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Apoptosis

2012

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Articles 1 - 30 of 49

Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Acute Hypersensitivity Of Pluripotent Testicular Cancer-Derived Embryonal Carcinoma To Low-Dose 5-Aza Deoxycytidine Is Associated With Global Dna Damage-Associated P53 Activation, Anti-Pluripotency And Dna Demethylation, Bijesh K. Biswal, Maroun J. Beyrouthy, Mary P. Hever-Jardine, David Armstrong, Craig R. Tomlinson, Brock C. Christensen, Carmen J. Marsit, Michael J. Spinella Dec 2012

Acute Hypersensitivity Of Pluripotent Testicular Cancer-Derived Embryonal Carcinoma To Low-Dose 5-Aza Deoxycytidine Is Associated With Global Dna Damage-Associated P53 Activation, Anti-Pluripotency And Dna Demethylation, Bijesh K. Biswal, Maroun J. Beyrouthy, Mary P. Hever-Jardine, David Armstrong, Craig R. Tomlinson, Brock C. Christensen, Carmen J. Marsit, Michael J. Spinella

Open Dartmouth: Published works by Dartmouth faculty

Human embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells are the stem cells of nonseminoma testicular germ cells tumors (TGCTs) and share remarkable similarities to human embryonic stem (ES) cells. In prior work we found that EC cells are hypersensitive to low nanomolar doses of 5-aza deoxycytidine (5-aza) and that this hypersensitivity partially depended on unusually high levels of the DNA methyltransferase, DNMT3B. We show here that low-dose 5-aza treatment results in DNA damage and induction of p53 in NT2/D1 cells. In addition, low-dose 5-aza results in global and gene specific promoter DNA hypomethylation. Low- dose 5-aza induces a p53 transcriptional signature distinct ...


Dsarm/Sarm1 Is Required For Activation Of An Injury-Induced Axon Death Pathway, Jeannette Osterloh, Jing Yang, Timothy Rooney, A. Fox, Robert Adalbert, Eric Powell, Amy Sheehan, Michelle Avery, Rachel Hackett, Mary Logan, Jennifer Macdonald, Jennifer Ziegenfuss, Stefan Milde, Ying-Ju Hou, Carl Nathan, Aihao Ding, Robert Brown, Laura Comforti, Michael Coleman, Marc Tessier-Lavigne, Stephan Zuchner, Marc Freeman Dec 2012

Dsarm/Sarm1 Is Required For Activation Of An Injury-Induced Axon Death Pathway, Jeannette Osterloh, Jing Yang, Timothy Rooney, A. Fox, Robert Adalbert, Eric Powell, Amy Sheehan, Michelle Avery, Rachel Hackett, Mary Logan, Jennifer Macdonald, Jennifer Ziegenfuss, Stefan Milde, Ying-Ju Hou, Carl Nathan, Aihao Ding, Robert Brown, Laura Comforti, Michael Coleman, Marc Tessier-Lavigne, Stephan Zuchner, Marc Freeman

Dr Robert Brown

Axonal and synaptic degeneration is a hallmark of peripheral neuropathy, brain injury, and neurodegenerative disease. Axonal degeneration has been proposed to be mediated by an active autodestruction program, akin to apoptotic cell death; however, loss-of-function mutations capable of potently blocking axon self-destruction have not been described. Here, we show that loss of the Drosophila Toll receptor adaptor dSarm (sterile alpha/Armadillo/Toll-Interleukin receptor homology domain protein) cell-autonomously suppresses Wallerian degeneration for weeks after axotomy. Severed mouse Sarm1 null axons exhibit remarkable long-term survival both in vivo and in vitro, indicating that Sarm1 prodegenerative signaling is conserved in mammals. Our results ...


Anti-Apoptotic Mcl-1 Localizes To The Mitochondrial Matrix And Couples Mitochondrial Fusion To Respiration, Rhonda Perciavalle Dec 2012

Anti-Apoptotic Mcl-1 Localizes To The Mitochondrial Matrix And Couples Mitochondrial Fusion To Respiration, Rhonda Perciavalle

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

MCL-1, an anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family member that is essential for the survival of multiple cell lineages, is also among the most highly amplified genes in cancer. Although MCL-1 is known to oppose cell death, precisely how it functions to promote survival of normal and malignant cells is poorly understood. Here, I report that different forms of MCL-1 reside in distinct mitochondrial locations and exhibit separable functions. On the outer mitochondrial membrane, a MCL-1 isoform acts like other anti-apoptotic BCL-2 molecules to antagonize apoptosis, whereas an amino-terminally truncated isoform of MCL-1 that is imported into the mitochondrial matrix is necessary to ...


