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Articles 1 - 30 of 142

Full-Text Articles in Genetic Structures

Clinical Validation And Diagnostic Rate/Outcomes Of A Dual Molecular Diagnostic Assay For Myotonic Dystrophy 1., Maxime Cadieux-Dion, Isabelle Thiffault, Midhat S. Farooqi, Joseph Alaimo May 2020

Clinical Validation And Diagnostic Rate/Outcomes Of A Dual Molecular Diagnostic Assay For Myotonic Dystrophy 1., Maxime Cadieux-Dion, Isabelle Thiffault, Midhat S. Farooqi, Joseph Alaimo

Research Days

No abstract provided.


-Synuclein And Mitochondrial Dysfunction Induced Er Stress Leading To Parkinson’S Disease, Sony Hoang Jan 2020

-Synuclein And Mitochondrial Dysfunction Induced Er Stress Leading To Parkinson’S Disease, Sony Hoang

Creative Components

Parkinson’s disease is, at the neuropathological level, characterized by the death of dopaminergic neurons. PD pathogenesis is multifactorial, there are several mechanisms that malfunction leading to the death of dopaminergic neurons. The mitochondria are vital for the normal functioning of a cell, they are the primary energy generator for the cell. In addition to their energy metabolism role, mitochondria are involved in many cellular processes, such as the stress response and cell death pathways. As a result, mitochondrial impairment and the genes that are related to its functionality are linked to progressive neurodegeneration. Considering parkin, PINK1, DJ-1, and LRRK2 ...


A "Choose-Your-Own" Classroom-Based Activity That Promotes Scientific Inquiry About Rna Interference, Jeremy L. Hsu Dec 2019

A "Choose-Your-Own" Classroom-Based Activity That Promotes Scientific Inquiry About Rna Interference, Jeremy L. Hsu

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

RNA interference (RNAi), the process that results in the degradation of a target gene’s mRNA, is a fundamental part of eukaryotic gene regulation and is also an important molecular technique that allows for experimental manipulation of gene expression without altering DNA sequences. Despite the importance of RNAi, there have been relatively few lecture-based activities designed to teach about the consequences of this process and counter common misconceptions. I present here an inquiry-based activity that is centered around a “choose your own experiment” design where students generate hypotheses and critically evaluate their ideas by choosing several simulated experiments. The activity ...


Eugenics In The 21st Century, Jessica Linn Chin Sep 2019

Eugenics In The 21st Century, Jessica Linn Chin

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Eugenics is the science of enhancing the human population through the management of breeding and hereditary traits. This thesis explores the history of eugenics and shows how eugenic practices continue in the 21st century with advancements in technology and positive eugenic goals that can result in adverse effects on the human body and society. When Sir Francis Galton coined the term eugenics in 1883, he intended to improve British society with the use of positive eugenics. Galton used positive eugenics to encourage people with good mental and physical qualities to produce more children. He avoided negative eugenics, which involved ...


Altering Entry Angles In A Jump Landing Task Modifies Biomechanical Risk Factors Of Acl Injury, Shekoofe Saadat, Mitchell L. Stephenson, Jason C. Gillette Jul 2019

Altering Entry Angles In A Jump Landing Task Modifies Biomechanical Risk Factors Of Acl Injury, Shekoofe Saadat, Mitchell L. Stephenson, Jason C. Gillette

Kinesiology Presentations, Posters and Proceedings

This study investigated the effects of changing the entry-angle of a jump landing movement on ACL injury risk factors. Eight female recreational athletes performed 21 trials of a jump landing task. The direction of the first jump varied from -90° to 90° from the anterior axis in 30-degree increments. As the entry angle increased to the left, peak knee flexion and valgus angles as well as external valgus moments remained the same. In conditions where participants jumped more to their right, knee flexion angles were smaller and knee external valgus moments were greater. It can be concluded that kinematic analyses ...


Integration Of Random Forest Classifiers And Deep Convolutional Neural Networks For Classification And Biomolecular Modeling Of Cancer Driver Mutations, Steve Agajanian, Odeyemi Oluyemi, Gennady M. Verkhivker Jun 2019

Integration Of Random Forest Classifiers And Deep Convolutional Neural Networks For Classification And Biomolecular Modeling Of Cancer Driver Mutations, Steve Agajanian, Odeyemi Oluyemi, Gennady M. Verkhivker

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Development of machine learning solutions for prediction of functional and clinical significance of cancer driver genes and mutations are paramount in modern biomedical research and have gained a significant momentum in a recent decade. In this work, we integrate different machine learning approaches, including tree based methods, random forest and gradient boosted tree (GBT) classifiers along with deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) for prediction of cancer driver mutations in the genomic datasets. The feasibility of CNN in using raw nucleotide sequences for classification of cancer driver mutations was initially explored by employing label encoding, one hot encoding, and embedding to ...


