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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Teaching Foundational Aquatic Skills To Children In Open Water Environments, Chris Button, Angela J. Button, Anne-Marie Jackson, Jim D. Cotter, Brian Maraj Jun 2020

Teaching Foundational Aquatic Skills To Children In Open Water Environments, Chris Button, Angela J. Button, Anne-Marie Jackson, Jim D. Cotter, Brian Maraj

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Learning to swim in a swimming pool might not prepare water competence sufficiently for different aquatic environments. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of teaching children water safety knowledge and skills in open water environments (i.e., harbor, river, and surf). The aquatic knowledge and skills of 98 children (7-11 years old) were tested in a swimming pool before, immediately after, and three months after receiving a three-day intensive education program. At pre-test, typically fewer than 50% of children achieved a high level of water safety competence. After the program, competency in each of the six ...


The Ocean Lifeguard Intervention Continuum: A Cognitive Aid For Surf Lifeguard Education, William A. Koon, Ryan M. Gates, Shane Scoggins, Paul Andrus, Jack A. Futoran May 2020

The Ocean Lifeguard Intervention Continuum: A Cognitive Aid For Surf Lifeguard Education, William A. Koon, Ryan M. Gates, Shane Scoggins, Paul Andrus, Jack A. Futoran

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Ocean lifeguards are constantly engaged in beach risk analysis, required to efficiently evaluate a variety of environmental and other factors quickly in order to triage and prioritize who needs help. Teaching these skills is a challenge for introductory training programs. We sought to improve new lifeguards’ understanding of the interaction of various risk components in the beach environment and aid decision-making related to when a lifeguard should intervene in a situation. We developed a two-part cognitive aid for introductory ocean lifeguard education depicting individual and interacting elements of a beach goer’s risk of drowning or injury and the process ...


Training Evaluation For Introductory Ocean Lifeguard Instruction: A Practical Example From California, William A. Koon, Ryan M. Gates, Jack Futoran Apr 2020

Training Evaluation For Introductory Ocean Lifeguard Instruction: A Practical Example From California, William A. Koon, Ryan M. Gates, Jack Futoran

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Ocean lifeguards have several responsibilities that require precise training. California State Parks is one of the largest providers of open water lifeguard services in the United States, and trains approximately 200 new lifeguards per year. As part of our lifeguard training section’s quality improvement efforts, we conducted a training needs assessment to help determine how well our introductory ocean lifeguard training curriculum prepared lifeguards to perform job related tasks upon successful completion of the training program. We surveyed both first year and seasoned lead lifeguards on operational needs, training gaps, and specific subject areas. We identified several areas where ...


The Physiology Of Social-Emotional Learning: Integrating Biomarkers Of Self-Regulation Into The Assessment And Implementation Of Programs, Martin E. Blank Oct 2019

The Physiology Of Social-Emotional Learning: Integrating Biomarkers Of Self-Regulation Into The Assessment And Implementation Of Programs, Martin E. Blank

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

In the last two decades, formalized social-emotional learning (SEL) programs in schools have proliferated in response to a staggering increase in mental, social, and emotional challenges for youth. SEL programs differ in their theoretical foundations, though there are commonalities among them. Self-regulation (SR) surfaces as an important pillar. Researchers have relied mostly on self-reporting and teacher questionnaires to measure the effectiveness of these programs to improve SR and other aspects of youth well-being, without explicitly considering the physiological effects of these interventions on the biomarkers of youth. By addressing this gap, program researchers, developers, and educators can reach their stated ...


Stem Opportunities - High School 2019, Huey-Xian Kelly Wong, Madeleine Rauhauser, Annie Morgan Nelson Aug 2019

Stem Opportunities - High School 2019, Huey-Xian Kelly Wong, Madeleine Rauhauser, Annie Morgan Nelson

Honors Expanded Learning Clubs

This publication details the lesson plan for the “Opportunities in STEM” club for the summer of 2019. This club began out of a desire to educate high school students about the opportunities and careers available in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields. Often, students feel that the prospect of entering a STEM field is daunting and out of their grasp. What it means to be a scientist is often unclear, and students never consider opportunities out of the fear of the unknown, particularly when science is associated with complexity and difficulty. This lesson plan integrates experiments with a wealth ...


