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Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Mesoporous Silica Nanomaterials And Magnetic Nanoparticles Based Stimuli-Responsive Controlled-Release Delivery Systems, Supratim Giri Jan 2008

Mesoporous Silica Nanomaterials And Magnetic Nanoparticles Based Stimuli-Responsive Controlled-Release Delivery Systems, Supratim Giri

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The research presented and discussed within this dissertation involves the development of mesoporous silica nanomaterials and magnetic nanoparticles based stimuli-responsive controlled-release delivery systems.;A superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-capped, MCM-41 type mesoporous silica nanorod-based controlled-release delivery system (Magnet-MSN) was synthesized. The stimuli-responsive release profiles of fluorescein-loaded Magnet-MSN delivery systems in the presence of external magnetic field was studied by using cell-produced antioxidants as triggers for releasing fluorescein molecules. The intracellular delivery efficiency of the Magnet-MSN system with human cervical cancer cells (HeLa) in vitro was demonstrated involving fluorescein molecules as model drug.;To take the advantage of the intracellular delivery capability ...


Process And Impact Evaluation Of The Verb Summer Scorecard Program, Travis William Hartke Jan 2008

Process And Impact Evaluation Of The Verb Summer Scorecard Program, Travis William Hartke

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

There is currently a considerable public health concern about levels of inactivity in youth. This type of information has led to many state and national initiatives aimed at promoting physical activity, such as the VERB Summer Scorecard Program in Story County, Iowa where tweens (children ages 8 to 13) can complete a VERB Scorecard of physical activity by going to physically active activities and deals at businesses in the community with the outcome of earning prizes. The purpose of the study was to determine factors that influence interest and involvement in the VERB summer scorecard program. To do this, a ...


Marital Satisfaction And Psychological Well-Being In Clinical And Non-Clinical Samples, Jennifer Suzanne Perrin Jan 2008

Marital Satisfaction And Psychological Well-Being In Clinical And Non-Clinical Samples, Jennifer Suzanne Perrin

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The study examined depression, anxiety, marital satisfaction in individuals from a clinical sample and individuals from a community sample. Gender was also considered in this study. Participants of this study consisted of 268 individuals; this sample was divided between a clinical and non-clinical sample from a community in the Midwest region of the United States. The study used the Brief Symptom Inventory to measure the levels of depression and anxiety, and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale to measure marital satisfaction. The hypotheses were tested using factorial analysis of variance. Overall results suggest that depression and marital satisfaction significantly impact each other ...


Does Balance Training Improve Balance In Physically Active Older Adults?, Kristen Kartchner Maughan Jan 2008

Does Balance Training Improve Balance In Physically Active Older Adults?, Kristen Kartchner Maughan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Falls among older adults are a growing public health problem. Previous research suggests that the regular practice of physical activity in older adults improves balance and reduces falls. The objective of this study was to determine whether balance-specific training, in addition to regular physical activity, could improve balance in older adults, and whether there would be a dose-response to frequency of balance training.;A six-week balance-training program was conducted with 60 older adults (60-87 years) who were already participating in a regular program of physical activity. All participants continued with their regular exercise program while adding balance training in one ...


Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus: Understanding And Managing Persistent Infection, Ramón Miguel Molina Barrios Jan 2008

Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus: Understanding And Managing Persistent Infection, Ramón Miguel Molina Barrios

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This experiment was designed as a longitudinal study in which pigs were followed for up to 202 days post inoculation (DPI). On day 0, 109 3-week-old pigs were intramuscularly inoculated with PRRSV strain VR-2332. Negative control pigs (n = 56) were sham inoculated with MEM by the intramuscular route. Thereafter, at approximately 2-week intervals, samples were collected from all animals and a subset of randomly selected animals was euthanized and tissues collected. The presence and amount of virus was assessed using qRT-PCR, standard virus isolation, and bioassay. Detection of PRRSV in serum by qRT-PCR showed that most pigs cleared the viremia ...


