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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Observational Measurement Of Attachment In Toddlers With Disruptive Behavior Using The Strange Situation Procedure And Attachment Q-Set, Corey C. Lieneman Jan 2021

Observational Measurement Of Attachment In Toddlers With Disruptive Behavior Using The Strange Situation Procedure And Attachment Q-Set, Corey C. Lieneman

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Child-caregiver attachment is an important factor in healthy child development and is often targeted by early intervention programs. To assess the efficacy of these interventions, attachment must be accurately measured across the toddler years in populations referred for treatment of externalizing behavior problems. The Strange Situation Procedure (SSP; Ainsworth et al., 1978) and Attachment Q-Set (AQS; Waters, 1987) are empirically-validated measures of child-caregiver attachment, each with unique strengths and weaknesses. Previous research has reached mixed conclusions on relations between the observer-report AQS and SSP, depending on sample and study characteristics, and a review of the literature did not produce any ...


Exploring The Impact Of Insecure Attachment Styles In Couple Adjustment Through The Lens Of Cluster B Pathology, Laura Bonnemort Jul 2020

Exploring The Impact Of Insecure Attachment Styles In Couple Adjustment Through The Lens Of Cluster B Pathology, Laura Bonnemort

Dissertations

The current body of research literature appears to lack adequate studies focused on individuals who possess an insecure attachment, potential cluster B personality pathology, and who are engaged in couple discord. The following clinical research project explored how insecure attachments impact the trajectory of both cluster B pathology and adult couples’ relationship discord. Studies reviewed included adults diagnosed with mood disorders, personality pathology, and those engaged in couples therapy due to dissatisfaction and discord. Developing an insecure attachment in childhood appears to place adults at risk for higher rates of personality pathology and risky romantic relationships fraught with discord. Evidence-based ...


Fathers' Experiences With Their Premature Infants Or Unhealthy Neonates, Lisa Cummings Nov 2019

Fathers' Experiences With Their Premature Infants Or Unhealthy Neonates, Lisa Cummings

Dissertations

Author: Lisa Cummings PhD RN

Fathers’ Experiences with Their Premature Infants or Unhealthy Neonates

Purpose and Background/Significance: Fifteen million babies worldwide are born prematurely each year, impacting a multitude of fathers. The importance of an early close father-infant relationship has been identified as central for the development of the child. Fathers influence on a child’s emotional and cognitive development and their physical well-being and health. Many times, the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) is the initial contact environment between a father and his premature infant. Studies have shown that the NICU can be a stressful environment for parents ...


Visual Art Therapy, Attachment, And The Adoption Constellation: A Literature Review, Caitlin Woodstock May 2019

Visual Art Therapy, Attachment, And The Adoption Constellation: A Literature Review, Caitlin Woodstock

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

The following literary review is intended to synthesize existing data pertaining to art therapy and its application within adoption informed therapy. The adoption experience will be explored, and the basic tenants of trauma and attachment will be outlined. Current modes of trauma-informed therapy will be introduced and their compatibility with art therapy will be explored. The author will introduce a variety of art therapy interventions as presented through an assortment of theoretical lenses. These applications will be subdivided into their application with individual constellation members, families, groups, and will extend to immigrants and displaced individuals likely to enter into the ...


Risk For Maternal Infant Bonding Reduction In High Risk Deliveries And The Recovery Phases, Amanda M. Karimi, Corie Vanarsdale Msn May 2019

Risk For Maternal Infant Bonding Reduction In High Risk Deliveries And The Recovery Phases, Amanda M. Karimi, Corie Vanarsdale Msn

Nursing Undergraduate Work

Bonding is one of the first developmental tasks for infants and is imperative for successful growth. The bonding phase begins in the periods immediately following birth. Complications that inhibit bonding postpartum may delay this process. Breastfeeding barriers, maternal substance abuse, and poor maternal mental health are among the contributing factors to delayed bonding. The purpose of this research study was to answer the question, “What best practiced nursing interventions assist mothers to promote bonding with the newborn after high risk deliveries?” This research review included a sample size of 10 articles which provided a variety of interventions to promote bonding ...