Predicting Educational Attainment Based On Forensic Psychiatric Patients' Age At First Hospitalization, Malinda Marie Lawson Jan 2019

Predicting Educational Attainment Based On Forensic Psychiatric Patients' Age At First Hospitalization, Malinda Marie Lawson

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Education during recovery could impact a forensic psychiatric patient's community reintegration; however, individual education goals for patients can be difficult due to the lack of available parameters. The purpose of this study was to test whether age at first hospitalization is predictive of educational attainment among forensic psychiatric patients and to determine which ages of first hospitalization best predict 8 levels of educational attainment. Cattell's intelligence theory served as the theoretical framework for this study because mental illness requiring early hospitalization may affect education and learning. This quantitative, nonexperimental study involved a predictive design with data from the ...


Ebola: Africa, James Goodwin May 2018

Ebola: Africa, James Goodwin

Global Issues in Public Health

In this paper, I talk about the Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever. Ebola is a rare virus that spreads through the immune system and can be fatal. Ebola is a pathogen from Africa, specifically West Africa. There has been almost 32,000 cases since 1976. Symptoms include, Fever, Headache, Muscle pain, Fatigue, Diarrhea, Vomiting, Stomach pain, and Bleeding/Bruising. Transmission happens during close or direct contact. World Health Organization has been making efforts to handle outbreaks such as the outbreak in 2014. World Health Organization mobilized and set up relief efforts. Education is a key idea for my thoughts on how we ...


Balancing Efficacy And Effectiveness With Philosophy, History, And Theory-Building In Occupational Therapy Education Research, Barbara Hooper, Jyothi Gupta, Andrea Bilics, Steven D. Taff Jan 2018

Balancing Efficacy And Effectiveness With Philosophy, History, And Theory-Building In Occupational Therapy Education Research, Barbara Hooper, Jyothi Gupta, Andrea Bilics, Steven D. Taff

The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy

The preferred focus for education research in occupational therapy increasingly rests on studies that investigate efficacy and effectiveness in the teaching-learning context. While important, the almost exclusive promotion of outcomes-focused studies can come at the expense of other forms of inquiry, including philosophy, history, and theory-building. To fully inform education and enhance practice, outcomes-focused research needs the conceptual foundation provided by philosophical, historical, and theory-building studies. In this paper, the authors suggest that the research enterprise in occupational therapy education is in its infancy and, therefore, quite susceptible to shortcuts that head straight to outcomes. To address this issue, the ...


The Arts In The United States: Can The Arts Become A Public Good?, Alexander Van Der Veen Jan 2018

The Arts In The United States: Can The Arts Become A Public Good?, Alexander Van Der Veen

Senior Projects Fall 2018

Senior Project submitted to The Division of Social Studies of Bard College.


Rem Initiative To Develop Educational Strategies For Inductions Of Labor, Chandra Evette Jones-Worthing Jan 2018

Rem Initiative To Develop Educational Strategies For Inductions Of Labor, Chandra Evette Jones-Worthing

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Inductions of labor that occur prior to 39 weeks' gestation can pose increased risks for the mother-baby dyad. In the target setting, there is a gap in knowledge among the pregnant women about options for delivery, hospital policies and procedures, and what to expect in the labor and delivery experience. Because of this gap in knowledge, the pregnant patient is unable to make informed decisions regarding her needs, expectations, and care. This lack of knowledge has resulted in a 40-50% rate of inductions of labor at the target site, which is well above the 2014 national average of 25%. In ...


Improving Health Literacy Assessments In Pediatrics, Kristina Michelle Wright Jan 2018

Improving Health Literacy Assessments In Pediatrics, Kristina Michelle Wright

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Low health literacy (LHL)--when patients do not understand their treatment or medications--has been linked to poor healthcare outcomes. Nurses need to know how to assess health literacy (HL) and teach pediatric patients and their families to help ensure that patients and family members can understand and follow health education messages. Evidence-based HL tools were obtained from a literature search and used to create a nursing staff education program on pediatric patient HL assessment and education. The project answered the practice-focused question that asked whether a staff education program on HL assessment and management would improve nursing knowledge of HL ...