Controlling Viral Immuno-Inflammatory Lesions By Modulating Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Signaling, Tamara Veiga-Parga, A Suryawanshi, B T. Rouse Nov 2012

Controlling Viral Immuno-Inflammatory Lesions By Modulating Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Signaling, Tamara Veiga-Parga, A Suryawanshi, B T. Rouse

Tamara Veiga-Parga

Ocular herpes simplex virus infection can cause a blinding CD4+ T cell orchestrated immuno-inflammatory lesion in the cornea called Stromal Keratitis (SK). A key to controlling the severity of SK lesions is to suppress the activity of T cells that orchestrate lesions and enhance the representation of regulatory cells that inhibit effector cell function. In this report we show that a single administration of TCDD (2, 3, 7, 8- Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin), a non-physiological ligand for the AhR receptor, was an effective means of reducing the severity of SK lesions. It acted by causing apoptosis of Foxp3- CD4+ T cells but had ...


Necrostatin-1 Analogues: Critical Issues On The Specificity, Activity And In Vivo Use In Experimental Disease Models., N Takahashi, L Duprez, S Grootjans, A Cauwels, W Nerinckx, J B Duhadaway, V Goossens, R Roelandt, F Van Hauwermeiren, C Libert, W Declercq, N Callewaert, G C Prendergast, A Degterev, J Yuan, P Vandenabeele Nov 2012

Necrostatin-1 Analogues: Critical Issues On The Specificity, Activity And In Vivo Use In Experimental Disease Models., N Takahashi, L Duprez, S Grootjans, A Cauwels, W Nerinckx, J B Duhadaway, V Goossens, R Roelandt, F Van Hauwermeiren, C Libert, W Declercq, N Callewaert, G C Prendergast, A Degterev, J Yuan, P Vandenabeele

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) is widely used in disease models to examine the contribution of receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIPK) 1 in cell death and inflammation. We studied three Nec-1 analogs: Nec-1, the active inhibitor of RIPK1, Nec-1 inactive (Nec-1i), its inactive variant, and Nec-1 stable (Nec-1s), its more stable variant. We report that Nec-1 is identical to methyl-thiohydantoin-tryptophan, an inhibitor of the potent immunomodulatory enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Both Nec-1 and Nec-1i inhibited human IDO, but Nec-1s did not, as predicted by molecular modeling. Therefore, Nec-1s is a more specific RIPK1 inhibitor lacking the IDO-targeting effect. Next, although Nec-1i was ∼100 ...


Transfusion Of Cxcr4-Primed Endothelial Progenitor Cells Reduces Cerebral Ischemic Damage And Promotes Repair In Db/Db Diabetic Mice, Ji Chen, Jianying Chen, Shuzhen Chen, Cheng Zhang, Liangqing Zhang, Xiang Xiao, Avik Das, Yuhui Zhao, Bin Yuan, Mariana Morris, Bin Zhao, Yanfang Chen Nov 2012

Transfusion Of Cxcr4-Primed Endothelial Progenitor Cells Reduces Cerebral Ischemic Damage And Promotes Repair In Db/Db Diabetic Mice, Ji Chen, Jianying Chen, Shuzhen Chen, Cheng Zhang, Liangqing Zhang, Xiang Xiao, Avik Das, Yuhui Zhao, Bin Yuan, Mariana Morris, Bin Zhao, Yanfang Chen

Pharmacology and Toxicology Faculty Publications

This study investigated the role of stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α)/CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) axis in brain and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), and explored the efficacy of CXCR4 primed EPCs in treating ischemic stroke in diabetes. The db/db diabetic and db/+ mice were used in this study. Levels of plasma SDF-1α and circulating CD34+CXCR4+ cells were measured. Brain SDF-1α and CXCR4 expression were quantified at basal and after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). In in vitro study, EPCs were transfected with adenovirus carrying null (Ad-null) or CXCR4 (Ad-CXCR4) followed with high glucose (HG) treatment for 4 days ...


