Inventory. The questions on the survey included necessary background information (i.e. age and sex), as well as more personal information including ...


The Climate Of Neurofeedback: Scientific Rigour And The Perils Of Ideology, Robert T. Thibault, Michael Lifshitz, Amir Raz Dec 2017

The Climate Of Neurofeedback: Scientific Rigour And The Perils Of Ideology, Robert T. Thibault, Michael Lifshitz, Amir Raz

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Over the last six decades, an in-group with ideological and financial stakes has been conducting sub-par research to develop an ostensibly effective clinical intervention: EEG-neurofeedback. More recently, however, a string of independent studies featuring increased scientific rigour and tighter experimental controls has challenged the foundation on which EEG-neurofeedback stands. Earlier this year, Brain published one of the most robust EEG-neurofeedback experiments to date (Schabus et al., 2017), which sparked a flurry of correspondence concerning the therapeutic value of neurofeedback (Fovet et al., 2017; Schabus, 2017); notably, a parallel discussion continues in Lancet Psychiatry (Micoulaud-Franchi and Fovet, 2016; Thibault and Raz ...


Analysis Of Diagnostic, Preventive, And Disease-Modifying Therapeutic Measures Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Ghazal Habib Havoutis Dec 2017

Analysis Of Diagnostic, Preventive, And Disease-Modifying Therapeutic Measures Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Ghazal Habib Havoutis

HCNSO Student Capstones

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common late-onset neurodegenerative disorder and cause of dementia, characterized by the formation of neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaque deposits. The heterogeneous nature of the disease (both genetically and environmentally) makes it difficult to prevent or cure. Without prevention, the prevalence of AD is expected to triple by 2050. However, because the diagnosis of AD is usually preceded by years of cognitive impairment, early detection may aid in reducing prevalence. Thus, there is a need for validated diagnostic measures for early and improved diagnosis and prevention. In this review, current and ongoing classifiers of ...


Pitx3null Mutant (Striatal Dopamine-Deficient) Mice Have Exaggerated Spiny Projection Neuron Responses To L-Dopa And D1 Agonism And Lack Baseline Striatonigral Spiking, Ben Sagot Dec 2017

Pitx3null Mutant (Striatal Dopamine-Deficient) Mice Have Exaggerated Spiny Projection Neuron Responses To L-Dopa And D1 Agonism And Lack Baseline Striatonigral Spiking, Ben Sagot

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

L-3,4 dihidroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) strongly stimulates motor activity in parkinsonian patients and animal models of Parkinson's disease. Severe striatal dopamine (DA) loss characterizes Parkinson's disease and its animal models. Given the canonical rate model of Parkinson's Disease pathophysiology based on differences in DA pharmacology manifesting as electrophysiological differences in striatal projection neuron (SPN) spike rates, SPNs should increase spiking during the motor response to l-DOPA. In fact, stimulating specific subsets of these neurons to spike in freely-moving wild type and parkinsonian animals causes or inhibits motor activity as predicted. However, pharmacological effects of DA deficiency, let alone ...


Modeling Post Stroke Respiratory Dysfunction, Apneas And Cognitive Decline, Anthony Patrizz Dec 2017

Modeling Post Stroke Respiratory Dysfunction, Apneas And Cognitive Decline, Anthony Patrizz

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Modeling Post Stroke Respiratory Dysfunction,

Apneas and Cognitive Decline

Anthony Patrizz, B.A.

Advisory Professor: Louise McCullough M.D., Ph.D.

Stroke is a major cause of mortality and the leading cause of long-term disability in the US. More than 60% of individuals suffering a first time stroke develop respiratory dysfunction, prolonging recovery and increasing mortality. Post-stroke cognitive decline is a major contributor to disability and nursing home placement, therefore the cognitive consequences of Stroke Induced Respiratory Dysfunction (SIRD) need to be explored if we hope to enhance functional recovery. The first step towards treatment of the negative consequences of ...


Generation Of A Patient-Derived Brain Metastasis Breast Cancer Cell Line Via Novel Orthotopic Injection Placement And Serial Mouse Transplantation To Develop Pdx Mouse Model, Amber L. Lacrosse, Denise M. Coley, Paul J. Mintz, Santhi D. Konduri, Richard A. Rovin, Amin B. Kassam Nov 2017

Generation Of A Patient-Derived Brain Metastasis Breast Cancer Cell Line Via Novel Orthotopic Injection Placement And Serial Mouse Transplantation To Develop Pdx Mouse Model, Amber L. Lacrosse, Denise M. Coley, Paul J. Mintz, Santhi D. Konduri, Richard A. Rovin, Amin B. Kassam

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Background: The incidence of brain metastasis appears to be increasing, potentially due to advanced technology that aids early diagnosis. Patient-derived xenografts (PDX) have high translational value, as these models retain key functional characteristics of the patient tumor. PDX models are useful to understand the molecular basis of tumorigenesis and to identify new treatment targets. However, generating a first-line PDX model is challenging as engraftment failure is high. Serial transplanting tumor tissue via mouse-to-mouse propagation increases engraftment rates and decreases PDX development time. Herein we report methods to generate a PDX cell line from patient-derived tumor tissue that includes the cerebral ...