Are Audience Response Systems Worth The Cost? Comparing Question-Driven Teaching Strategies For Emergency Medical Technician Education, Lauren M. Maloney, James P. Dilger, Paul A. Werfel, Linda M. Cimino Dec 2017

Are Audience Response Systems Worth The Cost? Comparing Question-Driven Teaching Strategies For Emergency Medical Technician Education, Lauren M. Maloney, James P. Dilger, Paul A. Werfel, Linda M. Cimino

Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice

Purpose: As Emergency Medical Technician educators develop curricula to meet new national educational standards, effective teaching strategies validated for course content and unique student demographics are warranted. Three methods for answering multiple choice questions presented during lectures were compared: a) Audience Response System (ARS, clickers), b) hand-raising-with-eyes-closed (no-cost option), and c) passive response (no-cost option). The purpose was to determine if using the ARS resulted in improved exam scores. Method: 113 Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) students participated in this cross-over, block randomized, controlled trial, which was incorporated into their Cardiac Emergencies and Pulmonary Emergencies course lectures. Students took pretests, immediate ...


Effects Of A Hospital-Wide Physician Communication Skills Training Workshop On Self-Efficacy, Attitudes And Behavior, Minna Saslaw, Dana R. Sirota, Deborah P. Jones, Marcy Rosenbaum, Steven Kaplan Nov 2017

Effects Of A Hospital-Wide Physician Communication Skills Training Workshop On Self-Efficacy, Attitudes And Behavior, Minna Saslaw, Dana R. Sirota, Deborah P. Jones, Marcy Rosenbaum, Steven Kaplan

Patient Experience Journal

Hospital systems interested in improving patient experience and physician engagement may look to physician communication skills training (CST) as a means of improving both. This study examines a 7.5-hour, multi-specialty, hospital-wide physician CST workshop in a large academic hospital system and its effects on participants’ self-efficacy, attitudes, and behaviors related to communicating with patients. Data was gathered from October 2014 through June 2016 through a web-based questionnaire sent to participants 6-weeks post-workshop which focused on skills taught in the course, attitudes toward communication training, and provider behaviors when communicating with patients. Along with demographic questions, a ten question retrospective ...


Role Emerging Placements In Undergraduate Occupational Therapy Training: A Case Study, Martin Fitzgerald, Abigail Kate Smith, Nazman Rehman, Michelle Taylor Oct 2017

Role Emerging Placements In Undergraduate Occupational Therapy Training: A Case Study, Martin Fitzgerald, Abigail Kate Smith, Nazman Rehman, Michelle Taylor

Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice

Purpose: Role-emerging placements in occupational therapy training are contributing to professional and workforce development because of their strong occupational focus and placement of students in emerging practice. This manuscript explores how one role-emerging placement challenged and developed student theoretical and clinical skills, presented new ways of working at the recipient site, and enhanced service delivery. Methods: The background to role-emerging placements in occupational therapy is explored through the use of a case study which reflects on and analyses how the assessment and treatment of occupation enhanced service delivery at a local, non-traditional site. Eight students in England developed and ran ...


Analysis Of Graded Gross Anatomy Dissections And Demonstrations As A Supplemental Educational Tool, Stephanie Leanne Cummings May 2017

Analysis Of Graded Gross Anatomy Dissections And Demonstrations As A Supplemental Educational Tool, Stephanie Leanne Cummings

Theses & Dissertations

Teaching and assessment modalities for human anatomy curriculums vary between schools. The University of Nebraska Medical Center utilizes an integrated gross anatomy lab curriculum including hands-on dissection, lecture, and 3-D models. The GCBA 909 course, Human Gross Anatomy Lab, just recently incorporated graded dissections and demonstrations into their master of medical anatomy (MMA) curriculum. Students were required to complete and demonstrate eight additional dissections compared to physician assistant (PA), physical therapy (PT) students. Upon completion of these dissections, students were assessed based on the quality of their dissections and were also required to demonstrate the cadaveric dissections to anatomy faculty ...


