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Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Differential Mucosal Gene Expression Modulates The Development Of Murine Colitis, Zhiping Liu Jan 2008

Differential Mucosal Gene Expression Modulates The Development Of Murine Colitis, Zhiping Liu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a chronic and relapsing intestinal inflammation, affects about 3.6 million individuals in the United States and Europe. However, the etiology of IBD is still unknown and likely involves complex interactions among genetic susceptibility, gut bacteria flora and host immune system. The characterization of mucosal gene expression profiles in different IBD animal models will potentially provide molecular insights into the mechanisms that initiate, perpetuate or ameliorate IBD development. In this dissertation, alteration of mucosal gene expression profiles induced by different agents including a mild bacterial pathogen, Helicobacter bilis or an anti-inflammatory drug, hypoxoside were characterized. The ...


The Effect Of Sodium And Carbohydrate In A Rehydration Beverage When Consumed As A Meal On Subsequent Exercise Performance, Todd M. Weber Jan 2008

The Effect Of Sodium And Carbohydrate In A Rehydration Beverage When Consumed As A Meal On Subsequent Exercise Performance, Todd M. Weber

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this investigation was to assess whether a food (chicken noodle soup) consumed during the initial stages of recovery from exercise in the heat improves subsequent temperature regulation and exercise performance by improving fluid retention and restoring plasma volume close to euhydrated levels. Ten subjects were studied during 2 h of rehydration after a 2.7% body mass loss. In a randomized crossover design, subjects rehydrated with chicken noodle soup (Soup: 161.0 mmol/l Na+, 5.3 mmol/l K+) or sugar-free Kool AidRTM (14.4 mmol/l Na+, 1.6 mmol/l K+). Subjects ingested 175 ...


Designing A Nutritional Packaging System For End Stage Renal Disease Patients On Hemodialysis To Maintain Their Diet And Health, Min Sun Lee Jan 2008

Designing A Nutritional Packaging System For End Stage Renal Disease Patients On Hemodialysis To Maintain Their Diet And Health, Min Sun Lee

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

End Stage renal disease; or ESRD is a kidney disease that requires a strict dietary regimen in order to limit the life-threatening effects of a poor diet. This dietary regimen requires careful regulation of 8 essential nutrients: calories, proteins, sodium, phosphorous, calcium, potassium, vitamins, and minerals. This strict diet creates a number of complications in patients' lives, including malnutrition, fatigue, other diseases, and death.;The purpose of this study was to develop an appropriate packaging system that provided nutritional information, was appetizing, and focused on the cognitive, affective, and emotional dietary needs of ESRD patients.;The design research for this ...


Protein Kinase C-Delta In Dopaminergic System And Experimental Models Of Parkinson's Disease, Danhui Zhang Jan 2008

Protein Kinase C-Delta In Dopaminergic System And Experimental Models Of Parkinson's Disease, Danhui Zhang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a major neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive and substantial loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra compacta (SNc). Currently, no available drugs prevent the progressive loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons. The mechanisms underlying the dopaminergic degenerative process observed in PD are not well understood, which has hampered development of successful neuroprotective drugs. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis. Severely reduced TH positive neurons and TH fibers in dopaminergic terminal fields of PD patients and the successful application of L-DOPA therapy for Parkinson's disease suggest that this enzyme has a ...


Factors Affecting Lower Extremity Loading During Running, Joshua Mcdowell Thomas Jan 2008

Factors Affecting Lower Extremity Loading During Running, Joshua Mcdowell Thomas

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Validation Of The Juvenile Sexual Offense Recidivism Risk Assessment Tool--Ii, Christopher Allen Ralston Jan 2008

Validation Of The Juvenile Sexual Offense Recidivism Risk Assessment Tool--Ii, Christopher Allen Ralston

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The accurate assessment of risk of sexual reoffense for juveniles has the potential to inform many actions, including the segregation of low risk from high risk offenders, allocation of limited resources, matching treatment assignments and other programming with risk, and implementation of various state and federal regulations (e.g., registration and community notification laws) (Epperson, Ralston, Fowers, DeWitt, & Gore, 2006). The Juvenile Sexual Offense Recidivism Risk Assessment Tool -- II (JSORRAT-II; Epperson et al., 2006) is the only known fully actuarially-derived risk assessment tool designed specifically for juveniles who have offended sexually (JSOs). However, it has yet to be validated. To test the predictive validity of the JSORRAT-II, the present study employed an ...


Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus: Understanding And Managing Persistent Infection, Ramón Miguel Molina Barrios Jan 2008

Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus: Understanding And Managing Persistent Infection, Ramón Miguel Molina Barrios

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This experiment was designed as a longitudinal study in which pigs were followed for up to 202 days post inoculation (DPI). On day 0, 109 3-week-old pigs were intramuscularly inoculated with PRRSV strain VR-2332. Negative control pigs (n = 56) were sham inoculated with MEM by the intramuscular route. Thereafter, at approximately 2-week intervals, samples were collected from all animals and a subset of randomly selected animals was euthanized and tissues collected. The presence and amount of virus was assessed using qRT-PCR, standard virus isolation, and bioassay. Detection of PRRSV in serum by qRT-PCR showed that most pigs cleared the viremia ...


Effect Of Genetic And Proteomic Variation In Field Isolates Of Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae On Virulence, Diagnosis And Prevention Of Disease In The Pig, Erin Linn Strait Jan 2008

Effect Of Genetic And Proteomic Variation In Field Isolates Of Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae On Virulence, Diagnosis And Prevention Of Disease In The Pig, Erin Linn Strait

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of these studies was to investigate the implications of variability in virulence, genetics and antigenic profiles among field isolates of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Increased virulence was compared with in vitro and in vivo growth characteristics of the organism and with immune parameters in the pig, although none was found to be significantly correlated. The impact of proteomic and genetic variation among field isolates on diagnostic assays was examined by both in vivo and in vitro studies. Three enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) used in the United States were compared and shown to not detect all isolates of M. hyopneumoniae equally ...


Does Balance Training Improve Balance In Physically Active Older Adults?, Kristen Kartchner Maughan Jan 2008

Does Balance Training Improve Balance In Physically Active Older Adults?, Kristen Kartchner Maughan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Falls among older adults are a growing public health problem. Previous research suggests that the regular practice of physical activity in older adults improves balance and reduces falls. The objective of this study was to determine whether balance-specific training, in addition to regular physical activity, could improve balance in older adults, and whether there would be a dose-response to frequency of balance training.;A six-week balance-training program was conducted with 60 older adults (60-87 years) who were already participating in a regular program of physical activity. All participants continued with their regular exercise program while adding balance training in one ...


Marital Satisfaction And Psychological Well-Being In Clinical And Non-Clinical Samples, Jennifer Suzanne Perrin Jan 2008

Marital Satisfaction And Psychological Well-Being In Clinical And Non-Clinical Samples, Jennifer Suzanne Perrin

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The study examined depression, anxiety, marital satisfaction in individuals from a clinical sample and individuals from a community sample. Gender was also considered in this study. Participants of this study consisted of 268 individuals; this sample was divided between a clinical and non-clinical sample from a community in the Midwest region of the United States. The study used the Brief Symptom Inventory to measure the levels of depression and anxiety, and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale to measure marital satisfaction. The hypotheses were tested using factorial analysis of variance. Overall results suggest that depression and marital satisfaction significantly impact each other ...


Comparison Of Air-Displacement Plethysmography And Hydrodensitometry In High School Football Linemen, Timothy Egan Moran Jan 2008

Comparison Of Air-Displacement Plethysmography And Hydrodensitometry In High School Football Linemen, Timothy Egan Moran

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Recently, there has been concern about obesity and its co-morbidities among football linemen from the youth to professional level. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and percentage fat determined by air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) and hydrodensitometry (HW) in high school football linemen and (2) to compare ADP with HW in high school football linemen to determine the feasibility and accuracy of ADP compared with HW in this group. Thirty-one high school football linemen were recruited from local high schools and were measured for height, body mass, and percentage fat estimated ...


A Concept Virtual Harp With Physical String Vibrations Using Augmented Reality For Therapy, Tanasha A. Taylor Jan 2008

A Concept Virtual Harp With Physical String Vibrations Using Augmented Reality For Therapy, Tanasha A. Taylor

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This thesis presents a multimodal three-dimensional harp for interactive musical experiences for use in therapy for individuals with disabilities. A preliminary harp model in OpenGL with user interaction being a mouse and keyboard tested on special education children lead the Virtual Harp program on a new design approach to provide more interaction and stimuli. This system provides individuals with three forms of feedback visual, audio, and haptic during interaction using a Sensable Phantom Omni haptic device and immersion in a portable augmented reality-based system using a video see-through head mounted display. Modeled as a realistic harp, the virtual harp uses ...