Mitochondrial Antiviral Signaling Protein Defect Links Impaired Antiviral Response And Liver Injury In Steatohepatitis In Mice, Timea Csak, Angela Dolganiuc, Karen Kodys, Bharath Nath, Jan Petrasek, Shashi Bala, Dora Lippai, Gyongyi Szabo Oct 2012

Mitochondrial Antiviral Signaling Protein Defect Links Impaired Antiviral Response And Liver Injury In Steatohepatitis In Mice, Timea Csak, Angela Dolganiuc, Karen Kodys, Bharath Nath, Jan Petrasek, Shashi Bala, Dora Lippai, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

Mitochondrial dysfunction is a pathogenic feature of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH complicates hepatotropic viral disease. The mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) is the adapter of helicase receptors involved in sensing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). We hypothesized that impaired MAVS function may contribute to insufficient antiviral response and liver damage in steatohepatitis. We identified reduced MAVS protein levels and increased MAVS association with the proteasome subunit alpha type 7 (PSMA7) in livers from mice given a methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet. Decreased association of MAVS with mitochondria and increased cytosolic cytochrome c indicated mitochondrial damage in steatohepatitis. In vivo administration of the synthetic dsRNA ...


Fatty Acid And Endotoxin Activate Inflammasomes In Mouse Hepatocytes That Release Danger Signals To Stimulate Immune Cells, Timea Csak, Michal Ganz, Justin Pespisa, Karen Kodys, Angela Dolganiuc, Gyongyi Szabo Oct 2012

Fatty Acid And Endotoxin Activate Inflammasomes In Mouse Hepatocytes That Release Danger Signals To Stimulate Immune Cells, Timea Csak, Michal Ganz, Justin Pespisa, Karen Kodys, Angela Dolganiuc, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

The pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and inflammasome activation involves sequential hits. The inflammasome, which cleaves pro-interleukin-1beta (pro-IL-1beta) into secreted IL-1beta, is induced by endogenous and exogenous danger signals. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a toll-like receptor 4 ligand, plays a role in NASH and also activates the inflammasome. In this study, we hypothesized that the inflammasome is activated in NASH by multiple hits involving endogenous and exogenous danger signals. Using mouse models of methionine choline-deficient (MCD) diet-induced NASH and high-fat diet-induced NASH, we found up-regulation of the inflammasome [including NACHT, LRR, and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NALP3; cryopyrin), apoptosis-associated speck-like CARD-domain containing ...


Effects Of Canola And Corn Oil Mimetic On Jurkat Cells, Gabriela Ion, Kayla Fazio, Juliana A. Akinsete, W. Elaine Hardman Oct 2012

Effects Of Canola And Corn Oil Mimetic On Jurkat Cells, Gabriela Ion, Kayla Fazio, Juliana A. Akinsete, W. Elaine Hardman

Gabriela Ion

BACKGROUND: The Western diet is high in omega-6 fatty acids and low in omega-3 fatty acids. Canola oil contains a healthier omega 3 to omega 6 ratio than corn oil. Jurkat T leukemia cells were treated with free fatty acids mixtures in ratios mimicking that found in commercially available canola oil (7% α-linolenic, 30% linoleic, 54% oleic) or corn oil (59% linoleic, 24% oleic) to determine the cell survival or cell death and changes in expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and receptors following oil treatment. METHODS: Fatty acid uptake was assessed by gas chromatography. Cell survival and cell death were ...


Consumption Of High Ω-3 Fatty Acid Diet Suppressed Prostate Tumorigenesis In C3(1) Tag Mice, Juliana Akinsete, Gabriela Ion, Theodore Witte, W. Hardman Oct 2012

Consumption Of High Ω-3 Fatty Acid Diet Suppressed Prostate Tumorigenesis In C3(1) Tag Mice, Juliana Akinsete, Gabriela Ion, Theodore Witte, W. Hardman

Gabriela Ion

Prostate cancer incidence and mortality are high in the Western world and high ω-6/ω-3 PUFA in the Western diet may be a contributing factor. We investigated whether changing from a diet that approximates ω-6 fat content of the Western diet to a high ω-3 fat diet at adulthood might reduce prostate cancer risk. Female SV 129 mice that had consumed a high ω-6 diet containing corn oil for 2 weeks were bred with homozygous C3(1)Tag transgenic male mice. All male offspring were weaned to the corn oil diet (CO) until postpuberty when half of the male offspring ...


