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Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Metaanalysis Of The Relationship Between Violent Video Game Play And Physical Aggression Over Time, Anna T. Prescott, James Sargent, Jay G. Hull Oct 2018

Metaanalysis Of The Relationship Between Violent Video Game Play And Physical Aggression Over Time, Anna T. Prescott, James Sargent, Jay G. Hull

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

To clarify and quantify the influence of video game violence (VGV) on aggressive behavior, we conducted a metaanalysis of all prospective studies to date that assessed the relation between exposure to VGV and subsequent overt physical aggression. The search strategy identified 24 studies with over 17,000 participants and time lags ranging from 3 months to 4 years. The samples comprised various nationalities and ethnicities with mean ages from 9 to 19 years. For each study we obtained the standardized regression coefficient for the prospective effect of VGV on subsequent aggression, controlling for baseline aggression. VGV was related to aggression ...


Sex-Specific Associations Of Infants’ Gut Microbiome With Arsenic Exposure In A Us Population, Anne G. Hoen, Juliette C. Madan, Zhigang Li, Modupe Coker, Sara N. Lundgren, Hilary G. Morrison, Thomas J. Palys, Brian P. Jackson, Mitchell L. Sogin, Kathryn L. Cottingham, Margaret R. Karagas Aug 2018

Sex-Specific Associations Of Infants’ Gut Microbiome With Arsenic Exposure In A Us Population, Anne G. Hoen, Juliette C. Madan, Zhigang Li, Modupe Coker, Sara N. Lundgren, Hilary G. Morrison, Thomas J. Palys, Brian P. Jackson, Mitchell L. Sogin, Kathryn L. Cottingham, Margaret R. Karagas

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Arsenic is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant with antimicrobial properties that can be found in food and drinking water. The influence of arsenic exposure on the composition of the human microbiome in US populations remains unknown, particularly during the vulnerable infant period. We investigated the relationship between arsenic exposure and gut microbiome composition in 204 infants prospectively followed as part of the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study. Infant urine was analyzed for total arsenic concentration using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Stool microbiome composition was determined using sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Infant urinary arsenic related to gut microbiome ...


Does Pictorial Health Information Improve Health Behaviours And Other Outcomes? A Systematic Review Protocol, Danielle Schubbe, Sarah Cohen, Renata W. Yen, Maria Vd Muijsenbergh, Peter Scalia, Catherine H. Saunders, Marie-Anne Durand Aug 2018

Does Pictorial Health Information Improve Health Behaviours And Other Outcomes? A Systematic Review Protocol, Danielle Schubbe, Sarah Cohen, Renata W. Yen, Maria Vd Muijsenbergh, Peter Scalia, Catherine H. Saunders, Marie-Anne Durand

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Introduction: Most health information is verbal or written, yet words alone may not be the most effective way to communicate health information. Lower health literacy is prevalent in the US and is linked to limited understanding of one’s medical condition and treatment. Pictures increase comprehension, recall, adherence and attention in health settings. This is called pictorial superiority. No systematic review has examined the impact of pictorial health information among patients and consumers, including those with lower health literacy.

Methods and analysis: This systematic review and meta-analysis will assess the characteristics and effectiveness of pictorial health information on patient and ...


Prevalence Rates Of Arthritis Among Us Older Adults With Varying Degrees Of Depression: Findings From The 2011 To 2014 National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey, Jessica L. Brooks, Alexander J. Titus, Courtney A. Polenick, Nicole M. Orzechowski, Manney Carrington Reid, Todd A. Mackenzie, Stephen J. Bartels, John A. Batsis Aug 2018

Prevalence Rates Of Arthritis Among Us Older Adults With Varying Degrees Of Depression: Findings From The 2011 To 2014 National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey, Jessica L. Brooks, Alexander J. Titus, Courtney A. Polenick, Nicole M. Orzechowski, Manney Carrington Reid, Todd A. Mackenzie, Stephen J. Bartels, John A. Batsis

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Arthritis and depressive symptoms often interact and negatively influence one another to worsen mental and physical health outcomes. Better characterization of arthritis rates among older adults with different levels of depressive symptoms is an important step toward informing mental health professionals of the need to detect and respond to arthritis and related mental health complications. The primary objective is to determine arthritis rates among US older adults with varying degrees of depression. Using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011 to 2014 data (N = 4792), we first identified participants aged ≥50 years. Measures screened for depressive symptoms and self‐reported ...


