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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

The Bromodomains Of The Mammalian Swi/Snf (Mswi/Snf) Atpases Brahma (Brm) And Brahma Related Gene 1 (Brg1) Promote Chromatin Interaction And Are Critical For Skeletal Muscle Differentiation, Anthony N. Imbalzano, Hanna Witwicka, Tapan Sharma Sep 2020

The Bromodomains Of The Mammalian Swi/Snf (Mswi/Snf) Atpases Brahma (Brm) And Brahma Related Gene 1 (Brg1) Promote Chromatin Interaction And Are Critical For Skeletal Muscle Differentiation, Anthony N. Imbalzano, Hanna Witwicka, Tapan Sharma

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Skeletal muscle differentiation induces changes in the epigenome of myoblasts as they proceed towards a myogenic phenotype. mSWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzymes coordinate with lineage-determining transcription factors and are key regulators of differentiation. Three mSWI/SNF proteins, the mutually exclusive ATPases, BRG1 and BRM, and the BAF180 protein (Polybromo1, PBRM1) contain bromodomains belonging to the same structural subfamily. Bromodomains bind to acetylated lysines on histone N-terminal tails and on other proteins. Pharmacological inhibition of mSWI/SNF bromodomain function using the selective inhibitor PFI-3 reduced differentiation, decreased expression of myogenic genes, and increased the expression of cell cycle-related genes and the ...


Multi-Dimensional Transcriptional Remodeling By Physiological Insulin In Vivo, Thiago M. Batista, Ruben Garcia-Martin, Weikang Cai, Masahiro Konishi, Brian T. O'Neill, Masaji Sakaguchi, Jong Hun Kim, Dae Young Jung, Jason K. Kim, C. Ronald Kahn Mar 2019

Multi-Dimensional Transcriptional Remodeling By Physiological Insulin In Vivo, Thiago M. Batista, Ruben Garcia-Martin, Weikang Cai, Masahiro Konishi, Brian T. O'Neill, Masaji Sakaguchi, Jong Hun Kim, Dae Young Jung, Jason K. Kim, C. Ronald Kahn

Open Access Articles

Regulation of gene expression is an important aspect of insulin action but in vivo is intertwined with changing levels of glucose and counter-regulatory hormones. Here we demonstrate that under euglycemic clamp conditions, physiological levels of insulin regulate interrelated networks of more than 1,000 transcripts in muscle and liver. These include expected pathways related to glucose and lipid utilization, mitochondrial function, and autophagy, as well as unexpected pathways, such as chromatin remodeling, mRNA splicing, and Notch signaling. These acutely regulated pathways extend beyond those dysregulated in mice with chronic insulin deficiency or insulin resistance and involve a broad network of ...


Autotaxin-Lpa Signaling Contributes To Obesity-Induced Insulin Resistance In Muscle And Impairs Mitochondrial Metabolism, Kenneth D'Souza, Carine Nzirorera, Andrew M. Cowie, Geena P. Varghese, Purvi Trivedi, Thomas O. Eichmann, Dipsikha Biswas, Mohamed Touaibia, Andrew J. Morris, Vassilis Aidinis, Daniel A. Kane, Thomas Pulinilkunnil, Petra C. Kienesberger Aug 2018

Autotaxin-Lpa Signaling Contributes To Obesity-Induced Insulin Resistance In Muscle And Impairs Mitochondrial Metabolism, Kenneth D'Souza, Carine Nzirorera, Andrew M. Cowie, Geena P. Varghese, Purvi Trivedi, Thomas O. Eichmann, Dipsikha Biswas, Mohamed Touaibia, Andrew J. Morris, Vassilis Aidinis, Daniel A. Kane, Thomas Pulinilkunnil, Petra C. Kienesberger

Internal Medicine Faculty Publications

Autotaxin (ATX) is an adipokine that generates the bioactive lipid, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). ATX-LPA signaling has been implicated in diet-induced obesity and systemic insulin resistance. However, it remains unclear whether the ATX-LPA pathway influences insulin function and energy metabolism in target tissues, particularly skeletal muscle, the major site of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. The objective of this study was to test whether the ATX-LPA pathway impacts tissue insulin signaling and mitochondrial metabolism in skeletal muscle during obesity. Male mice with heterozygous ATX deficiency (ATX+/−) were protected from obesity, systemic insulin resistance, and cardiomyocyte dysfunction following high-fat high-sucrose (HFHS) feeding. HFHS-fed ATX ...


Autophagy And Protein Turnover Responses To Exercise-Nutrient Interactions In Human Skeletal Muscle, William J. Smiles Jun 2017

Autophagy And Protein Turnover Responses To Exercise-Nutrient Interactions In Human Skeletal Muscle, William J. Smiles

Theses

Skeletal muscle is a dynamic tissue comprising the largest protein reservoir of the human body with a rate of turnover of ~1-2% per day. Protein turnover is regulated by the coordination of intracellular systems regulating protein synthesis and breakdown that converge in a spatiotemporal manner on lysosomal organelles responsible for integrating a variety of contractile and nutritional stimuli. One such system, autophagy, which literally means to ‘self-eat,’ involves capturing of cellular material for deliver to, and disintegration by, the lysosome. The autophagic ‘cargo’ is subsequently recycled for use in synthetic reactions and thus maintenance of protein balance. As a dynamic ...