Sometimes A Crucible: Mindfulness Art Therapy Experientials In A Dbt-Oriented Residential Partial Hospitalization Program For Dually-Diagnosed Adults, Joan Mancuso Apr 2019

Sometimes A Crucible: Mindfulness Art Therapy Experientials In A Dbt-Oriented Residential Partial Hospitalization Program For Dually-Diagnosed Adults, Joan Mancuso

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

My thesis concerns observations made while incorporating mindfulness-oriented art therapy experientials into hour-long, didactic DBT skills-training groups at a residential partial program serving dually-diagnosed adults. For the thesis, I adapted two exercises from Clark’s DBT-Informed Art Therapy. My research method was arts-based grounded theory, referencing Corbin’s grounded theory and Wadeson and Allen’s thinking on the use of art for professional processing. My data took the form of a journal, word clouds, poems, and small artworks I iteratively created to deepen my learnings. My experientials highlighted areas of confusion regarding mindfulness that I attempted to address. Through the ...


What’S Your Story? Assessing Childhood Maltreatment Using The Thematic Apperception Test In An Adult Inpatient Population., Thachell C. Tanis Sep 2018

What’S Your Story? Assessing Childhood Maltreatment Using The Thematic Apperception Test In An Adult Inpatient Population., Thachell C. Tanis

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

There is a robust evidence that childhood maltreatment contributes to the development of adult psychopathology (Brown & Anderson, 1991; Johnson, Cohen, Brown, Smailes, & Bernstein 1999; Johnson, Smailes, Cohen, Brown, & Bernstein, 2000; Ruggiero et al., 1999). However, the identification of childhood maltreatment remains a methodological problem that results in inconsistencies in the reported incidence and psychological sequelae of maltreatment. A primary method for identifying histories of childhood maltreatment among adults is retrospective self-report measures which are susceptible to multiple biases (Briere, 1992; Cicchetti & Rizley, 1981; Shaffer, Huston, & Egeland, 2008). This present study suggests that childhood maltreatment can be assessed using a projective measurement called the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) as ...


Effect Of Skin-To-Skin Contact On Parents' Sleep Quality, Mood, Parent-Infant Interaction And Cortisol Concentrations In Neonatal Care Units: Study Protocol Of A Randomised Controlled Trial, Charlotte Angelhoff, Ylva Thernström Blomqvist, Charlotte Sahlén Helmer, Emma Olsson, Shefaly Shorey, Anneli Frostell, Evalotte Mörelius Aug 2018

Effect Of Skin-To-Skin Contact On Parents' Sleep Quality, Mood, Parent-Infant Interaction And Cortisol Concentrations In Neonatal Care Units: Study Protocol Of A Randomised Controlled Trial, Charlotte Angelhoff, Ylva Thernström Blomqvist, Charlotte Sahlén Helmer, Emma Olsson, Shefaly Shorey, Anneli Frostell, Evalotte Mörelius

ECU Publications Post 2013

INTRODUCTION: Separation after preterm birth is a major stressor for infants and parents. Skin-to-skin contact (SSC) is a method of care suitable to use in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) to minimise separation between parents and infants. Less separation leads to increased possibilities for parent-infant interaction, provided that the parents' sleep quality is satisfactory. We aimed to evaluate the effect of continuous SSC on sleep quality and mood in parents of preterm infants borndischarge.

METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A randomised intervention study with two arms-intervention versus standard care. Data will be collected from 50 families. Eligible families will be randomly ...


Examining The Effect Of Parental Attachment, Emotional Maturity, Spiritual Maturity, And View Of Suffering On Sense Of Coherence, Alyssa M. Gavulic Jun 2018

Examining The Effect Of Parental Attachment, Emotional Maturity, Spiritual Maturity, And View Of Suffering On Sense Of Coherence, Alyssa M. Gavulic

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

Suffering and loss are inevitable parts of the human experience. Nonetheless, the ability to find meaning in various forms of suffering has been shown to impact individual responses to diverse experiences of pain, distress, and loss. Despite the ubiquitous nature of human suffering, perceptions of the cause, purpose, impact, and outcome of experiences of suffering can vary greatly among individuals. Consequently, this inquiry-oriented, descriptive dissertation research examines how emotional maturity, spiritual maturity, and views of suffering mediate the relationship between parental attachment and sense of coherence. This study employs a correlational research design that examines the scores on a variety ...