Thr 163 Phosphorylation Causes Mcl-1 Stabilization When Degradation Is Independent Of The Adjacent Gsk3-Targeted Phosphodegron, Promoting Drug Resistance In Cancer, Shanna K. Nifoussi, Julie A. Vrana, Aaron M. Domina, Alfredo De Biasio, Jingang Gui, Mark A. Gregory, Stephen R. Hann, Ruth W. Craig Oct 2012

Thr 163 Phosphorylation Causes Mcl-1 Stabilization When Degradation Is Independent Of The Adjacent Gsk3-Targeted Phosphodegron, Promoting Drug Resistance In Cancer, Shanna K. Nifoussi, Julie A. Vrana, Aaron M. Domina, Alfredo De Biasio, Jingang Gui, Mark A. Gregory, Stephen R. Hann, Ruth W. Craig

Open Dartmouth: Published works by Dartmouth faculty

The antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family member Mcl-1 is a PEST protein (containing sequences enriched in proline, glutamic acid, serine, and threonine) and is subject to rapid degradation via multiple pathways. Impaired degradation leading to the maintenance of Mcl-1 expression is an important determinant of drug resistance in cancer. Phosphorylation at Thr 163 in the PEST region, stimulated by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol acetic acid (TPA)-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), is associated with Mcl-1 stabilization in BL41-3 Burkitt lymphoma cells. This contrasts with the observation that Thr 163 phosphorylation in normal fibroblasts primes glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3)-induced phosphorylation at Ser 159 ...


Latexin Is Down-Regulated In Hematopoietic Malignancies And Restoration Of Expression Inhibits Lymphoma Growth, Yi Liu, Dianna Howard, Kyle Rector, Carol Swiderski, Jason Brandon, Lawrence Schook, Jayesh Mehta, J. Scott Bryson, Subbarao Bondada, Ying Liang Sep 2012

Latexin Is Down-Regulated In Hematopoietic Malignancies And Restoration Of Expression Inhibits Lymphoma Growth, Yi Liu, Dianna Howard, Kyle Rector, Carol Swiderski, Jason Brandon, Lawrence Schook, Jayesh Mehta, J. Scott Bryson, Subbarao Bondada, Ying Liang

Internal Medicine Faculty Publications

Latexin is a negative regulator of hematopoietic stem cell number in mice. Its dysregulated expression in other tumors led us to hypothesize that latexin may have tumor suppressor properties in hematological malignancies. We found that latexin was down-regulated in a variety of leukemia and lymphoma cell lines as well as in CD34+ cells from the blood and marrow of patients with these malignancies. 5-aza-2'-deoxycytodine treatment and bisulfite sequencing revealed hypermethylation of latexin promoter in tumor cells. Retrovirus-mediated latexin overexpression in A20 mouse lymphoma cells inhibited their in vitro growth by 16 fold and in vivo tumor volume by 2 ...


Immunologic Effects Of Gliotoxin In Rats: Mechanisms For Prevention Of Autoimmune Diabetes Mellitus, Honggang Liu, Susan H. Jackman, Henry Driscoll, Bryan Larsen Sep 2012

Immunologic Effects Of Gliotoxin In Rats: Mechanisms For Prevention Of Autoimmune Diabetes Mellitus, Honggang Liu, Susan H. Jackman, Henry Driscoll, Bryan Larsen

Susan H. Jackman

Various fungal products, such as gliotoxin (GT), have immunomodulating activity, a fact exploited previously by our group for prevention of autoimmune diabetes mellitus in BB/Wor rats. To understand better the immunologic effects in GT-treated rats, splenocytes from 65-day-old prediabetic diabetes-prone rats were phenotypically characterized after chronic treatment with GT. A parallel study examined the direct effects of GT on splenocyte preparations incubated with the mycotoxin. In vitro treatment of splenocytes with GT revealed relative decreases in CD4+ and increases in CD8+ T-cell subsets, whereas in vivo treatment with GT did not result in detectable alterations in relative CD4+ and ...


Immunologic Effects Of Gliotoxin In Rats: Mechanisms For Prevention Of Autoimmune Diabetes Mellitus, Honggang Liu, Susan H. Jackman, Henry Driscoll, Bryan Larsen Sep 2012

Immunologic Effects Of Gliotoxin In Rats: Mechanisms For Prevention Of Autoimmune Diabetes Mellitus, Honggang Liu, Susan H. Jackman, Henry Driscoll, Bryan Larsen

Henry Driscoll

Various fungal products, such as gliotoxin (GT), have immunomodulating activity, a fact exploited previously by our group for prevention of autoimmune diabetes mellitus in BB/Wor rats. To understand better the immunologic effects in GT-treated rats, splenocytes from 65-day-old prediabetic diabetes-prone rats were phenotypically characterized after chronic treatment with GT. A parallel study examined the direct effects of GT on splenocyte preparations incubated with the mycotoxin. In vitro treatment of splenocytes with GT revealed relative decreases in CD4+ and increases in CD8+ T-cell subsets, whereas in vivo treatment with GT did not result in detectable alterations in relative CD4+ and ...