Yeast Mitochondrial Protein Pet111p Binds Directly To Two Distinct Targets In Cox2 Mrna, Suggesting A Mechanism Of Translational Activation, Julia L Jones, Katharina B Hofmann, Andrew T Cowan, Dmitry Temiakov, Patrick Cramer, Michael Anikin May 2019

Yeast Mitochondrial Protein Pet111p Binds Directly To Two Distinct Targets In Cox2 Mrna, Suggesting A Mechanism Of Translational Activation, Julia L Jones, Katharina B Hofmann, Andrew T Cowan, Dmitry Temiakov, Patrick Cramer, Michael Anikin

School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

The genes in mitochondrial DNA code for essential subunits of the respiratory chain complexes. In yeast, expression of mitochondrial genes is controlled by a group of gene-specific translational activators encoded in the nucleus. These factors appear to be part of a regulatory system that enables concerted expression of the necessary genes from both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes to produce functional respiratory complexes. Many of the translational activators are believed to act on the 5'-untranslated regions of target mRNAs, but the molecular mechanisms involved in this regulation remain obscure. In this study, we used a combination of in vivo and ...


Isolating And Quantifying The Role Of Developmental Noise In Generating Phenotypic Variation, Maria Kiskowski, Tilmann Glimm, Nickolas Moreno, Tony Gamble, Ylenia Chiari Apr 2019

Isolating And Quantifying The Role Of Developmental Noise In Generating Phenotypic Variation, Maria Kiskowski, Tilmann Glimm, Nickolas Moreno, Tony Gamble, Ylenia Chiari

Mathematics

Genotypic variation, environmental variation, and their interaction may produce variation in the developmental process and cause phenotypic differences among individuals. Developmental noise, which arises during development from stochasticity in cellular and molecular processes when genotype and environment are fixed, also contributes to phenotypic variation. While evolutionary biology has long focused on teasing apart the relative contribution of genes and environment to phenotypic variation, our understanding of the role of developmental noise has lagged due to technical difficulties in directly measuring the contribution of developmental noise. The influence of developmental noise is likely underestimated in studies of phenotypic variation due to ...


Prefrontal Corticotropin-Releasing Factor (Crf) Neurons Act Locally To Modulate Frontostriatal Cognition And Circuit Function., Sofiya Hupalo, Andrea J Martin, Rebecca K Green, David M Devilbiss, Craig W Berridge Mar 2019

Prefrontal Corticotropin-Releasing Factor (Crf) Neurons Act Locally To Modulate Frontostriatal Cognition And Circuit Function., Sofiya Hupalo, Andrea J Martin, Rebecca K Green, David M Devilbiss, Craig W Berridge

School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

The PFC and extended frontostriatal circuitry support higher cognitive processes that guide goal-directed behavior. PFC-dependent cognitive dysfunction is a core feature of multiple psychiatric disorders. Unfortunately, a major limiting factor in the development of treatments for PFC cognitive dysfunction is our limited understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying PFC-dependent cognition. We recently demonstrated that activation of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors in the caudal dorsomedial PFC (dmPFC) impairs higher cognitive function, as measured in a working memory task. Currently, there remains much unknown about CRF-dependent regulation of cognition, including the source of CRF for cognition-modulating receptors and the output pathways modulated ...


Estimating Relationships Between Phenotypes And Subjects Drawn From Admixed Families., Elizabeth M. Blue, Lisa A. Brown, Matthew P. Conomos, Jennifer L. Kirk, Alejandro Q. Nato Jr., Alice B. Popejoy, Jesse Raffa, John Ranola, Ellen M. Wijsman, Timothy Thornton Mar 2019

Estimating Relationships Between Phenotypes And Subjects Drawn From Admixed Families., Elizabeth M. Blue, Lisa A. Brown, Matthew P. Conomos, Jennifer L. Kirk, Alejandro Q. Nato Jr., Alice B. Popejoy, Jesse Raffa, John Ranola, Ellen M. Wijsman, Timothy Thornton

Alejandro Nato

Background: Estimating relationships among subjects in a sample, within family structures or caused by population substructure, is complicated in admixed populations. Inaccurate allele frequencies can bias both kinship estimates and tests for association between subjects and a phenotype. We analyzed the simulated and real family data from Genetic Analysis Workshop 19, and were aware of the simulation model.