Proteins Affecting Rod Photoreceptor Differentiation In The Murine Retina: A Proteomics Approach With Emphasis On Mtor, Alison Elizabeth Barnhill Jan 2008

Proteins Affecting Rod Photoreceptor Differentiation In The Murine Retina: A Proteomics Approach With Emphasis On Mtor, Alison Elizabeth Barnhill

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Retinal diseases involving degeneration of photoreceptors are an increasing cause of blindness in this country, particularly among the aging population. A solid understanding of retinal development is central to combating photoreceptor degeneration on several fronts. Defining developmental processes may have therapeutic relevance in 'rehabilitating' photoreceptor cells that can be rescued from degenerative processes by the application of exogenous trophic or survival factors. Further, advances in stem cell research may someday make replacement of photoreceptors a feasible therapy for the treatment of retinal degeneration. In this regard, it will be crucial that we have a clear understanding of the developing retinal ...


Provocateurs And Triggers: Induction Of Antigen-Specific Responses To The Colonic Resident Microbiota And Susceptibility To Colitis, Abigail Lynn Henderson Jan 2008

Provocateurs And Triggers: Induction Of Antigen-Specific Responses To The Colonic Resident Microbiota And Susceptibility To Colitis, Abigail Lynn Henderson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract (GI) that develops in part as a result of an aberrant immune response to enteric bacteria in the GI tract. The initial provocation and subsequent inflammatory trigger(s) that contribute to the pathogenesis of IBD have yet to be fully elucidated. A multiple-hit model of IBD was developed using defined flora (DF) mice as a model to address the aberrations in the immune response that develop following colonization with a bacterial provocateur prior to an environmental/inflammatory trigger. These studies demonstrated that Helicobacter bilis colonization of immune competent ...


Designing And Evaluating Clinical Cutpoints For Childhood Obesity, Kelly Rian Laurson Jan 2008

Designing And Evaluating Clinical Cutpoints For Childhood Obesity, Kelly Rian Laurson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation consists of a series of papers which focused on creating age-, sex-, and ethnicity-specific body fat centiles and the concordance of those centiles with other commonly used childhood obesity indices. Anthropometric and body composition data of 5 to 18 year olds were taken from a large, multi-ethnic, nationally-representative sample participating in one of three cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Percent body fat (%BF) was calculated using tricep and subscapular skinfold measurements within the commonly used Slaughter equations. %BF growth curves were created for white, black, and Mexican-American children and adolescents. Values were provided so ...


Physical Activity And Motor Skills In Overweight And Normal Weight Low Income Preschool Children, Allison Wulfekuhle Jan 2008

Physical Activity And Motor Skills In Overweight And Normal Weight Low Income Preschool Children, Allison Wulfekuhle

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Overweight among preschool age children has increased at a rapid rate and is becoming a worldwide epidemic. Previous research suggests that overweight children are less active and have poorer motor skills than children of normal weight. The objective of this study was to assess motor skill and physical activity in low-income overweight and normal weight preschool children (ages 3--5 years) and determine the influence, if any, preschool activity policy had on children's activity levels.;Data were collected at low-income preschool centers (n = 5) in the state of Iowa. Children (n = 77) ages three to four years were included in ...


Method Development For The Quantification Of Ferritin In Staple Food Crops, Rebecca Jane Lukac Jan 2008

Method Development For The Quantification Of Ferritin In Staple Food Crops, Rebecca Jane Lukac

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Biofortification is a strategy for combating iron deficiency that involves the selective breeding of food crops to increase total bioavailable iron. Evidence that ferritin is a good source of bioavailable iron has created interest for increasing ferritin concentrations in seeds. However the successful implementation of ferritin biofortification requires a method to rapidly measure ferritin in staple food crops. In this study, we developed an indirect ELISA to quantify ferritin in red beans, white beans, wheat, maize, and brown rice. This required the production of an anti-ferritin antibody that is immunoreactive with all seed ferritins, the development of a rapid method ...