Metabolic Acidosis After Sodium Thiosulfate Infusion And The Role Of Hydrogen Sulfide, Guenola M. Hunt, Hilary F. Ryder Jul 2018

Metabolic Acidosis After Sodium Thiosulfate Infusion And The Role Of Hydrogen Sulfide, Guenola M. Hunt, Hilary F. Ryder

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Sodium thiosulfate (STS), first-line treatment for calcific uremic arteriolopathy, causes a mild asymptomatic acidosis in many patients. However, severe, life-threatening acidosis out of proportion with the expected acid load of STS may occur, potentially due to metabolism of STS to hydrogen sulfide.


The Workingwell Smartphone App For Individuals With Serious Mental Illnesses: A Proof-Of-Concept, Mixed Methods Feasibility Study (Preprint), Joanne Nicholson, Spenser M. Wright, Alyssa M. Carlisle, Mary Ann Greene Sweeney, Gregory J. Mchugo Jun 2018

The Workingwell Smartphone App For Individuals With Serious Mental Illnesses: A Proof-Of-Concept, Mixed Methods Feasibility Study (Preprint), Joanne Nicholson, Spenser M. Wright, Alyssa M. Carlisle, Mary Ann Greene Sweeney, Gregory J. Mchugo

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Background: The disparities in employment for individuals with serious mental illnesses (SMI) have been well documented, as have the benefits of work. The benefits of mobile technology in providing accessible, in-the-moment support for these individuals has been demonstrated. The WorkingWell mobile app was developed to meet the need for accessible follow-along supports for individuals with SMI in the workplace. Objective: We explore the usability, usage, usefulness and overall feasibility of the WorkingWell mobile app with individuals with SMI receiving community-based services and actively employed. Methods: In this proof-of-concept, mixed methods, two-month feasibility study (N=40), employed individuals with SMI were ...


Clinical Effectiveness Of Family Therapeutic Interventions In The Prevention And Treatment Of Perinatal Depression: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Fallon Cluxton-Keller, Martha L. Bruce Jun 2018

Clinical Effectiveness Of Family Therapeutic Interventions In The Prevention And Treatment Of Perinatal Depression: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Fallon Cluxton-Keller, Martha L. Bruce

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Background:

Family therapy is a potential strategy to increase family support for those suffering from perinatal depression. Family therapeutic interventions for this population typically target depressed women and their adult family members to improve family functioning and reduce depressive symptoms.

Objective:

This systematic review and meta-analysis is a synthesis of the current evidence on the usefulness of family therapy interventions in the prevention and treatment of perinatal depression and impacts on maternal depressive symptoms and family functioning.

Methods:

This study used the Cochrane Collaboration guidelines for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Six electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials and ...


Workshop On Emerging Technology And Data Analytics For Behavioral Health, David Kotz, Sarah E. Lord, A. James O'Malley, Luke Stark, Lisa Marsch Jun 2018

Workshop On Emerging Technology And Data Analytics For Behavioral Health, David Kotz, Sarah E. Lord, A. James O'Malley, Luke Stark, Lisa Marsch

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Wearable and portable digital devices can support self-monitoring for patients with chronic medical conditions, individuals seeking to reduce stress, and people seeking to modify health-related behaviors such as substance use or overeating. The resulting data may be used directly by a consumer, or shared with a clinician for treatment, a caregiver for assistance, or a health coach for support. The data can also be used by researchers to develop and evaluate just-in-time interventions that leverage mobile technology to help individuals manage their symptoms and behavior in real time and as needed. Such wearable systems have huge potential for promoting delivery ...


Daily Associations Between Objective Sleep And Consumption Of Highly Palatable Food In Free-Living Conditions, W. S. Chan May 2018

Daily Associations Between Objective Sleep And Consumption Of Highly Palatable Food In Free-Living Conditions, W. S. Chan

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Objectives:

Prior studies have shown that individuals with shorter sleep duration and later sleep timing consume more highly palatable food (HPF). It is unclear if this relationship exists at the within‐individual level, e.g. if sleeping less or later on one night is associated with greater HPF consumption in the following day in naturalistic environments. This study examined the daily associations between naturalistic sleep and HPF consumption.