Results: We found that kinship estimation is more accurate when marker data include common variants whose frequencies are less variable across populations. Estimates of heritability and association vary with age for longitudinally measured traits. Accounting for local ancestry identified different true associations ...


Identity-By-Descent Estimation With Population- And Pedigree-Based Imputation In Admixed Family Data, Mohamad Saad, Alejandro Q. Nato Jr., Fiona L. Grimson, Steven M. Lewis, Lisa A. Brown, Elizabeth M. Blue, Timothy A. Thornton, Elizabeth A. Thompson, Ellen M. Wijsman Mar 2019

Identity-By-Descent Estimation With Population- And Pedigree-Based Imputation In Admixed Family Data, Mohamad Saad, Alejandro Q. Nato Jr., Fiona L. Grimson, Steven M. Lewis, Lisa A. Brown, Elizabeth M. Blue, Timothy A. Thornton, Elizabeth A. Thompson, Ellen M. Wijsman

Alejandro Nato

Background: In the past few years, imputation approaches have been mainly used in population-based designs of genome-wide association studies, although both family- and population-based imputation methods have been proposed. With the recent surge of family-based designs, family-based imputation has become more important. Imputation methods for both designs are based on identity-by-descent (IBD) information. Apart from imputation, the use of IBD information is also common for several types of genetic analysis, including pedigree-based linkage analysis.

Methods: We compared the performance of several family- and population-based imputation methods in large pedigrees provided by Genetic Analysis Workshop 19 (GAW19). We also evaluated the ...


Mapping Genes With Longitudinal Phenotypes Via Bayesian Posterior Probabilities, Anthony Musolf, Alejandro Q. Nato Jr., Douglas Londono, Lisheng Zhou, Tara C. Matise, Derek Gordon Mar 2019

Mapping Genes With Longitudinal Phenotypes Via Bayesian Posterior Probabilities, Anthony Musolf, Alejandro Q. Nato Jr., Douglas Londono, Lisheng Zhou, Tara C. Matise, Derek Gordon

Alejandro Nato

Most association studies focus on disease risk, with less attention paid to disease progression or severity. These phenotypes require longitudinal data. This paper presents a new method for analyzing longitudinal data to map genes in both population-based and family-based studies. Using simulated systolic blood pressure measurements obtained from Genetic Analysis Workshop 18, we cluster the phenotype data into trajectory subgroups. We then use the Bayesian posterior probability of being in the high subgroup as a quantitative trait in an association analysis with genotype data. This method maintains high power (>80%) in locating genes known to affect the simulated phenotype for ...


Supervised Dimension Reduction For Large-Scale "Omics" Data With Censored Survival Outcomes Under Possible Non-Proportional Hazards, Lauren Spirko-Burns, Karthik Devarajan Mar 2019

Supervised Dimension Reduction For Large-Scale "Omics" Data With Censored Survival Outcomes Under Possible Non-Proportional Hazards, Lauren Spirko-Burns, Karthik Devarajan

COBRA Preprint Series

The past two decades have witnessed significant advances in high-throughput ``omics" technologies such as genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, transcriptomics and radiomics. These technologies have enabled simultaneous measurement of the expression levels of tens of thousands of features from individual patient samples and have generated enormous amounts of data that require analysis and interpretation. One specific area of interest has been in studying the relationship between these features and patient outcomes, such as overall and recurrence-free survival, with the goal of developing a predictive ``omics" profile. Large-scale studies often suffer from the presence of a large fraction of censored observations and potential ...


Cyclin C: The Story Of A Non-Cycling Cyclin., Jan Ježek, Daniel G J Smethurst, David C Stieg, Z A C Kiss, Sara E Hanley, Vidyaramanan Ganesan, Kai-Ti Chang, Katrina F Cooper, Randy Strich Jan 2019

Cyclin C: The Story Of A Non-Cycling Cyclin., Jan Ježek, Daniel G J Smethurst, David C Stieg, Z A C Kiss, Sara E Hanley, Vidyaramanan Ganesan, Kai-Ti Chang, Katrina F Cooper, Randy Strich

School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

The class I cyclin family is a well-studied group of structurally conserved proteins that interact with their associated cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) to regulate different stages of cell cycle progression depending on their oscillating expression levels. However, the role of class II cyclins, which primarily act as transcription factors and whose expression remains constant throughout the cell cycle, is less well understood. As a classic example of a transcriptional cyclin, cyclin C forms a regulatory sub-complex with its partner kinase Cdk8 and two accessory subunits Med12 and Med13 called the Cdk8-dependent kinase module (CKM). The CKM reversibly associates with the multi-subunit ...