Physical Activity And Motor Skills In Overweight And Normal Weight Low Income Preschool Children, Allison Wulfekuhle Jan 2008

Physical Activity And Motor Skills In Overweight And Normal Weight Low Income Preschool Children, Allison Wulfekuhle

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Overweight among preschool age children has increased at a rapid rate and is becoming a worldwide epidemic. Previous research suggests that overweight children are less active and have poorer motor skills than children of normal weight. The objective of this study was to assess motor skill and physical activity in low-income overweight and normal weight preschool children (ages 3--5 years) and determine the influence, if any, preschool activity policy had on children's activity levels.;Data were collected at low-income preschool centers (n = 5) in the state of Iowa. Children (n = 77) ages three to four years were included in ...


Voltage-Activated Currents And Their Modulation In Somatic Muscle Cells Of The Nematode Ascaris Suum, Saurabh Verma Jan 2008

Voltage-Activated Currents And Their Modulation In Somatic Muscle Cells Of The Nematode Ascaris Suum, Saurabh Verma

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Voltage-activated currents have been isolated in nematodes and are associated with depolarization (calcium channels) or recovery of the cell after the depolarization (potassium channels). Different subtypes of voltage-activated calcium channel have been identified in vertebrates. In nematodes, advances in C. elegans genomics led to the identification of voltage-activated calcium channel subtypes. These subtypes show homologies to vertebrate calcium channels but are pharmacologically and physiologically different. The understanding of the physiology of these different voltage-activated channels is becoming increasingly important as we try to lower the development of resistance to present anthelmintics. Major classes of anthelmintics produce their effect by modulating ...


Proteins Affecting Rod Photoreceptor Differentiation In The Murine Retina: A Proteomics Approach With Emphasis On Mtor, Alison Elizabeth Barnhill Jan 2008

Proteins Affecting Rod Photoreceptor Differentiation In The Murine Retina: A Proteomics Approach With Emphasis On Mtor, Alison Elizabeth Barnhill

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Retinal diseases involving degeneration of photoreceptors are an increasing cause of blindness in this country, particularly among the aging population. A solid understanding of retinal development is central to combating photoreceptor degeneration on several fronts. Defining developmental processes may have therapeutic relevance in 'rehabilitating' photoreceptor cells that can be rescued from degenerative processes by the application of exogenous trophic or survival factors. Further, advances in stem cell research may someday make replacement of photoreceptors a feasible therapy for the treatment of retinal degeneration. In this regard, it will be crucial that we have a clear understanding of the developing retinal ...


Provocateurs And Triggers: Induction Of Antigen-Specific Responses To The Colonic Resident Microbiota And Susceptibility To Colitis, Abigail Lynn Henderson Jan 2008

Provocateurs And Triggers: Induction Of Antigen-Specific Responses To The Colonic Resident Microbiota And Susceptibility To Colitis, Abigail Lynn Henderson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract (GI) that develops in part as a result of an aberrant immune response to enteric bacteria in the GI tract. The initial provocation and subsequent inflammatory trigger(s) that contribute to the pathogenesis of IBD have yet to be fully elucidated. A multiple-hit model of IBD was developed using defined flora (DF) mice as a model to address the aberrations in the immune response that develop following colonization with a bacterial provocateur prior to an environmental/inflammatory trigger. These studies demonstrated that Helicobacter bilis colonization of immune competent ...


Designing And Evaluating Clinical Cutpoints For Childhood Obesity, Kelly Rian Laurson Jan 2008

Designing And Evaluating Clinical Cutpoints For Childhood Obesity, Kelly Rian Laurson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation consists of a series of papers which focused on creating age-, sex-, and ethnicity-specific body fat centiles and the concordance of those centiles with other commonly used childhood obesity indices. Anthropometric and body composition data of 5 to 18 year olds were taken from a large, multi-ethnic, nationally-representative sample participating in one of three cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Percent body fat (%BF) was calculated using tricep and subscapular skinfold measurements within the commonly used Slaughter equations. %BF growth curves were created for white, black, and Mexican-American children and adolescents. Values were provided so ...


Immunomodulatory, Anti-Inflammatory And Wound Healing Properties Of Echinacea Species, Zili Zhai Jan 2008

Immunomodulatory, Anti-Inflammatory And Wound Healing Properties Of Echinacea Species, Zili Zhai

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Herbal or botanical supplements have multiple health benefits. Public interest in these supplements has increased greatly in recent years aimed at modulation of the immune system to combat immune-related diseases. Historically, Echinacea has long been used as phytotherapy for wound healing, pain relief and treatment of the common cold. Although the non-specific immunostimulating properties of Echinacea species have been widely investigated, academic knowledge of the adaptive immune-modulating activity, the anti-inflammatory activity and the mechanistic basis for these immunomodulatory properties remain elusive. In this dissertation, we focused our research interest in these less explored fields, with an emphasis on the herbal ...