Lc-Ms Techniques For Analytical Testing Of Recombinant Human Erythropoietin And Darbepoetin Alfa In Equine Plasma Samples For Anti-Doping Control, Kenneth Phung Jan 2008

Lc-Ms Techniques For Analytical Testing Of Recombinant Human Erythropoietin And Darbepoetin Alfa In Equine Plasma Samples For Anti-Doping Control, Kenneth Phung

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) and Darbepoetin alfa (Darbe) are erythropoietic drugs that must be monitored for possible abuse in horse racing sporting events. An improved detecton method modified from literature methods was developed for confirmative and semi-quantitative analysis of these erythropoietic drugs in equine plasma samples. Anti-rhEPO antibodies coated onto magnetic beads were used for immunoaffinity separation to extract any rhEPO and/or Darbe present in equine plasma samples. The rhEPO and/or Darbe bound onto the antibody coated magnetic beads were extracted with a 0.1% polyethylene glycol (PEG) pH 2.0 buffer solution. A buffer exchange procedure was ...


Pre- And Post-Admission Criteria As Predictors Of Academic Success In An Associate Degree Nursing Program, Nancy Lee Conzett Muecke Jan 2008

Pre- And Post-Admission Criteria As Predictors Of Academic Success In An Associate Degree Nursing Program, Nancy Lee Conzett Muecke

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Early identification of predictors of academic success or challenges assists faculty and staff in providing effective support to those who may need it. This study examined the relationship between selected pre- and post-admission criteria and two measures of academic success: successful completion of an associate degree registered nursing program (ADN), and first-attempt success on the National Council Licensing Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN). The subjects were 404 students enrolled in the nursing program between 1998 and 2005. The nursing program was located at a small, private, health-system based institution in the Midwest.;There were six pre-admission independent variables and five ...


Ses Gradient In Psychological Distress Revisited: A Dynamic Perspective On The Mediating Effect Of Financial Strain And Mastery, Chih-Yuan Weng Jan 2008

Ses Gradient In Psychological Distress Revisited: A Dynamic Perspective On The Mediating Effect Of Financial Strain And Mastery, Chih-Yuan Weng

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

There is a well-established literature that both psychological distress and mental disorders are linked to the gradient of socioeconomic status (SES). According to the stress process model or the life stress paradigm, SES could affect mental health in at least two ways: first, by creating situations where lower SES people tend to experience stressors in greater quantity; second, by enhancing (e.g., due to underexposure of stress for high SES people) or undermining (e.g., due to overexposure of stress for low SES people) coping resources that are beneficial to psychological wellbeing. While the stress process model or the life ...


Voltage-Activated Currents And Their Modulation In Somatic Muscle Cells Of The Nematode Ascaris Suum, Saurabh Verma Jan 2008

Voltage-Activated Currents And Their Modulation In Somatic Muscle Cells Of The Nematode Ascaris Suum, Saurabh Verma

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Voltage-activated currents have been isolated in nematodes and are associated with depolarization (calcium channels) or recovery of the cell after the depolarization (potassium channels). Different subtypes of voltage-activated calcium channel have been identified in vertebrates. In nematodes, advances in C. elegans genomics led to the identification of voltage-activated calcium channel subtypes. These subtypes show homologies to vertebrate calcium channels but are pharmacologically and physiologically different. The understanding of the physiology of these different voltage-activated channels is becoming increasingly important as we try to lower the development of resistance to present anthelmintics. Major classes of anthelmintics produce their effect by modulating ...