Kinetics Of Dextromethorphan-O-Demethylase Activity And Distribution Of Cyp2d In Four Commonly-Used Subcellular Fractions Of Rat Brain, Barent N. Dubois, Farideh Amirrad, Reza Mehvar Nov 2018

Kinetics Of Dextromethorphan-O-Demethylase Activity And Distribution Of Cyp2d In Four Commonly-Used Subcellular Fractions Of Rat Brain, Barent N. Dubois, Farideh Amirrad, Reza Mehvar

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The purpose of this study was to compare the enzymatic kinetics and distribution of cytochrome P450 2D (CYP2D) among different rat brain subcellular fractions.

Rat brains were used to prepare total membrane, crude mitochondrial, purified mitochondrial, and microsomal fractions, in addition to total homogenate. Michaelis–Menten kinetics of the brain CYP2D activity was estimated based on the conversion of dextromethorphan (DXM) to dextrorphan using UPLC-MS/MS. Protein levels of CYP2D and subcellular markers were determined by Western blot.

Microsomal CYP2D exhibited high affinity and low capacity, compared with the mitochondrial CYP2D that had a much lower (∼50-fold) affinity but a ...


Iron-Dependent Cleavage Of Ribosomal Rna During Oxidative Stress In The Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Jessica A Zinskie, Arnab Ghosh, Brandon M Trainor, Daniel Shedlovskiy, Dimitri G Pestov, Natalia Shcherbik Sep 2018

Iron-Dependent Cleavage Of Ribosomal Rna During Oxidative Stress In The Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Jessica A Zinskie, Arnab Ghosh, Brandon M Trainor, Daniel Shedlovskiy, Dimitri G Pestov, Natalia Shcherbik

School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Stress-induced strand breaks in rRNA have been observed in many organisms, but the mechanisms by which they originate are not well-understood. Here we show that a chemical rather than an enzymatic mechanism initiates rRNA cleavages during oxidative stress in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). We used cells lacking the mitochondrial glutaredoxin Grx5 to demonstrate that oxidant-induced cleavage formation in 25S rRNA correlates with intracellular iron levels. Sequestering free iron by chemical or genetic means decreased the extent of rRNA degradation and relieved the hypersensitivity of grx5Δ cells to the oxidants. Importantly, subjecting purified ribosomes to an in vitro iron/ascorbate reaction ...


Genetic Candidate Variants In Two Multigenerational Families With Childhood Apraxia Of Speech, Peter Beate, Ellen M. Wijsman, Alejandro Q. Nato Jr., Mark M. Matsushita, Kathy L. Chapman, Ian B. Stanaway, John Wolff, Kaori Oda, Virginia B. Gabo, Wendy H. Raskind Aug 2018

Genetic Candidate Variants In Two Multigenerational Families With Childhood Apraxia Of Speech, Peter Beate, Ellen M. Wijsman, Alejandro Q. Nato Jr., Mark M. Matsushita, Kathy L. Chapman, Ian B. Stanaway, John Wolff, Kaori Oda, Virginia B. Gabo, Wendy H. Raskind

Alejandro Nato

Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is a severe and socially debilitating form of speech sound disorder with suspected genetic involvement, but the genetic etiology is not yet well understood. Very few known or putative causal genes have been identified to date, e.g., FOXP2 and BCL11A. Building a knowledge base of the genetic etiology of CAS will make it possible to identify infants at genetic risk and motivate the development of effective very early intervention programs. We investigated the genetic etiology of CAS in two large multigenerational families with familial CAS. Complementary genomic methods included Markov chain Monte Carlo linkage ...