The Effects Of Mid-Air Adjustments On Knee Joint Loading When Landing From A Jump, Guan Qiang Tan Jan 2008

The Effects Of Mid-Air Adjustments On Knee Joint Loading When Landing From A Jump, Guan Qiang Tan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Introduction. One of the most common injuries involving the knee joint is the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) tear. Female basketball and soccer players have about 3 times higher risk of ACL injury versus male athletes (Prodromos et al., 2007). Female athletes alter their motion pattern during the landing phase differently than male athletes. That is one of the potential reasons why females have a higher risk of ACL injury during sports (Chappell et al., 2002). Possible mechanisms of ACL injury are the deceleration of the knee in an extended position (Boden et al., 2000), shear forces applied to the leg ...


Person-Environment And Gender Comparisons In The Integration Of Interests, Abilities, And Skills, Sarah Fetter Anthoney Jan 2008

Person-Environment And Gender Comparisons In The Integration Of Interests, Abilities, And Skills, Sarah Fetter Anthoney

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study evaluated Holland's (1997) theory of the equivalence of person and work environment structures by comparing the relationships among interest, ability, and skills based on individual and occupational ratings of constructs selected from the U.S. Department of Labor's O*NET database. Individual ratings by 816 college students were analyzed separately by gender. A bootstrapped property vector fitting technique was used to embed ability and skill constructs into a two-dimensional RIASEC interest circumplex. No significant gender differences were found in the integration of these constructs. There were differences between the person and environment models for 14 of ...


Method Development For The Quantification Of Ferritin In Staple Food Crops, Rebecca Jane Lukac Jan 2008

Method Development For The Quantification Of Ferritin In Staple Food Crops, Rebecca Jane Lukac

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Biofortification is a strategy for combating iron deficiency that involves the selective breeding of food crops to increase total bioavailable iron. Evidence that ferritin is a good source of bioavailable iron has created interest for increasing ferritin concentrations in seeds. However the successful implementation of ferritin biofortification requires a method to rapidly measure ferritin in staple food crops. In this study, we developed an indirect ELISA to quantify ferritin in red beans, white beans, wheat, maize, and brown rice. This required the production of an anti-ferritin antibody that is immunoreactive with all seed ferritins, the development of a rapid method ...


Application Of Evidence-Based Medicine To Veterinary Science And Food Safety, Thomas Nishantha Denagamage Jan 2008

Application Of Evidence-Based Medicine To Veterinary Science And Food Safety, Thomas Nishantha Denagamage

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is an area of clinical medicine that uses aims to combine the best scientific evidence with practical experience to make the decision about a patient's outcome. The concept has been used in human medicine for the past 15-20 years and has expanded in include areas of evidence-based public health and evidence based nursing. In veterinary science and food safety, recent publications have discussed the need for evidence-based approaches to study design and literature review in agri-food public health to make informed decisions for food safety policy makers and other decision makers in food production continuum. The ...


The Influence Of Alcohol And Drug Use On One-Night Stands Among Adolescents, Lindsey Lee Aaron Jan 2008

The Influence Of Alcohol And Drug Use On One-Night Stands Among Adolescents, Lindsey Lee Aaron

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examined relationships between alcohol and drug use in adolescents and if it contributed to the participation of a one-night stand. Other variables investigated include gender, condom use, and attendance in religious services. To be included in the current study the participant had to fall between the ages of 18-25 years at the time of data collection and to report they engaged in sexual intercourse at least once within the past year (N=570). There is a significant relationship between alcohol use and participation in one-night stands. This did not hold true for drug use. The rate of condom ...


Process And Impact Evaluation Of The Verb Summer Scorecard Program, Travis William Hartke Jan 2008

Process And Impact Evaluation Of The Verb Summer Scorecard Program, Travis William Hartke

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

There is currently a considerable public health concern about levels of inactivity in youth. This type of information has led to many state and national initiatives aimed at promoting physical activity, such as the VERB Summer Scorecard Program in Story County, Iowa where tweens (children ages 8 to 13) can complete a VERB Scorecard of physical activity by going to physically active activities and deals at businesses in the community with the outcome of earning prizes. The purpose of the study was to determine factors that influence interest and involvement in the VERB summer scorecard program. To do this, a ...