Effects Of Canola And Corn Oil Mimetic On Jurkat Cells, Gabriela Ion, Kayla Fazio, Juliana A. Akinsete, W. Elaine Hardman Aug 2012

Effects Of Canola And Corn Oil Mimetic On Jurkat Cells, Gabriela Ion, Kayla Fazio, Juliana A. Akinsete, W. Elaine Hardman

Elaine Hardman Ph.D.

BACKGROUND: The Western diet is high in omega-6 fatty acids and low in omega-3 fatty acids. Canola oil contains a healthier omega 3 to omega 6 ratio than corn oil. Jurkat T leukemia cells were treated with free fatty acids mixtures in ratios mimicking that found in commercially available canola oil (7% α-linolenic, 30% linoleic, 54% oleic) or corn oil (59% linoleic, 24% oleic) to determine the cell survival or cell death and changes in expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and receptors following oil treatment. METHODS: Fatty acid uptake was assessed by gas chromatography. Cell survival and cell death were ...


Consumption Of High Ω-3 Fatty Acid Diet Suppressed Prostate Tumorigenesis In C3(1) Tag Mice, Juliana A. Akinsete, Gabriela Ion, Theodore R. Witte, W. Elaine Hardman Aug 2012

Consumption Of High Ω-3 Fatty Acid Diet Suppressed Prostate Tumorigenesis In C3(1) Tag Mice, Juliana A. Akinsete, Gabriela Ion, Theodore R. Witte, W. Elaine Hardman

Elaine Hardman Ph.D.

Prostate cancer incidence and mortality are high in the Western world and high ω-6/ω-3 PUFA in the Western diet may be a contributing factor. We investigated whether changing from a diet that approximates ω-6 fat content of the Western diet to a high ω-3 fat diet at adulthood might reduce prostate cancer risk. Female SV 129 mice that had consumed a high ω-6 diet containing corn oil for 2 weeks were bred with homozygous C3(1)Tag transgenic male mice. All male offspring were weaned to the corn oil diet (CO) until postpuberty when half of the male offspring ...


Retinoic Acid Decreases Atf-2 Phosphorylation And Sensitizes Melanoma Cells To Taxol-Mediated Growth Inhibition, Ying Huang, Jennifer Minigh, Sarah Miles, Richard N. Niles Aug 2012

Retinoic Acid Decreases Atf-2 Phosphorylation And Sensitizes Melanoma Cells To Taxol-Mediated Growth Inhibition, Ying Huang, Jennifer Minigh, Sarah Miles, Richard N. Niles

Richard M. Niles

Cutaneous melanoma is often resistant to chemo- and radiotherapy. This resistance has recently been demonstrated to be due, at least in part, to high activating transcription factor 2 (ATF-2) activity in these tumors. In concordance with these reports, we found that B16 mouse melanoma cells had higher levels of ATF-2 than immortalized, but non-malignant mouse melanocytes. In addition, the melanoma cells had a much higher amount of phosphorylated (active) ATF-2 than the immortalized melanocytes. In the course of determining how retinoic acid (RA) stimulates activating protein-1 (AP-1) activity in B16 melanoma, we discovered that this retinoid decreased the phosphorylation of ...


Synergistic Effects Of Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Combined With Low Concentration Of Gemcitabine On Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma In Vitro, Jing Wang, Jinsong Guo, Shan Wu, Hongqing Feng, Shujun Sun, Jie Pan, Jue Zhang, Stephen J. Beebe Aug 2012

Synergistic Effects Of Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Combined With Low Concentration Of Gemcitabine On Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma In Vitro, Jing Wang, Jinsong Guo, Shan Wu, Hongqing Feng, Shujun Sun, Jie Pan, Jue Zhang, Stephen J. Beebe

Bioelectrics Publications

Treatment of cancer often involves uses of multiple therapeutic strategies with different mechanisms of action. In this study we investigated combinations of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) with low concentrations of gemcitabine on human oral cancer cells. Cells (Cal-27) were treated with pulse parameters (20 pulses, 100 ns in duration, intensities of 10, 30 and 60 kV/cm) and then cultured in medium with 0.01 mu g/ml gemcitabine. Proliferation, apoptosis/necrosis, invasion and morphology of those cells were examined using MTT, flow cytometry, clonogenics, transwell migration and TEM assay. Results show that combination treatments of gemcitabine and nsPEFs ...