Self-Applied Touch To Promote Self-Regulation In Adolescent Males With Problem Sexual Behaviors: Development Of A Method, Nicole Krzeminski May 2018

Self-Applied Touch To Promote Self-Regulation In Adolescent Males With Problem Sexual Behaviors: Development Of A Method, Nicole Krzeminski

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Adolescents who have experienced problematic attachment relationships in infancy often have difficulty with self-regulation and therefore may cope using destructive means such as harmful sexual behavior. Self-regulation is the ability to calm the mind and body and manage emotions appropriately. Dance/movement therapy (DMT) may be a beneficial treatment tool for adolescents with problem sexual behaviors (PSB) to teach self-regulation techniques that may have not been developed due to early traumatic experiences. Self-applied touch is a DMT intervention that may assist individuals with self-regulation that was missed during critical developmental periods. This Capstone project implemented a self-applied touch warm-up with ...


How Can The Attunement Needs Of Children With Disorganized Attachment Styles Be Supported Through Expressive Arts Therapy?, Jayne Paley May 2018

How Can The Attunement Needs Of Children With Disorganized Attachment Styles Be Supported Through Expressive Arts Therapy?, Jayne Paley

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Treatment strategies for school age children with disorganized attachment are not well established. This population exhibits a range of difficulties in social relationships and self-regulation. Additionally, children with disorganized attachment generally rely on defense mechanisms and present with other comorbid conditions, adding to the complexity of treatment. This paper explores current research and theories about disorganized attachment and then, on the basis of evidence provided throughout this paper, proposes the concept of attunement needs in relation to working with children with disorganized attachment. The attunement needs described in this paper, derived from the literature, include safety/security, control/power, consistency ...


Therapist, Know Thyself: Self-Reflective Practice Through Autoethnography, Nikki Divirgilio Jan 2018

Therapist, Know Thyself: Self-Reflective Practice Through Autoethnography, Nikki Divirgilio

Social Work Master’s Clinical Research Papers

Typically, in a social work graduate program, students are taught human behavioral theories, methods and interventions, ethical practices, policy and cultural competence among other areas. The primary tool used by social workers are themselves. Therefore, it is important the social worker is competent. The academic curriculum ensures that professionally, they are. However, how much does a social work graduate program ensure the social worker is competent personally? Theorists and current literature express the importance of a therapist possessing selfawareness— that essentially to know oneself is to know others. In this autoethnography, I aimed to enlighten the importance of self-awareness by ...


Trauma-Informed Care For Youth In Foster Care, Jordyn Hubin Jan 2018

Trauma-Informed Care For Youth In Foster Care, Jordyn Hubin

Social Work Master’s Clinical Research Papers

Annually, in Minnesota, thousands of children enter the foster care system. The objective of this study was to use a trauma-informed lens to explore supports that are available to children, biological family members, and foster providers. Questions regarding the strengths and limitations of particular supports were also explored. This study used a qualitative design with five semi-structured interviews of mental health professionals. The main themes that were identified were: trauma-informed care, positives and challenges of formal and informal supports, involvement of biological and foster parents, differences in service to a child in foster care, and building a better system. The ...


Hardiness, Adult Attachment Style, And Burnout In Nurses, Kristy A. Negri Jan 2018

Hardiness, Adult Attachment Style, And Burnout In Nurses, Kristy A. Negri

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The current nursing shortage is a pressing crisis that is expected to worsen over time. A key reason nurses leave nursing is burnout. The purpose of this study was to investigate personality hardiness and adult attachment style in relation to the development of burnout in licensed professional nurses. Hardiness theory and attachment theory indicated that each provided protection against burnout, but no research has been conducted to examine both factors in relation to burnout in nurses. Research Question 1 asked if there was a relationship between attachment style and total hardiness score; Research Question 2 asked if there was a ...