Multipoint Genome-Wide Linkage Scan For Nonword Repetition In A Multigenerational Family Further Supports Chromosome 13q As A Locus For Verbal Trait Disorders, D. T. Truong, L. D. Shriberg, S. D. Smith, K. L. Chapman, A. R. Scheer-Cohen, M. M.C. Demille, A. K. Adams, Alejandro Q. Nato Jr., E. M. Wijsman, J. D. Eicher, J. R. Gruen Aug 2018

Multipoint Genome-Wide Linkage Scan For Nonword Repetition In A Multigenerational Family Further Supports Chromosome 13q As A Locus For Verbal Trait Disorders, D. T. Truong, L. D. Shriberg, S. D. Smith, K. L. Chapman, A. R. Scheer-Cohen, M. M.C. Demille, A. K. Adams, Alejandro Q. Nato Jr., E. M. Wijsman, J. D. Eicher, J. R. Gruen

Alejandro Nato

Verbal trait disorders encompass a wide range of conditions and are marked by deficits in five domains that impair a person’s ability to communicate: speech, language, reading, spelling, and writing. Nonword repetition is a robust endophenotype for verbal trait disorders that is sensitive to cognitive processes critical to verbal development, including auditory processing, phonological working memory, and motor planning and programming. In the present study, we present a six-generation extended pedigree with a history of verbal trait disorders. Using genome-wide multipoint variance component linkage analysis of nonword repetition, we identified a region spanning chromosome 13q14–q21 with LOD = 4 ...


N-Terminal Domain Of Human Uracil Dna Glycosylase (Hung2) Promotes Targeting To Uracil Sites Adjacent To Ssdna-Dsdna Junctions, Brian P Weiser, Gaddiel Rodriguez, Philip A Cole, James T Stivers Aug 2018

N-Terminal Domain Of Human Uracil Dna Glycosylase (Hung2) Promotes Targeting To Uracil Sites Adjacent To Ssdna-Dsdna Junctions, Brian P Weiser, Gaddiel Rodriguez, Philip A Cole, James T Stivers

School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

The N-terminal domain (NTD) of nuclear human uracil DNA glycosylase (hUNG2) assists in targeting hUNG2 to replication forks through specific interactions with replication protein A (RPA). Here, we explored hUNG2 activity in the presence and absence of RPA using substrates with ssDNA-dsDNA junctions that mimic structural features of the replication fork and transcriptional R-loops. We find that when RPA is tightly bound to the ssDNA overhang of junction DNA substrates, base excision by hUNG2 is strongly biased toward uracils located 21 bp or less from the ssDNA-dsDNA junction. In the absence of RPA, hUNG2 still showed an 8-fold excision bias ...


Foki Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms And Metabolic Health In Pregnant Saudi Women, Maysa Alzaim Jul 2018

Foki Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms And Metabolic Health In Pregnant Saudi Women, Maysa Alzaim

Doctoral Dissertations

Lifestyles have been dynamically changing in the past few years in Saudi Arabia, and the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, and other cardiovascular diseases (CVD), is notably increasing. In fact, NCDs are affecting a growing number of people in SA, especially women of childbearing age. Vitamin D deficiency has also become pandemic and a major public health concern among the Saudi population despite the abundance of sunlight. The most vulnerable groups are pregnant women and their newborns. Previous studies have correlated low vitamin D status with a higher risk of adverse short- and ...


Evolution Of Bordetella Pertussis Genome May Play A Role In The Increased Rate Of Whooping Cough Cases In The United States, Kevin Loftus May 2018

Evolution Of Bordetella Pertussis Genome May Play A Role In The Increased Rate Of Whooping Cough Cases In The United States, Kevin Loftus

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-2019

Bordetella pertussis is the bacterium responsible for pertussis, a disease commonly referred to as whooping cough. Recently, pertussis has made a resurgence in the U.S. despite high-vaccination coverage. Possible causes of the increased number of pertussis cases include genetic evolution of B. pertussis, increased awareness of the disease, better laboratory diagnostics, and the switch from a whole-cellular (wP) vaccine to an acellular vaccine (aP) in the 1990s. Fortunately, just as B. pertussis is evolving, so is the arsenal of technologies used to understand and combat this pathogenic bacterium. Whole genome sequencing is one technology that helps researchers better understand ...


Thalamocortical Processing Of Temporal Cues In Sounds, Kasey Smith Apr 2018

Thalamocortical Processing Of Temporal Cues In Sounds, Kasey Smith

Honors Scholar Theses

The ability of the brain to extract meaningful information from complex sounds is what allows mammals to understand species-specific communication as well as important environmental cues such as the sound of water or of potential predators or prey. The auditory cortex of humans and other mammals contains multiple cortical regions that unique sensitivities to both spectral and temporal sound cues. This discourse will explore three main factors proposed to determine these distinct processing capabilities in regard to temporal sound cues; the distribution of glutamate transporters in the thalamus, the architecture of afferent pathways between the thalamus and auditory cortex, and ...