Exogenous Alpha-Synuclein Induces Cell Death Related Proteins In C6 Oligodendrocyte-Like Cells Corresponding To Protein Expression Observed In Multiple System Atrophy, Derrick Samuel Hilton Aug 2012

Exogenous Alpha-Synuclein Induces Cell Death Related Proteins In C6 Oligodendrocyte-Like Cells Corresponding To Protein Expression Observed In Multiple System Atrophy, Derrick Samuel Hilton

Dissertations

Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) consists of three disorders; Autonomic Dysfunction, Cerebellar Ataxia, and Parkinsonism. In MSA, the protein Alpha-Synuclein (SNCA) appears in the central nervous system as misfolded protein aggregates primarily in oligodendrocytes. This dissertation reports the results from studies examining the effect of exogenous SNCA has on a cell model: C6 oligodendrocyte-like cells. Treated cells were evaluated using western blot and DNA microarray. In addition the expression of proteins was evaluated using immunocytochemistry in MSA patient tissue.

C6 cells were shown to take up SNCA when added to the media. SNCA also underwent a truncation when taken up by ...


Visualizing Spatiotemporal Dynamics Of Apoptosis After G1 Arrest By Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Tax And Insights Into Gene Expression Changes Using Microarray-Based Gene Expression Analysis., Mariluz Araínga, Hironobu Murakami, Yoko Aida Jun 2012

Visualizing Spatiotemporal Dynamics Of Apoptosis After G1 Arrest By Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Tax And Insights Into Gene Expression Changes Using Microarray-Based Gene Expression Analysis., Mariluz Araínga, Hironobu Murakami, Yoko Aida

Journal Articles: Pharmacology & Experimental Neuroscience

BACKGROUND: Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax is a potent activator of viral and cellular gene expression that interacts with a number of cellular proteins. Many reports show that Tax is capable of regulating cell cycle progression and apoptosis both positively and negatively. However, it still remains to understand why the Tax oncoprotein induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, or whether Tax-induced apoptosis is dependent upon its ability to induce G1 arrest. The present study used time-lapse imaging to explore the spatiotemporal patterns of cell cycle dynamics in Tax-expressing HeLa cells containing the fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle ...


Transforming Growth Factor-Β Suppresses Metastasis In A Subset Of Human Colon Carcinoma Cells., Neka A.K. Simms, Ashwani Rajput, Elizabeth A. Sharratt, Melanie Ongchin, Carol A. Teggart, J. Wang, Michael G. Brattain Jun 2012

Transforming Growth Factor-Β Suppresses Metastasis In A Subset Of Human Colon Carcinoma Cells., Neka A.K. Simms, Ashwani Rajput, Elizabeth A. Sharratt, Melanie Ongchin, Carol A. Teggart, J. Wang, Michael G. Brattain

Journal Articles: Eppley Institute

BACKGROUND: TGFβ signaling has typically been associated with suppression of tumor initiation while the role it plays in metastasis is generally associated with progression of malignancy. However, we present evidence here for an anti-metastatic role of TGFβ signaling.

METHODS: To test the importance of TGFβ signaling to cell survival and metastasis we compared human colon carcinoma cell lines that are either non-tumorigenic with TGFβ response (FET), or tumorigenic with TGFβ response (FETα) or tumorigenic with abrogated TGFβ response via introduction of dominant negative TGFβRII (FETα/DN) and their ability to metastasize. Metastatic competency was assessed by orthotopic transplantation. Metastatic colony ...


Genomic Analysis Of Pterostilbene Predicts Its Antiproliferative Effects Against Pancreatic Cancer In Vitro And In Vivo, David W. Mcfadden Jun 2012

Genomic Analysis Of Pterostilbene Predicts Its Antiproliferative Effects Against Pancreatic Cancer In Vitro And In Vivo, David W. Mcfadden

UCHC Articles - Research

Background

To investigate the inhibitory role of pterostilbene in pancreatic cancer, we conducted a genomic analysis of pterostilbene-treated pancreatic cancer cells. We also investigated the effect of pterostilbene upon the carcinogenic markers, manganese superoxide dismutase, cytochrome C, Smac/DIABLO, and STAT3 phosphorylation in vitro. The antiproliferative effects of pterostilbene were further evaluated in an in vivo model.