The Influence Of Alcohol And Drug Use On One-Night Stands Among Adolescents, Lindsey Lee Aaron Jan 2008

The Influence Of Alcohol And Drug Use On One-Night Stands Among Adolescents, Lindsey Lee Aaron

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examined relationships between alcohol and drug use in adolescents and if it contributed to the participation of a one-night stand. Other variables investigated include gender, condom use, and attendance in religious services. To be included in the current study the participant had to fall between the ages of 18-25 years at the time of data collection and to report they engaged in sexual intercourse at least once within the past year (N=570). There is a significant relationship between alcohol use and participation in one-night stands. This did not hold true for drug use. The rate of condom ...


Effect Of Cardiovascular Exercise Training Compared To Strength Flexibility Training On Inflammatory Mediators In An Elderly Population, Joji George Jan 2008

Effect Of Cardiovascular Exercise Training Compared To Strength Flexibility Training On Inflammatory Mediators In An Elderly Population, Joji George

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This longitudinal study was the first study to assess the effect of two different kinds of exercise on levels of proinflammatory cytokines in PBMC and serum. IL-1beta, TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels were measured using regular ELISA assay in PBMC; IL-6 was also measured in the serum using a high sensitivity ELISA kit. Physical activity measures and BMI was compared to assess the aerobic capacity, flexibility and effect of body weight on cytokine levels, with exercise.;There was a reduction seen in both the FLEX (strength and flexibility) and CARDIO (cardiovascular exercise) groups over ten months. There was a reduction in ...


Novel Amphiphilic Polyanhydrides For Vaccine Delivery, María Del Pilar Torres-González Jan 2008

Novel Amphiphilic Polyanhydrides For Vaccine Delivery, María Del Pilar Torres-González

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The rapid development of biopharmaceuticals suggests that many future vaccines will involve the delivery of peptide or protein sub units. The overall goal of this work is to design novel vaccine adjuvants based on biodegradable polymers that protect, stabilize, and enhance the immunogenicity of these protein antigens. Polyanhydrides, which are surface erodible polymers, have shown excellent performance as drug carriers. Their hydrophobic nature prevents water penetration into the bulk, thus eliminating water-induced covalent aggregation of proteins. Unfortunately, protein inactivation by non-covalent aggregation may still persist. It has been suggested that the use of carriers containing both hydrophobic and hydrophilic entities ...


Factors Affecting Lower Extremity Loading During Running, Joshua Mcdowell Thomas Jan 2008

Factors Affecting Lower Extremity Loading During Running, Joshua Mcdowell Thomas

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Immunomodulatory, Anti-Inflammatory And Wound Healing Properties Of Echinacea Species, Zili Zhai Jan 2008

Immunomodulatory, Anti-Inflammatory And Wound Healing Properties Of Echinacea Species, Zili Zhai

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Herbal or botanical supplements have multiple health benefits. Public interest in these supplements has increased greatly in recent years aimed at modulation of the immune system to combat immune-related diseases. Historically, Echinacea has long been used as phytotherapy for wound healing, pain relief and treatment of the common cold. Although the non-specific immunostimulating properties of Echinacea species have been widely investigated, academic knowledge of the adaptive immune-modulating activity, the anti-inflammatory activity and the mechanistic basis for these immunomodulatory properties remain elusive. In this dissertation, we focused our research interest in these less explored fields, with an emphasis on the herbal ...


Influence Of Media On Physiological Arousal, Kelsey Ryder Jan 2008

Influence Of Media On Physiological Arousal, Kelsey Ryder

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The influence of gender, violent media exposure, sexual media exposure, and sexual attitudes on physiological response to media was examined. A total of 34 participants (16 male and 18 female) were included in the final sample. Participants completed a measure of violent and sexual media exposure and the Beliefs About Preventing AIDS (BAPA) measure. Participants were shown movie clips with varying subject matter while their physiological arousal (heart rate and skin conductance) was recorded. Gender, media exposure, and sexual attitudes were not significant predictors of physiological response to violent and sexual media. Males and females did not differ on any ...