Effect Of Cardiovascular Exercise Training Compared To Strength Flexibility Training On Inflammatory Mediators In An Elderly Population, Joji George Jan 2008

Effect Of Cardiovascular Exercise Training Compared To Strength Flexibility Training On Inflammatory Mediators In An Elderly Population, Joji George

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This longitudinal study was the first study to assess the effect of two different kinds of exercise on levels of proinflammatory cytokines in PBMC and serum. IL-1beta, TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels were measured using regular ELISA assay in PBMC; IL-6 was also measured in the serum using a high sensitivity ELISA kit. Physical activity measures and BMI was compared to assess the aerobic capacity, flexibility and effect of body weight on cytokine levels, with exercise.;There was a reduction seen in both the FLEX (strength and flexibility) and CARDIO (cardiovascular exercise) groups over ten months. There was a reduction in ...


Can Prosopagnosics Discriminate Similar, Non-Face Objects?, Jonathan Taylor Kahl Jan 2008

Can Prosopagnosics Discriminate Similar, Non-Face Objects?, Jonathan Taylor Kahl

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Casner (2006) tested the ability of a prosopagnosic, LB, to discriminate objects that would require the use of the coordinate relations recognition system posited by Cooper and Wojan. Casner reported that the prosopagnosic, LB, was impaired in coordinate relations tasks, but did not differ significantly from controls in all tasks that only required categorical recognition. However, Farah, Levinson, and Klein (1995) reported on a patient who was not impaired at discriminating eyeglasses, a task for which the coordinate relations hypothesis would predict an impairment. The present study replicated Farah et al.'s paradigm with the prosopagnosic, LB. One experiment found ...


Influence Of Media On Physiological Arousal, Kelsey Ryder Jan 2008

Influence Of Media On Physiological Arousal, Kelsey Ryder

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The influence of gender, violent media exposure, sexual media exposure, and sexual attitudes on physiological response to media was examined. A total of 34 participants (16 male and 18 female) were included in the final sample. Participants completed a measure of violent and sexual media exposure and the Beliefs About Preventing AIDS (BAPA) measure. Participants were shown movie clips with varying subject matter while their physiological arousal (heart rate and skin conductance) was recorded. Gender, media exposure, and sexual attitudes were not significant predictors of physiological response to violent and sexual media. Males and females did not differ on any ...


Nutritional And Hormonal Modulation Of Diabetes-Perturbed Folate, Homocysteine, And Methyl Group Metabolism, Kristin M. Nieman Jan 2008

Nutritional And Hormonal Modulation Of Diabetes-Perturbed Folate, Homocysteine, And Methyl Group Metabolism, Kristin M. Nieman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Folate, homocysteine, and methyl group metabolism mutually function to provide methyl groups for numerous biosynthetic- and modification-type reactions necessary for optimal health. Methyl groups from these pathways are utilized in the production of important compounds such as nucleic acids, protein, and phospholipids. Thus it is vital to understand the factors that both disrupt and maintain their delicate balance to prevent disease. Disruption of these metabolic pathways is associated with several pathologies including carcinogenesis, birth defects, and vascular disease. Moreover, the disruption of these metabolic pathways may be a link between chronic disease and complications of that disease. Both nutritional and ...


An Assessment Of Performance Measures In Child Nutrition Programs, Elizabeth Northway Hanna Jan 2008

An Assessment Of Performance Measures In Child Nutrition Programs, Elizabeth Northway Hanna

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

School Child Nutrition Program (CNP) directors are expected to operate efficient, productive, and effective meals programs (Boehrer, 1993; Decker, et al. 1992; USDA, 2008). A variety of performance measures can be used to assess CNPs' operational effectiveness. The purposes of this research were to investigate management and financial attributes perceived by foodservice directors of medium-size public school districts in the United States to impact performance measures for CNPs and investigate whether widely used standards for these performance measures, based on previous research, were relevant due to a variety of changes that had occurred in CNPs.;Two electronic questionnaires were sent ...


Ses Gradient In Psychological Distress Revisited: A Dynamic Perspective On The Mediating Effect Of Financial Strain And Mastery, Chih-Yuan Weng Jan 2008

Ses Gradient In Psychological Distress Revisited: A Dynamic Perspective On The Mediating Effect Of Financial Strain And Mastery, Chih-Yuan Weng

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

There is a well-established literature that both psychological distress and mental disorders are linked to the gradient of socioeconomic status (SES). According to the stress process model or the life stress paradigm, SES could affect mental health in at least two ways: first, by creating situations where lower SES people tend to experience stressors in greater quantity; second, by enhancing (e.g., due to underexposure of stress for high SES people) or undermining (e.g., due to overexposure of stress for low SES people) coping resources that are beneficial to psychological wellbeing. While the stress process model or the life ...