Genome-Wide Association Study Of Offspring Birth Weight In 86 577 Women Identifies Five Novel Loci And Highlights Maternal Genetic Effects That Are Independent Of Fetal Genetics, Robin N Beaumont, Nicole M Warrington, Alana Cavadino, Jessica Tyrrell, Michael Nodzenski, Momoko Horikoshi, Frank Geller, Ronny Myhre, Rebecca C Richmond, Lavinia Paternoster, Jonathan P. Bradfield, Eskil Kreiner-Møller, Ville Huikari, Sarah Metrustry, Kathryn L. Lunetta, Jodie N. Painter, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Catherine Allard, Sheila J. Barton, Ana Espinosa, Julie A. Marsh, Catherine Potter, Ge Zhang, Wei Ang, Diane J. Berry, Luigi Bouchard, Shikta Das, Early Growth Genetics (Egg) Consortium, Hakon Hakonarson, Jani Heikkinen, Øyvind Helgeland, Berthold Hocher, Albert Hofman, Hazel M Inskip, Samuel E Jones, Manolis Kogevinas, Penelope A Lind, Letizia Marullo, Sarah E Medland, Anna Murray, Jeffrey C Murray, Pål R Njølstad, Ellen A Nohr, Christoph Reichetzeder, Susan M Ring, Katherine S Ruth, Loreto Santa-Marina, Denise M Scholtens, Sylvain Sebert, Verena Sengpiel, Marcus A Tuke, Marc Vaudel, Michael N Weedon, Gonneke Willemsen, Andrew R Wood, Hanieh Yaghootkar, Louis J Muglia, Meike Bartels, Caroline L Relton, Craig E Pennell, Leda Chatzi, Xavier Estivill, John W Holloway, Dorret I Boomsma, Grant W Montgomery, Joanne M Murabito, Tim D Spector, Christine Power, Marjo-Ritta Järvelin, Hans Bisgaard, Struan F.A. Grant, Thorkild I.A. Sørensen, Vincent W Jaddoe, Bo Jacobsson, Mads Melbye, Mark I Mccarthy, Andrew T Hattersley, M Geoffery Hayes, Timothy M Frayling, Marie-France Hivert, Janine F Felix, Elina Hyppönen, William L Lowe Jr., David M Evans, Debbie A Lawlor, Bjarke Feenstra, Rachel M Freathy Feb 2018

Genome-Wide Association Study Of Offspring Birth Weight In 86 577 Women Identifies Five Novel Loci And Highlights Maternal Genetic Effects That Are Independent Of Fetal Genetics, Robin N Beaumont, Nicole M Warrington, Alana Cavadino, Jessica Tyrrell, Michael Nodzenski, Momoko Horikoshi, Frank Geller, Ronny Myhre, Rebecca C Richmond, Lavinia Paternoster, Jonathan P. Bradfield, Eskil Kreiner-Møller, Ville Huikari, Sarah Metrustry, Kathryn L. Lunetta, Jodie N. Painter, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Catherine Allard, Sheila J. Barton, Ana Espinosa, Julie A. Marsh, Catherine Potter, Ge Zhang, Wei Ang, Diane J. Berry, Luigi Bouchard, Shikta Das, Early Growth Genetics (Egg) Consortium, Hakon Hakonarson, Jani Heikkinen, Øyvind Helgeland, Berthold Hocher, Albert Hofman, Hazel M Inskip, Samuel E Jones, Manolis Kogevinas, Penelope A Lind, Letizia Marullo, Sarah E Medland, Anna Murray, Jeffrey C Murray, Pål R Njølstad, Ellen A Nohr, Christoph Reichetzeder, Susan M Ring, Katherine S Ruth, Loreto Santa-Marina, Denise M Scholtens, Sylvain Sebert, Verena Sengpiel, Marcus A Tuke, Marc Vaudel, Michael N Weedon, Gonneke Willemsen, Andrew R Wood, Hanieh Yaghootkar, Louis J Muglia, Meike Bartels, Caroline L Relton, Craig E Pennell, Leda Chatzi, Xavier Estivill, John W Holloway, Dorret I Boomsma, Grant W Montgomery, Joanne M Murabito, Tim D Spector, Christine Power, Marjo-Ritta Järvelin, Hans Bisgaard, Struan F.A. Grant, Thorkild I.A. Sørensen, Vincent W Jaddoe, Bo Jacobsson, Mads Melbye, Mark I Mccarthy, Andrew T Hattersley, M Geoffery Hayes, Timothy M Frayling, Marie-France Hivert, Janine F Felix, Elina Hyppönen, William L Lowe Jr., David M Evans, Debbie A Lawlor, Bjarke Feenstra, Rachel M Freathy