A Systematic Evaluation Of Laying Hen Housing For Improved Hen Welfare, Angela Renee Green Jan 2008

A Systematic Evaluation Of Laying Hen Housing For Improved Hen Welfare, Angela Renee Green

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Husbandry practices for egg production vary throughout the world. Current production systems are typically classified as caged, cage-free, or free range in terms of housing style. The research presented supplements the existing knowledge base for laying-hen housing. Where possible, a systematic assessment approach was used in the comprehensive literature review, and combined field monitoring and controlled-environment laboratory studies. The results of this research demonstrate: differing environmental conditions and hen health under different housing schemes with varying weather; no difference in heat and moisture production for varying stocking density and group size; no clear advantage of offering additional space for coping ...


The Effects Of Abnormal Prion Protein Accumulation On Retinal Morphology And Function In Sheep And Cattle, Jodi D. Smith Jan 2008

The Effects Of Abnormal Prion Protein Accumulation On Retinal Morphology And Function In Sheep And Cattle, Jodi D. Smith

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) encompass a group of unique, invariably fatal neurodegenerative diseases, which affect humans and animals. Accumulation of an abnormal form of the prion protein (PrPSc) in the central nervous system serves as their pathologic underpinning. The pathogenesis of TSE remains unclear, and the specific effects of PrPSc on cells of the nervous system have yet to be completely resolved. Previous studies have identified the accumulation of PrP Sc within the retina, the thin, highly organized piece of neural tissue lining the posterior aspect of the eye. The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate the effects of ...


Comparison Of Air-Displacement Plethysmography And Hydrodensitometry In High School Football Linemen, Timothy Egan Moran Jan 2008

Comparison Of Air-Displacement Plethysmography And Hydrodensitometry In High School Football Linemen, Timothy Egan Moran

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Recently, there has been concern about obesity and its co-morbidities among football linemen from the youth to professional level. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and percentage fat determined by air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) and hydrodensitometry (HW) in high school football linemen and (2) to compare ADP with HW in high school football linemen to determine the feasibility and accuracy of ADP compared with HW in this group. Thirty-one high school football linemen were recruited from local high schools and were measured for height, body mass, and percentage fat estimated ...


Can Prosopagnosics Discriminate Similar, Non-Face Objects?, Jonathan Taylor Kahl Jan 2008

Can Prosopagnosics Discriminate Similar, Non-Face Objects?, Jonathan Taylor Kahl

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Casner (2006) tested the ability of a prosopagnosic, LB, to discriminate objects that would require the use of the coordinate relations recognition system posited by Cooper and Wojan. Casner reported that the prosopagnosic, LB, was impaired in coordinate relations tasks, but did not differ significantly from controls in all tasks that only required categorical recognition. However, Farah, Levinson, and Klein (1995) reported on a patient who was not impaired at discriminating eyeglasses, a task for which the coordinate relations hypothesis would predict an impairment. The present study replicated Farah et al.'s paradigm with the prosopagnosic, LB. One experiment found ...


Neonatal Alveolar Macrophages Upregulate Cytokine Gene Transcription Via P38 Mapk Signaling But Fail To Secrete Cytokines In Response To Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Nyssa Ann Levy Jan 2008

Neonatal Alveolar Macrophages Upregulate Cytokine Gene Transcription Via P38 Mapk Signaling But Fail To Secrete Cytokines In Response To Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Nyssa Ann Levy

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in premature and newborn infants. We examined the role of alveolar macrophages (AMs) in a model of RSV infection. Additionally, the contribution of MAPK signaling to cytokine expression was delineated via p38 inhibitor SB203580. AMs isolated from neonatal and adult sheep were infected with BRSV in vitro with or without SB203580 pre-treatment. Expression of cytokine mRNA and protein secretion was determined. Results showed that RSV infection induced IL-1b, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 gene expression. Furthermore, RSV induction of IL-6, IL-8 and IL-1b mRNA in neonatal and adult ...