Methods

Pancreatic cancer cells were treated with pterostilbene and evaluated with DNA microarray analysis. Pterostilbenetreated cells were analyzed for cytochrome C, Smac/DIABLO, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD)/antioxidant activity, and STAT3 phosphorylation using ELISA. Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA. Pterostilbene was then ...


Proline-Rich Tyrosine Kinase 2 (Pyk2) Regulates Igf-I-Induced Cell Motility And Invasion Of Urothelial Carcinoma Cells, Marco Genua, Shi-Qiong Xu, Simone Buraschi, Stephen C. Peiper, Leonard G. Gomella, Antonio Belfiore, Renato V. Iozzo, Andrea Morrione Jun 2012

Proline-Rich Tyrosine Kinase 2 (Pyk2) Regulates Igf-I-Induced Cell Motility And Invasion Of Urothelial Carcinoma Cells, Marco Genua, Shi-Qiong Xu, Simone Buraschi, Stephen C. Peiper, Leonard G. Gomella, Antonio Belfiore, Renato V. Iozzo, Andrea Morrione

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

The insulin-like growth factor receptor I (IGF-IR) plays an essential role in transformation by promoting cell growth and protecting cancer cells from apoptosis. We have recently demonstrated that the IGF-IR is overexpressed in invasive bladder cancer tissues and promotes motility and invasion of urothelial carcinoma cells. These effects require IGF-I-induced Akt- and MAPK-dependent activation of paxillin. The latter co-localizes with focal adhesion kinases (FAK) at dynamic focal adhesions and is critical for promoting motility of urothelial cancer cells. FAK and its homolog Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) modulate paxillin activation; however, their role in regulating IGF-IR-dependent signaling and motility in ...


Perk-Dependent Repression Of Mir-106b-25 Cluster Is Required For Er Stress-Induced Apoptosis., S. Gupta, D. E. Read, A. Deepti, K. Cawley, A. Gupta, D. Oommen, T. Verfaillie, S. Matus, Mary A. Smith, Justin L. Mott, P. Agostinis, C. Hetz, A. Samali Jun 2012

Perk-Dependent Repression Of Mir-106b-25 Cluster Is Required For Er Stress-Induced Apoptosis., S. Gupta, D. E. Read, A. Deepti, K. Cawley, A. Gupta, D. Oommen, T. Verfaillie, S. Matus, Mary A. Smith, Justin L. Mott, P. Agostinis, C. Hetz, A. Samali

Journal Articles: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology

Activation of the unfolded protein response sensor PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (Perk) attenuates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress levels. Conversantly, if the damage is too severe and ER function cannot be restored, this signaling branch triggers apoptosis. Bcl-2 homology 3-only family member Bim is essential for ER stress-induced apoptosis. However, the regulatory mechanisms controlling Bim activation under ER stress conditions are not well understood. Here, we show that downregulation of the miR-106b-25 cluster contributes to ER stress-induced apoptosis and the upregulation of Bim. Hypericin-mediated photo-oxidative ER damage induced Perk-dependent cell death and led to a significant decrease in the levels of ...


Signal Transducer And Activator Of Transcription-5 Mediates Neuronal Apoptosis Induced By Inhibition Of Rac Gtpase Activity., Trisha R Stankiewicz, F Alexandra Loucks, Emily K Schroeder, Marja T Nevalainen, Kenneth L Tyler, Klaus Aktories, Ron J Bouchard, Daniel A Linseman May 2012

Signal Transducer And Activator Of Transcription-5 Mediates Neuronal Apoptosis Induced By Inhibition Of Rac Gtpase Activity., Trisha R Stankiewicz, F Alexandra Loucks, Emily K Schroeder, Marja T Nevalainen, Kenneth L Tyler, Klaus Aktories, Ron J Bouchard, Daniel A Linseman

Department of Cancer Biology Faculty Papers

In several neuronal cell types, the small GTPase Rac is essential for survival. We have shown previously that the Rho family GTPase inhibitor Clostridium difficile toxin B (ToxB) induces apoptosis in primary rat cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) principally via inhibition of Rac GTPase function. In the present study, incubation with ToxB activated a proapoptotic Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway, and a pan-JAK inhibitor protected CGNs from Rac inhibition. STAT1 expression was induced by ToxB; however, CGNs from STAT1 knock-out mice succumbed to ToxB-induced apoptosis as readily as wild-type CGNs. STAT3 displayed enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation ...