Are Students Competent? Methods Of Assessing Bachelor Of Social Work Student Competence, Amber L. Bailey-Residori Apr 2017

Are Students Competent? Methods Of Assessing Bachelor Of Social Work Student Competence, Amber L. Bailey-Residori

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Author Abstract:

Higher educational institutions must demonstrate that their Bachelor of Social Work (BSW) students are competent prior to graduation. There are conflicting studies regarding the reliability of field instructor, faculty, and students’ self-assessment. The purpose of this study was to examine the consistency of how field instructors, faculty, and students assessed social work students' competence across three academic years. This quantitative research study examined historical data from one Midwestern University where students, faculty, and field instructors rated students’ competence in the last semester of their senior year using the Council on Social Work Education’s (CSWE) 13 core competencies ...


Awareness And Use Of Electronic Health Records In Entry-Level Occupational Therapy And Occupational Therapy Assistant Curricula, Louis F. Dmytryk, Tina M. Deangelis Mar 2017

Awareness And Use Of Electronic Health Records In Entry-Level Occupational Therapy And Occupational Therapy Assistant Curricula, Louis F. Dmytryk, Tina M. Deangelis

The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy

The Accreditation Council for Occupational Therapy Education (ACOTE) requires programs to instruct entry-level occupational therapy (OT) and occupational therapy assistant (OTA) students in technology that may include electronic documentation systems, distance communication, virtual environments, and telehealth (standard B1.8). At this time, there are no publications describing if and how electronic health record (EHR) instruction is implemented in entry-level OT and OTA programs. The purpose of this study is to investigate awareness and use of EHRs in entry-level OT and OTA curricula. Respondents from 76 nationally accredited entry-level programs (two OT doctoral, 24 OT masters, two OT combined bachelors/masters ...


Educating To The Collaborative Care Model, Darcy N. Duncan Jan 2017

Educating To The Collaborative Care Model, Darcy N. Duncan

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The problem addressed in this project was the lack of experienced RNs needed in the acute care setting to deliver safe, quality patient care, while effectively managing resources and providing job satisfaction. The purpose of this project was to determine if an education module designed to educate charge and rover nurses on the Collaborative Care Model (CCM) would enhance staff nurses' abilities to provide safe, high quality care to patients, and improve staff nurse retention on one unit in an acute care setting. The theoretical frameworks utilized to guide the education module included: Lewin's theory of planned change, Benner ...


Staying Current In Your Field Of Interest: Tips For Aspiring Students As Researchers, Dor D. Abelman Dec 2016

Staying Current In Your Field Of Interest: Tips For Aspiring Students As Researchers, Dor D. Abelman

Health Studies Publications

Undergraduate students are becoming increasingly involved in research. They already posses the skills required to make meaningful contributions to their field of interest. Some important components of their success relates to a student's ability to stay up to date in the research of their field, and to learn practical skills pertaining to the publishing process. This article hopes to help with this through presenting easy-to-follow summary tables and short paragraphs on tips for success. Topics include staying up to date in a practical way, getting involved, reaching out for help, and publication. For students, by students, this report is ...


'I Wish Someone Watched Me Interview:' Medical Student Insight Into Observation And Feedback As A Method For Teaching Communication Skills During The Clinical Years, Heather Schopper, Marcy Rosenbaum, Rick Axelson Nov 2016

'I Wish Someone Watched Me Interview:' Medical Student Insight Into Observation And Feedback As A Method For Teaching Communication Skills During The Clinical Years, Heather Schopper, Marcy Rosenbaum, Rick Axelson

Department of Family Medicine Publications

BACKGROUND: Experts suggest observation and feedback is a useful tool for teaching and evaluating medical student communication skills during the clinical years. Failing to do this effectively risks contributing to deterioration of students' communication skills during the very educational period in which they are most important. While educators have been queried about their thoughts on this issue, little is known about what this process is like for learners and if they feel they get educational value from being observed. This study explored student perspectives regarding their experiences with clinical observation and feedback on communication skills.

METHODS: A total of 125 ...