Older Adult Men’S Emotional Bonds With Their Dogs, Ranell L. Mueller Jan 2018

Older Adult Men’S Emotional Bonds With Their Dogs, Ranell L. Mueller

Theses and Dissertations--Gerontology

Knowledge of the deeper meanings of attachment to companion animals is limited, particularly in terms of older adults. This study employed a modified grounded theory method, a phenomenological lens and a life course perspective to gather and analyze data garnered from individual interviews and panel discussions in order to investigate the multiple dimensions of older adult men’s relationships with their companion animal dogs. Individual audio-recorded in-depth interviews and repeated panel discussions with a sub-group of the participants, convened as a panel over a three-month period, explored behavioral and emotional manifestations of attachment and the emotional bond to their companion ...


Emotional Experience During Couple Support Interactions: The Role Of Attachment Anxiety And Avoidance, E. Megan Lachmar Dec 2017

Emotional Experience During Couple Support Interactions: The Role Of Attachment Anxiety And Avoidance, E. Megan Lachmar

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Marriage and Family Therapy clinic at Utah State University conducted a study called the Relationship Checkup in which couple data was collected in an initial 2-hour session and feedback was provided for them in a follow-up 1-hour session. This checkup included completing self-report surveys, having an in-person interview, as well as couple interactions. The current study was carried out within the context of this broader relationship checkup, focusing on the couple support interactions, in which partners discussed a personal issue they would like to change about themselves.

Although a substantial amount of attention has been given to the role ...


Associations Of Hiv Risk Behaviors Among Older Latinas And Their Adult Daughters, Gira J. Ravelo Nov 2017

Associations Of Hiv Risk Behaviors Among Older Latinas And Their Adult Daughters, Gira J. Ravelo

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation examines the associations between adult Latina daughters’ HIV risk behaviors and that of their older Latina mothers’ HIV risk behaviors. The central hypothesis of the study is that adult Latina daughters’ influence their older mothers’ behaviors and that such behaviors interact with the level of their attachment.

Older Latinas are a vulnerable population that face cultural risk factors, health care provider bias, and engage in low rates of HIV testing. The primary mode of HIV infection for Latinas is through heterosexual contact. Yet, traditional gender norms such as marianismo belief place pressure on Latina women to be submissive ...


Women’S Sexual Fantasies In Context: The Emotional Content Of Sexual Fantasies, Psychological And Interpersonal Distress, And Satisfaction In Romantic Relationships, Sarah Constantine Sep 2017

Women’S Sexual Fantasies In Context: The Emotional Content Of Sexual Fantasies, Psychological And Interpersonal Distress, And Satisfaction In Romantic Relationships, Sarah Constantine

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Background: Psychoanalytic thinkers propose that aspects of an individual’s sexual fantasies are related to her psychological and interpersonal functioning. The present study aims to elucidate the significance of sexual fantasies with respect to women’s emotional and interpersonal lives. The study evaluated a model, which hypothesized that internal representations of self and others (e.g. attachment security, maturity of object relations) along with psychological and interpersonal factors would predict both the emotional content (guilt, fear, affection) of written sexual fantasy narratives, and overall romantic satisfaction in heterosexual women. Methods: Five hundred and thirty four women completed self-report questionnaires online ...


Determination Of The Effects That A Previously Uncharacterized Secreted Product From Klebsiella Pneumoniae Has On Citrobacter Freundii And Enterobacter Cloacae Biofilms, Cody M. Hastings May 2017

Determination Of The Effects That A Previously Uncharacterized Secreted Product From Klebsiella Pneumoniae Has On Citrobacter Freundii And Enterobacter Cloacae Biofilms, Cody M. Hastings

Undergraduate Honors Theses

More so than ever, Multiple Drug Resistant (MDR) bacteria are on the rise due to overuse of antibiotics along with natural selection for adaptations that enhance drug-resistant properties. One particular bacterial family, Enterobacteriaceae, has been problematic, exhibiting several bacterial members that have developed a precipitous resistance to modern antibiotics and are also primary causative agents of nosocomial, or hospital acquired, infections. Citrobacter freundii (CF) and Enterobacter cloacae (ECL) are two species of the Enterobacteriaceae family causing significant medical concern due to their role in producing numerous opportunistic infections such as bacteremia, lower respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and endocarditis ...