Txnip Is A Mediator Of Er Stress-Induced Β-Cell Inflammation And Apoptosis: A Dissertation, Christine M. Oslowski May 2012

Txnip Is A Mediator Of Er Stress-Induced Β-Cell Inflammation And Apoptosis: A Dissertation, Christine M. Oslowski

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia. The pathogenesis of these diseases involves β-cell dysfunction and death. The primary function of β-cells is to tightly regulate the secretion, production, and storage of insulin in response to blood glucose levels. In order to manage insulin biosynthesis, β-cells have an elaborate endoplasmic reticulum (ER).

The ER is an essential organelle for the proper processing and folding of proteins such as proinsulin. Proteins fold properly when the ER protein load balances with the ER folding capacity that handles this load. Disruption of this ER homeostasis by genetic and environmental ...


Function Of Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 7 (Igfbp7) In Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Dong Chen May 2012

Function Of Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 7 (Igfbp7) In Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Dong Chen

Theses and Dissertations

Title of Dissertation: FUNCTION OF INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR BINDING PROTEIN 7(IGFBP7) IN HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA By Dong Chen. Purpose: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly virulent malignancy with no effective treatment, thus requiring the development of innovative and effective targeted therapies. The oncogene Astrocyte Elevated Gene-1 (AEG-1) plays a seminal role in hepatocarcinogenesis and profoundly downregulates Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein-7 (IGFBP7). The present study focuses on analyzing potential tumor suppressor functions of IGFBP7 in HCC and the relevance of IGFBP7 downregulation in mediating AEG-1 function. Experimental Design: IGFBP7 expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in HCC tissue microarrays by real-time ...


Changes In Expression Of Genes Associated With Autophagy And Apoptosis In Neuronal Cells Infected With Hsv-1may Suggest Infection-Induced Mechanisms Of Neurodegeneration, Alexis Mark, Fiora D. Zoga, Brian J. Balin Phd, Denah M. Appelt Phd, Susan T. Hingley May 2012

Changes In Expression Of Genes Associated With Autophagy And Apoptosis In Neuronal Cells Infected With Hsv-1may Suggest Infection-Induced Mechanisms Of Neurodegeneration, Alexis Mark, Fiora D. Zoga, Brian J. Balin Phd, Denah M. Appelt Phd, Susan T. Hingley

Research Day

Background:This study investigates the potential role of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), by exploring changes in gene expression related to antiviral immunity and the autophagic pathway. Autophagy is a process that recycles organelles and proteins to create more energy for the cell. This pathway has been linked to neurodegeneration, as malfunctions in the completion of this process lead to a decline in overall cellular health and function. Interestingly, HSV-1 has been shown to block the completion of autophagy, which would potentially contribute to the cytopathic changes ...


Bim Mediates Imatinib-Induced Apoptosis Of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: Translational Implications, David Reynoso May 2012

Bim Mediates Imatinib-Induced Apoptosis Of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: Translational Implications, David Reynoso

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are oncogene-addicted cancers driven by activating mutations in the genes encoding receptor tyrosine kinases KIT and PDGFR-α. Imatinib mesylate, a specific inhibitor of KIT and PDGFR-α signaling, delays progression of GIST, but is incapable of achieving cure. Thus, most patients who initially respond to imatinib therapy eventually experience tumor progression, and have limited therapeutic options thereafter. To address imatinib-resistance and tumor progression, these studies sought to understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate apoptosis in GIST, and evaluate combination therapies that kill GISTs cells via complementary, but independent, mechanisms. BIM (Bcl-2 interacting mediator of ...


Embryo Collection Induces Transient Activation Of Xbp1 Arm Of The Er Stress Response While Embryo Vitrification Does Not., Tamara Abraham, Christopher L Pin, Andrew J Watson May 2012

Embryo Collection Induces Transient Activation Of Xbp1 Arm Of The Er Stress Response While Embryo Vitrification Does Not., Tamara Abraham, Christopher L Pin, Andrew J Watson

Obstetrics & Gynaecology Publications

Embryo cryopreservation has become a standard procedure in the practice of assisted reproduction. While routinely performed in IVF labs, the effects of embryo vitrification on the molecular mechanisms governing preimplantation development remain largely unknown. The endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) response is an evolutionary conserved mechanism that cells employ to manage ER stress. ER stress can be defined as an imbalance between protein synthesis and secretion within the ER. The primary focus of this study was to investigate whether standard embryo manipulations, including embryo collection, culture and vitrification, result in activation of the ER stress pathway in vitro and to ...