Enhancing Entry-Level Physiotherapy Student Learning In Interpreting Radiology – An Action Research Project, Courtney R. Clark, Andrea Bialocerkowski Oct 2016

Enhancing Entry-Level Physiotherapy Student Learning In Interpreting Radiology – An Action Research Project, Courtney R. Clark, Andrea Bialocerkowski

Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice

Purpose: In Australia, the ability to interpret orthopaedic x-rays is an entry-level skill for physiotherapists. Yet there is a paucity of evidence in the literature which details effective learning and teaching methods to optimise confidence and competence in x-ray interpretation. The aims of this study were to describe the content contained in an orthopaedic radiology module within an Australian 2-year graduate entry Master of Physiotherapy degree; approaches to learning and teaching used in this module; student satisfaction associated with this module over a 2-year period. Method: The University’s framework for quality assurance, which is based on the Plan-Implement-Review-Improve underpinned ...


The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating For Use In Vocational Rehabilitation, Paul Tyler Hickerson Aug 2016

The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating For Use In Vocational Rehabilitation, Paul Tyler Hickerson

Theses and Dissertations

The prevalence of substance use among adolescents warrants considerable concern since it often has detrimental effects on an individual’s physical and mental health, and correlates with worsened Social, physical, and employment outcomes. Research shows that adolescents with disabilities are especially susceptible to the development of substance use disorders. To address this concern and to ensure accurate rehabilitation service planning, effective screening for substance use risk is necessary. Unfortunately, the most common screening instruments for adolescent substance use rely on information obtained solely from self-report. This type of data, although useful, is also susceptible to inaccuracies due to such factors ...


Web-Based Media Literacy To Prevent Tobacco Use Among High School Students, Jane S. Phelps-Tschang, Elizabeth Miller, Kristen R. Rice, Brian A. Primack Jan 2016

Web-Based Media Literacy To Prevent Tobacco Use Among High School Students, Jane S. Phelps-Tschang, Elizabeth Miller, Kristen R. Rice, Brian A. Primack

Journal of Media Literacy Education

Facilitator-led smoking media literacy (SML) programs have improved media literacy and reduced intention to smoke. However, these programs face limitations including high costs and barriers to standardization. We examined the efficacy of a Web-based media literacy program in improving smoking media literacy skills among adolescents. Sixty-six 9th grade students participated in a Web-based SML tobacco education program based on health behavior theory. Pre- and post-test assessments demonstrated statistically significant changes in the primary outcome of total SML as well as each of the individual SML items. However, there were inconsistent changes in other theory-based outcomes including attitudes and normative beliefs.


Best Practices For Controlling Tuberculosis - Training In Correctional Facilities: A Mixed Methods Evaluation, Ellen Reynolds Murray Jan 2016

Best Practices For Controlling Tuberculosis - Training In Correctional Facilities: A Mixed Methods Evaluation, Ellen Reynolds Murray

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

According to the literature, identifying and treating tuberculosis (TB) in correctional facilities have been problematic for the inmates and also for the communities into which inmates are released. The importance of training those who can identify this disease early into incarceration is vital to halt the transmission. Although some training has been done by public health authorities for corrections, there is little to no evaluation of such training. The aim of this mixed methods retrospective study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a training to control TB in correctional facilities. The Southeastern National Tuberculosis Center (SNTC) conducted 12 trainings between ...


Beyond The Basics: Providing Continuing Education Workshops For Preceptors; A Commentary, Sara Nottingham, Michelle A. Cleary, Jason Bennett Jul 2015

Beyond The Basics: Providing Continuing Education Workshops For Preceptors; A Commentary, Sara Nottingham, Michelle A. Cleary, Jason Bennett

Education Faculty Articles and Research

Current Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education (CAATE) standards allow education programs to determine the most appropriate format and content of preceptor workshops. Clinicians, including preceptors, have noted challenges trying to keep their knowledge updated with current standards of care and educational competencies. Clinicians and preceptors in our program and the literature have described challenges trying to keep knowledge current with changing standards of care, research evidence, and athletic training educational competencies. Preceptors also value applicable and easily accessible continuing education opportunities. In order to address these challenges and provide accessible continuing education opportunities for preceptors, the faculty in ...