Stead Family Department of Pediatrics Publications

Genome-wide association studies of birth weight have focused on fetal genetics, whereas relatively little is known about the role of maternal genetic variation. We aimed to identify maternal genetic variants associated with birth weight that could highlight potentially relevant maternal determinants of fetal growth. We meta-analysed data on up to 8.7 million SNPs in up to 86 577 women of European descent from the Early Growth Genetics (EGG) Consortium and the UK Biobank. We used structural equation modelling (SEM) and analyses of mother-child pairs to quantify the separate maternal and fetal genetic effects. Maternal SNPs at 10 loci (MTNR1B ...


A Plasma Telomeric Cell-Free Dna Level In Unaffected Women With Brca1 Or/And Brca2 Mutations: A Pilot Study, Shatovisha Dey, Natascia Marino, Kanokwan Bishop, Paige N. Dahlgren, Aditi Shendre, Anna Maria Storniolo, Chunyan He, Hiromi Tanaka Jan 2018

A Plasma Telomeric Cell-Free Dna Level In Unaffected Women With Brca1 Or/And Brca2 Mutations: A Pilot Study, Shatovisha Dey, Natascia Marino, Kanokwan Bishop, Paige N. Dahlgren, Aditi Shendre, Anna Maria Storniolo, Chunyan He, Hiromi Tanaka

Internal Medicine Faculty Publications

Plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is a small DNA fragment circulating in the bloodstream originating from both non-tumor- and tumor-derived cells. A previous study showed that a plasma telomeric cfDNA level decreases in sporadic breast cancer patients compared to controls. Tumor suppressor gene products including BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1&2) play an important role in telomere maintenance. In this study, we hypothesized that the plasma telomeric cfDNA level is associated with the mutation status of BRCA1&2 genes. To test this hypothesis, we performed plasma telomeric cfDNA quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based assays to compare 28 women carriers of the BRCA1&2 ...


Centenarian, Peter Martin, Yousun Baek Jan 2018

Centenarian, Peter Martin, Yousun Baek

Human Development and Family Studies Publications

A centenarian is an individual who has survived to the age of 100, approximately 20 years longer than the average life expectancy. The number of centenarians in the United States has increased and will continue to increase. According to census data, 53,364 centenarians were alive in the United States in 2010, an increase of 65.8% over the last 30 years. More supercentenarians (those who have attained the age of 110 years or older) are also found around the world. Jeanne Louise Calment of France is known to have attained the oldest age ever, 122 years and 164 days ...


Novel Caries Loci In Children And Adults Implicated By Genome-Wide Analysis Of Families, Manika Govil, Nandita Mukhopadhyay, Daniel E. Weeks, Eleanor Feingold, John R. Shaffer, Steven M. Levy, Alexandre R. Vieira, Rebecca L. Slayton, Daniel W. Mcneil, Robert J. Weyant, Richard J. Crout, Mary L. Marazita Jan 2018

Novel Caries Loci In Children And Adults Implicated By Genome-Wide Analysis Of Families, Manika Govil, Nandita Mukhopadhyay, Daniel E. Weeks, Eleanor Feingold, John R. Shaffer, Steven M. Levy, Alexandre R. Vieira, Rebecca L. Slayton, Daniel W. Mcneil, Robert J. Weyant, Richard J. Crout, Mary L. Marazita

Faculty & Staff Scholarship

Background: Dental caries is a common chronic disease among children and adults alike, posing a substantial health burden. Caries is affected by multiple genetic and environmental factors, and prior studies have found that a substantial proportion of caries susceptibility is genetically inherited.

Methods: To identify such genetic factors, we conducted a genome-wide linkage scan in 464 extended families with 2616 individuals from Iowa, Pennsylvania and West Virginia for three dental caries phenotypes: (1) PRIM: dichotomized as zero versus one or more affected primary teeth, (2) QTOT1: age-adjusted quantitative caries measure for both primary and permanent dentitions including pre-cavitated lesions, and ...