Attachment As Affirmation To Inhibit Health Risk Information Avoidance, Elizabeth C. Mccrary Apr 2017

Attachment As Affirmation To Inhibit Health Risk Information Avoidance, Elizabeth C. Mccrary

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Previous research on information avoidance has revealed that people choose to avoid negative health information, but that this effect is interrupted by self-affirmation (Howell & Shepperd, 2013). The current study aimed to contribute to the field’s understanding of the conditions under which self-affirmation reduces information avoidance by using a unique affirmation: secure attachment figures. I hypothesized that activating a secure attachment would serve as the affirmation necessary for participants to choose to view their risk information for a fictitious enzyme deficiency. However, when given a choice, participants in both the experimental and control conditions chose to view this information. At ...


Transgenerational Transmission Of Caregiver Behaviors Promoting Secure Attachments In American Indian Communities, Bryan Ellingson Jan 2017

Transgenerational Transmission Of Caregiver Behaviors Promoting Secure Attachments In American Indian Communities, Bryan Ellingson

Social Work Master’s Clinical Research Papers

The purpose of this study is to describe American Indian caregiver behaviors that promote secure attachments and keep tribal practices alive through transgenerational transmission. This qualitative study included interviews with three American Indian participants to describe culturally specific caregiver behaviors promoting secure attachments. The urban Indian participants in this study’s purposive sample participated in interviews that yielded four salient themes and three sub-themes. The themes included: connection to culture, importance of extended family, significance of elders, and respect as a value. The three sub-themes under connection to culture included: language, ceremonies and practices, and re-visiting the reservation. The results ...


Incorporating Caregivers Into Adolescent Psychotherapy: A Systematic Review, Kelsey Taylor Jan 2017

Incorporating Caregivers Into Adolescent Psychotherapy: A Systematic Review, Kelsey Taylor

Social Work Master’s Clinical Research Papers

This systematic review explores the therapeutic factors that influence how effectively caregivers are incorporated into various therapy models with their adolescents. The five therapeutic models investigated in this study are: individual therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, dialectical behavioral therapy, ecologically-based family systems therapy, and attachment-based family therapy. Using the University of St. Thomas “Summons” search engine, 14 articles were selected for use in this study. The three predominant themes that emerged in the findings were a need for strong boundaries between clinicians and caregivers, sound clinical judgement in terms of when it is appropriate for caregivers to be involved, and the ...


The Implications Of Attachment Orientation And Personality Pathology For Detecting Deception, Madeline Luedke Jan 2017

The Implications Of Attachment Orientation And Personality Pathology For Detecting Deception, Madeline Luedke

Global Tides

This study investigated the implications of attachment orientations and personality dimensions for accuracy in detecting deception from emotionally-based statements. Thirty individuals (M age = 25.33, range = 18-52) completed a survey that included the Personality Inventory for DSM-V-Brief Form and the Relationship Styles Questionnaire to measure the individual differences in question. To measure deceit, 7 mental health counselors volunteered to participate in a video-recorded mock interview concerning their current romantic partner—3 individuals provided false responses, and the remaining 4 offered true answers. The audio-visual vignettes were imbedded in the survey and subjects viewed each, then responded a question asking if ...


Attune With Baby: An Innovative Attunement Program For Parents And Families With Integrated Evaluation, Sara Beth Lohre Jan 2017

Attune With Baby: An Innovative Attunement Program For Parents And Families With Integrated Evaluation, Sara Beth Lohre

Dissertations & Theses

Infants speak in their own language; sounds, screeches, cries, and howls that help them to communicate their caregiving needs. Unaware, parents may develop a checklist of caregiving approaches to the baby. The infant tells the adult directly what they need, and waits for the parent to respond. Infant talk may change from soft and quiet to loud and aggressive; coos and cries become crying and screams as the infant’s caregiver—communicating the intensity of emotion, urgency of their request, or their frustration with varied and sometimes inadequate, failed, or missing caregiving patterns the infant has no choice but to ...


The Potential Effect Of Breastfeeding On Maternal Senstivity During The First Year Of Life, Sawsan Hammad Hammad Dec 2016

The Potential Effect Of Breastfeeding On Maternal Senstivity During The First Year Of Life, Sawsan Hammad Hammad

Theses and Dissertations

Background: Poor maternal sensitivity leads to insecure infant attachment, which has been associated with negative consequences in cognitive and mental health in school-aged children that continue into adulthood. Maternal sensitivity is defined as the mother’s ability to recognize and respond to her infant’s cues consistently and appropriately; it is indicative of the interactions between mothers and their infants, which is characterized by mutual and concurrent interchanges, often referred to as the “mother-infant dance” If the mother is able to accurately recognize her infant’s cues, then she can provide an appropriate and secure foundation to encourage the infant ...