The Effect Of Worked Out Modeling In Nursing Simulation, Jayne Josephsen May 2015

The Effect Of Worked Out Modeling In Nursing Simulation, Jayne Josephsen

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

This study provides a research framework that incorporates cognitive load theory (CLT) into simulation design and implementation, as well as providing a pilot tool to measure cognitive load specific to nursing simulation. The pedagogy of CLT is based in an understanding of cognitive architecture, which includes working memory, long-term memory, various types of cognitive load, and schema development. A quasi-experimental quantitative design was used with a convenience sample of senior baccalaureate nursing students who participated in simulation as part of their coursework. The treatment group received a worked out modeling intervention, designed upon the CLT instructional intervention of the worked ...


Assessing Vocabulary Of Children: Investigating The Evaluation And Instruction Of Basic Concepts, Rebecca Elizabeth Smith May 2015

Assessing Vocabulary Of Children: Investigating The Evaluation And Instruction Of Basic Concepts, Rebecca Elizabeth Smith

Theses and Dissertations

Vocabulary knowledge of preschool children is a key factor in predicting literacy success in elementary school (Hammer, Farkas, & Maczuga, 2010). However, few deliberate attempts to teach basic concept vocabulary have been studied (Bowers & Schwarz, 2013; Wilson, 2004). The purpose of this research is to determine if large group explicit instruction with interactive activities of specific basic concept vocabulary will increase preschool children's understanding of basic concept terms when measured by a standardized basic concept assessment. This research will also assess the validity of a basic concept-curriculum based measure (BC-CBM) as an efficient tool to monitor a child's understanding of basic concept vocabulary over time. There were 30 preschool children (M age=53.8 months) who ...


Do Zoos And Aquariums Promote Attitude Change In Visitors? A Critical Evaluation Of The American Zoo And Aquarium Study, Lori Marino, Scott O. Lilienfeld, Randy Malamud, Nathan Nobis, Ron Broglio Apr 2015

Do Zoos And Aquariums Promote Attitude Change In Visitors? A Critical Evaluation Of The American Zoo And Aquarium Study, Lori Marino, Scott O. Lilienfeld, Randy Malamud, Nathan Nobis, Ron Broglio

Lori Marino, PhD

Modern-day zoos and aquariums market themselves as places of education and conservation. A recent study conducted by the American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA) (Falk et al., 2007) is being widely heralded as the first direct evidence that visits to zoos and aquariums produce long-term positive effects on people’s attitudes toward other animals. In this paper, we address whether this conclusion is warranted by analyzing the study’s methodological soundness. We conclude that Falk et al. (2007) contains at least six major threats to methodological validity that undermine the authors’ conclusions. There remains no compelling evidence for the claim ...


Do Zoos And Aquariums Promote Attitude Change In Visitors? A Critical Evaluation Of The American Zoo And Aquarium Study, Lori Marino, Scott O. Lilienfeld, Randy Malamud, Nathan Nobis, Ron Broglio Mar 2015

Do Zoos And Aquariums Promote Attitude Change In Visitors? A Critical Evaluation Of The American Zoo And Aquarium Study, Lori Marino, Scott O. Lilienfeld, Randy Malamud, Nathan Nobis, Ron Broglio

Nathan M. Nobis, PhD

Modern-day zoos and aquariums market themselves as places of education and conservation. A recent study conducted by the American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA) (Falk et al., 2007) is being widely heralded as the first direct evidence that visits to zoos and aquariums produce long-term positive effects on people’s attitudes toward other animals. In this paper, we address whether this conclusion is warranted by analyzing the study’s methodological soundness. We conclude that Falk et al. (2007) contains at least six major threats to methodological validity that undermine the authors’ conclusions. There remains no compelling evidence for the claim ...


Seeking Success: Program Improvement Plans As A Strategy To Increase Pass Rates On The National Licensure Exam, Virginia Sue Wangerin Jan 2015

Seeking Success: Program Improvement Plans As A Strategy To Increase Pass Rates On The National Licensure Exam, Virginia Sue Wangerin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Nursing is a practice profession that has long been regarded with esteem and trust by the public. The education of nurses is a process that has evolved over the last 150 years from apprenticeship-based training to an academic program grounded in the arts and sciences. Nurses must successfully learn a rigorous academic curriculum, demonstrate application of knowledge and skills in the clinical setting, and pass a national licensure exam to practice their profession. Boards of nursing are legislated the responsibility of protecting the public by assuring that nurses who practice in their state are safe, competent, and ethical practitioners. This ...