Characterization Of Porcine Circovirus Type 2a And 2b Infection And Lesions In Gnotobiotic Pigs, Phillip Charles Gauger Jan 2008

Characterization Of Porcine Circovirus Type 2a And 2b Infection And Lesions In Gnotobiotic Pigs, Phillip Charles Gauger

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Porcine circovirus (PCV) is a member of the genus Circovirus of the Circoviridae family. This family consists of a diverse group of animal viruses that possess a small, closed circular, single-stranded DNA genome that replicates through double-stranded intermediates. Two genotypes of PCV have been identified. PCV type 1 (PCV1) is non-pathogenic, while PCV type 2 (PCV2) has been implicated as the etiological agent of a collection of disease syndromes labeled porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD) which include postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in swine.;In late 2005, a postweaning, high mortality syndrome spread rapidly through fattening barns in swine dense ...


Differential Mucosal Gene Expression Modulates The Development Of Murine Colitis, Zhiping Liu Jan 2008

Differential Mucosal Gene Expression Modulates The Development Of Murine Colitis, Zhiping Liu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a chronic and relapsing intestinal inflammation, affects about 3.6 million individuals in the United States and Europe. However, the etiology of IBD is still unknown and likely involves complex interactions among genetic susceptibility, gut bacteria flora and host immune system. The characterization of mucosal gene expression profiles in different IBD animal models will potentially provide molecular insights into the mechanisms that initiate, perpetuate or ameliorate IBD development. In this dissertation, alteration of mucosal gene expression profiles induced by different agents including a mild bacterial pathogen, Helicobacter bilis or an anti-inflammatory drug, hypoxoside were characterized. The ...


An Exploration Of Perceptions Of Associate Of Science In Nursing Students Related To Transcultural Nursing Experiences, Susan Jane Woody Rhoades Jan 2008

An Exploration Of Perceptions Of Associate Of Science In Nursing Students Related To Transcultural Nursing Experiences, Susan Jane Woody Rhoades

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Transcultural nursing theory (Leininger, 1995) goes beyond or transcends cultural boundaries, and examining and cultivates an appreciation of human beings, their cultures, histories, and values. Assessment of values, histories, needs, and expectations assists in providing culturally competent patient care. Transcultural nursing courses are an integral part of nursing education.;The qualitative study examines perceptions of 6 Associate of Science in Nursing students related to transcultural nursing experiences in college and clinical education. This study explores what influence, if any, gender has in their experiences.;The interpretive study uses semistructured interviewing during focus group and interview meetings. The interviewer solicited responses ...


Second Fiddle?: An Interpretive Study Of Followers Of Servant Leaders, Shirley Ruth Oetjen Beaver Jan 2008

Second Fiddle?: An Interpretive Study Of Followers Of Servant Leaders, Shirley Ruth Oetjen Beaver

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the follower experiences of five nursing educators led by servant leaders in two institutions of higher education. One institution was a small, private, religiously-affiliated college and the other was a large public university. The data collected provided insight into the phenomenon of followership, focusing on the meaning of what it is like to be a follower who is led by a servant leader.;An interpretive research methodology was used for the qualitative study which included interviews with five nursing educators who shared their experiences of being led by a servant leader. The ...


Purchasing Practices, Barriers, And Industry Support In Child Nutrition Programs Needed To Meet Wellness Policy Requirements, Tami Jo Cline Jan 2008

Purchasing Practices, Barriers, And Industry Support In Child Nutrition Programs Needed To Meet Wellness Policy Requirements, Tami Jo Cline

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Beginning with the 2006-2007 school year, schools were required by the U.S. Department of Agriculture to implement local wellness policies. Because this area of study is relatively new, a limited number of readings were found in the literature related to implementation of such policies, as well as the content of policies implemented thus far. The purpose of this study was to use focus group and survey data to identify the purchasing practices used by the largest 100 school districts and industry's perception of the purchasing practices used in schools.;Specific research objectives included determining if the largest 100 ...