Methods:

Data were obtained from 78 healthy young adults (age = 20.38 [SD = 2.40] years). Participants carried a wrist actigraph and completed daily diaries tracking food consumption and covariates for seven ...


Continue, Adjust, Or Stop Antipsychotic Medication: Developing And User Testing An Encounter Decision Aid For People With First-Episode And Long-Term Psychosis, Yaara Zisman-Ilani, David Shern, Patricia Deegan, Julie Kreyenbuhl, Lisa Dixon, Robert Drake, William Torrey, Manish Mishra, Ksenia Gorbenko, Glyn Elwyn May 2018

Continue, Adjust, Or Stop Antipsychotic Medication: Developing And User Testing An Encounter Decision Aid For People With First-Episode And Long-Term Psychosis, Yaara Zisman-Ilani, David Shern, Patricia Deegan, Julie Kreyenbuhl, Lisa Dixon, Robert Drake, William Torrey, Manish Mishra, Ksenia Gorbenko, Glyn Elwyn

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Background:

People with psychosis struggle with decisions about their use of antipsychotics. They often want to reduce the dose or stop, while facing uncertainty regarding the effects these decisions will have on their treatment and recovery. They may also fear raising this issue with clinicians. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a shared decision making (SDM) tool to support patients and clinicians in making decisions about antipsychotics.

Methods:

A diverse editorial research team developed an Encounter Decision Aid (EDA) for patients and clinicians to use as part of the psychiatric consultation. The EDA was tested using ...


Daily Associations Between Objective Sleep And Consumption Of Highly Palatable Food In Free‐Living Conditions, W S. Chan May 2018

Daily Associations Between Objective Sleep And Consumption Of Highly Palatable Food In Free‐Living Conditions, W S. Chan

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Prior studies have shown that individuals with shorter sleep duration and later sleep timing consume more highly palatable food (HPF). It is unclear if this relationship exists at the within-individual level, e.g. if sleeping less or later on one night is associated with greater HPF consumption in the following day in naturalistic environments. This study examined the daily associations between naturalistic sleep and HPF consumption.


Continue, Adjust, Or Stop Antipsychotic Medication: Developing And User Testing An Encounter Decision Aid For People With First-Episode And Long-Term Psychosis, Yaara Zisman-Ilani, David Shern, Patricia Deegan, Julie Kreyenbuhl, Lisa Dixon, Robert Drake, Manish Mishra, Ksenia Gorbenko, Glyn Elwyn May 2018

Continue, Adjust, Or Stop Antipsychotic Medication: Developing And User Testing An Encounter Decision Aid For People With First-Episode And Long-Term Psychosis, Yaara Zisman-Ilani, David Shern, Patricia Deegan, Julie Kreyenbuhl, Lisa Dixon, Robert Drake, Manish Mishra, Ksenia Gorbenko, Glyn Elwyn

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

People with psychosis struggle with decisions about their use of antipsychotics. They often want to reduce the dose or stop, while facing uncertainty regarding the effects these decisions will have on their treatment and recovery. They may also fear raising this issue with clinicians. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a shared decision making (SDM) tool to support patients and clinicians in making decisions about antipsychotics.


Neural Responses To Naturalistic Clips Tf Behaving Animals Under Two Different Task Contexts, Samuel A. Nastase, Yaroslav O. Halchenko, Andrew C. Connolly, M. Ida Gobbini, James V. Haxby May 2018

Neural Responses To Naturalistic Clips Tf Behaving Animals Under Two Different Task Contexts, Samuel A. Nastase, Yaroslav O. Halchenko, Andrew C. Connolly, M. Ida Gobbini, James V. Haxby

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

The human brain rapidly deploys semantic information during perception to facilitate our interaction with the world. These semantic representations are encoded in the activity of distributed populations of neurons (Haxby et al., 2001; McClelland and Rogers, 2003; Kriegeskorte et al., 2008b) and command widespread cortical real estate (Binder et al., 2009; Huth et al., 2012). The neural representation of a stimulus can be described as a location (i.e., response vector) in a high-dimensional neural representational space (Kriegeskorte and Kievit, 2013; Haxby et al., 2014). This resonates with behavioral and theoretical work describing mental representations of objects and actions as ...