A Mixed Methods Analysis Of The Relationship Between Attachment, Post-Traumatic Stress, And Post-Traumatic Growth Among United States Service Members, Chauncy T. Brinton May 2016

A Mixed Methods Analysis Of The Relationship Between Attachment, Post-Traumatic Stress, And Post-Traumatic Growth Among United States Service Members, Chauncy T. Brinton

Dissertations, 2014-2019

The impact of secure military relationships on US service members’ response to trauma during military service was examined in this mixed methods study. Veterans with and without combat exposure evidence a high rate of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the military has tried to institute resilience-based programs in anticipation of the psychological challenges experienced by soldiers. At the same time, research has shown that some service members report positive outcomes associated with military service including the phenomena of post-traumatic growth (PTG). The constructs from attachment theory (safe haven and exploration) have begun to be the focus of research with service ...


Intimin Likely Used To Cause Disease During Competition With Commensal Escherichia Coli, Dominique J. Richburg Apr 2016

Intimin Likely Used To Cause Disease During Competition With Commensal Escherichia Coli, Dominique J. Richburg

Senior Honors Theses

The intimin gene in the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement (LEE) island of pathogenicity is the primary attachment mechanism in Citrobacter rodentium. Intimin is a bacterial adhesin (protein) that attaches to obtain a niche/nutrient and thrive within the intestine. Intimin was deleted within C. rodentium to study colonization and pathogenesis in the murine intestine. Additionally, C. rodentium is an attaching/effacing pathogen, and a useful murine model in understanding Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infection in humans. E. coli and C. rodentium cause gastroenteritis in humans and mice, respectively. C. rodentium is a murine pathogen commonly used to model gastrointestinal disease ...


The Relationship Between The Poor Parenting In Childhood And Current Adult Symptoms Of Anxiety And Depression: Attachment As A Mediator, Kayla Lynn Burningham Apr 2016

The Relationship Between The Poor Parenting In Childhood And Current Adult Symptoms Of Anxiety And Depression: Attachment As A Mediator, Kayla Lynn Burningham

Theses and Dissertations

Both anxiety and depression have been shown to be a result of early negative attachment experiences. The quality of parenting is one variable that affects attachment security, therefore correlating with the development of anxiety and depression in adulthood. The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating effect of attachment in the relationship between mother and father's parenting in childhood and adult symptoms of anxiety and depression. The study focused on 680 married or remarried heterosexual couples that took the RELATE questionnaire between 2011 and 2013. Results indicated insecure attachment mediates the relationship between poor parenting and symptoms ...


Swipe, Right? Young People And Online Dating In The Digital Age, Kyla C. Flug Jan 2016

Swipe, Right? Young People And Online Dating In The Digital Age, Kyla C. Flug

Social Work Master’s Clinical Research Papers

As many as 1 in 10 Americans utilize an online dating service. A sizable percentage of these users are young adults between the ages of 18 and 24, Because this social phenomenon is relatively new, little research has been conducted to examine the impact that online dating has on youth culture. The purpose of this study is to explore young people's expectations and realities of online dating and mobile applications, whether they deem their experiences as positive or negative, to examine young people's experiences of deception and discrimination by others and to gauge the extent that their relational ...


Parental Alcoholism On Attachment Within Romantic Relationships, Brooke Hendrickson Jan 2016

Parental Alcoholism On Attachment Within Romantic Relationships, Brooke Hendrickson

Social Work Master’s Clinical Research Papers

Alcoholism is a problem in the United States, many children around the country grow up with one or more caregivers who is alcohol dependent. This study uses a systematic literature review to examine the romantic relationships of adult children of alcoholics (ACOA) with specific attention to attachment. The studies included in this review came from academic peer reviewed journals, which are empirically based, and include qualitative and quantitative studies. The studies had to include discussion on attachment in a population over 18 years of age. Studies that were excluded were those that focused on specific ethnic groups, gender, or therapy ...