Validation Of Minimally-Invasive Sample Collection Methods For Measurement Of Telomere Length, Stephanie A. Stout, Jue Lin, Natalie Hernandez, Elyssia Poggi Davis, Judith E. Carroll, Laura M. Glynn Dec 2017

Validation Of Minimally-Invasive Sample Collection Methods For Measurement Of Telomere Length, Stephanie A. Stout, Jue Lin, Natalie Hernandez, Elyssia Poggi Davis, Judith E. Carroll, Laura M. Glynn

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Objective: The discovery of telomere length (TL) as a biomarker of cellular aging and correlate of age-related disease has generated a new field of research in the biology of healthy aging. Although the most common method of sample collection for TL is venous blood draw, less-invasive DNA collection methods are becoming more widely used. However, how TL relates across tissues derived from these sample collection methods is poorly understood. The current study is the first to characterize the associations in TL across three sample collection methods: venous whole blood, finger prick dried blood spot and saliva.

Methods: TL was measured ...


Mechanism Of Transcription Anti-Termination In Human Mitochondria., Hauke S Hillen, Andrey V Parshin, Karen Agaronyan, Yaroslav I Morozov, James J Graber, Aleksandar Chernev, Kathrin Schwinghammer, Henning Urlaub, Michael Anikin, Patrick Cramer, Dmitry Temiakov Nov 2017

Mechanism Of Transcription Anti-Termination In Human Mitochondria., Hauke S Hillen, Andrey V Parshin, Karen Agaronyan, Yaroslav I Morozov, James J Graber, Aleksandar Chernev, Kathrin Schwinghammer, Henning Urlaub, Michael Anikin, Patrick Cramer, Dmitry Temiakov

School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

In human mitochondria, transcription termination events at a G-quadruplex region near the replication origin are thought to drive replication of mtDNA by generation of an RNA primer. This process is suppressed by a key regulator of mtDNA-the transcription factor TEFM. We determined the structure of an anti-termination complex in which TEFM is bound to transcribing mtRNAP. The structure reveals interactions of the dimeric pseudonuclease core of TEFM with mobile structural elements in mtRNAP and the nucleic acid components of the elongation complex (EC). Binding of TEFM to the DNA forms a downstream "sliding clamp," providing high processivity to the EC ...


Endonucleolytic Cleavage In The Expansion Segment 7 Of 25s Rrna Is An Early Marker Of Low-Level Oxidative Stress In Yeast, Daniel Shedlovskiy, Jessica A Zinskie, Ethan Gardner, Dimitri G Pestov, Natalia Shcherbik Nov 2017

Endonucleolytic Cleavage In The Expansion Segment 7 Of 25s Rrna Is An Early Marker Of Low-Level Oxidative Stress In Yeast, Daniel Shedlovskiy, Jessica A Zinskie, Ethan Gardner, Dimitri G Pestov, Natalia Shcherbik

School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

The ability to detect and respond to oxidative stress is crucial to the survival of living organisms. In cells, sensing of increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) activates many defensive mechanisms that limit or repair damage to cell components. The ROS-signaling responses necessary for cell survival under oxidative stress conditions remain incompletely understood, especially for the translational machinery. Here, we found that drug treatments or a genetic deficiency in the thioredoxin system that increase levels of endogenous hydrogen peroxide in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae promote site-specific endonucleolytic cleavage in 25S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) adjacent to the c loop of ...


Genome-Wide Top2a Dna Cleavage Is Biased Toward Translocated And Highly Transcribed Loci, Xiang Yu, James W. Davenport, Karen A. Urtishak, Marie L. Carillo, Sager J. Gosai, Christos P. Kolaris, Jo Ann W. Byl, Eric F. Rappaport, Neil Osheroff, Brian D. Gregory, Carolyn A. Felix Jul 2017

Genome-Wide Top2a Dna Cleavage Is Biased Toward Translocated And Highly Transcribed Loci, Xiang Yu, James W. Davenport, Karen A. Urtishak, Marie L. Carillo, Sager J. Gosai, Christos P. Kolaris, Jo Ann W. Byl, Eric F. Rappaport, Neil Osheroff, Brian D. Gregory, Carolyn A. Felix

Departmental Papers (Biology)

Type II topoisomerases orchestrate proper DNA topology, and they are the targets of anti-cancer drugs that cause treatment-related leukemias with balanced translocations. Here, we develop a high-throughput sequencing technology to define TOP2 cleavage sites at single-base precision, and use the technology to characterize TOP2A cleavage genome-wide in the human K562 leukemia cell line. We find that TOP2A cleavage has functionally conserved local sequence preferences, occurs in cleavage cluster regions (CCRs), and is enriched in introns and lincRNA loci. TOP2A CCRs are biased toward the distal regions of gene bodies, and TOP2 poisons cause a proximal shift in their distribution. We ...