Too Important To Ignore: Leveraging Digital Technology To Improve Chronic Illness Management Among Black Men, Stuart W. Grande, Ledric D. Sherman May 2018

Too Important To Ignore: Leveraging Digital Technology To Improve Chronic Illness Management Among Black Men, Stuart W. Grande, Ledric D. Sherman

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Health disparities associated with chronic illness experiences of black men demonstrate widespread, systematic failures to meet an urgent need. Well-established social and behavioral determinants that have led to health disparities among black men include racism, discrimination, and stress. While advocacy work that includes community-engagement and tailoring health promotion strategies have shown local impact, evidence shows the gaps are increasing. We suspect that failure to reduce current disparities may be due to conventional public health interventions and programs; therefore, we submit that innovative interventions, ones that embrace digital technologies and their ability to harness naturally occurring social networks within groups, like ...


Too Important To Ignore: Leveraging Digital Technology To Improve Chronic Illness Management Among Black Men, Stuart W. Grande, Ledric D. Sherman May 2018

Too Important To Ignore: Leveraging Digital Technology To Improve Chronic Illness Management Among Black Men, Stuart W. Grande, Ledric D. Sherman

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Health disparities associated with chronic illness experiences of black men demonstrate widespread, systematic failures to meet an urgent need. Well-established social and behavioral determinants that have led to health disparities among black men include racism, discrimination, and stress. While advocacy work that includes community-engagement and tailoring health promotion strategies have shown local impact, evidence shows the gaps are increasing. We suspect that failure to reduce current disparities may be due to conventional public health interventions and programs; therefore, we submit that innovative interventions, ones that embrace digital technologies and their ability to harness naturally occurring social networks within groups, like ...


Altruism, Scepticism, And Collective Decision-Making In Foreign-Born U.S. Residents In A Tuberculosis Vaccine Trial, Sienna R. Craig, Timothy Lahey, Apoorva Dixit, C. Fordham Von Reyn Apr 2018

Altruism, Scepticism, And Collective Decision-Making In Foreign-Born U.S. Residents In A Tuberculosis Vaccine Trial, Sienna R. Craig, Timothy Lahey, Apoorva Dixit, C. Fordham Von Reyn

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Background:

The current vaccine against tuberculosis, BCG, is effective when given in most TB-endemic countries at birth but has diminished efficacy against pulmonary TB after 15–20 years. As a result, new booster vaccines for adolescents and adults are being developed to realize the World Health Organization target of global elimination of TB by 2035. Multiple TB candidates thus are in active clinical development.

Methods:

One of these, DAR-901, is advancing in human clinical trials. These clinical trials are conducted in BCG immunized adults with and without HIV infection in order to assess safety and efficacy among the people most ...


Altruism, Scepticism, And Collective Decision-Making In Foreign-Born U.S. Residents In A Tuberculosis Vaccine Trial, Sienna Craig, Timothy Lahey, Apoorva Dixit, C. Fordham Von Reyn Apr 2018

Altruism, Scepticism, And Collective Decision-Making In Foreign-Born U.S. Residents In A Tuberculosis Vaccine Trial, Sienna Craig, Timothy Lahey, Apoorva Dixit, C. Fordham Von Reyn

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

The current vaccine against tuberculosis, BCG, is effective when given in most TB-endemic countries at birth but has diminished efficacy against pulmonary TB after 15–20 years. As a result, new booster vaccines for adolescents and adults are being developed to realize the World Health Organization target of global elimination of TB by 2035. Multiple TB candidates thus are in active clinical development.


Diagnostic Value Of Lingual Tonsillectomy In Unknown Primary Head And Neck Carcinoma Identification After A Negative Clinical Workup And Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography, Chad K. Sudoko, Marc A. Polacco, Benoit J. Gosselin, Joseph A. Paydarfar Apr 2018

Diagnostic Value Of Lingual Tonsillectomy In Unknown Primary Head And Neck Carcinoma Identification After A Negative Clinical Workup And Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography, Chad K. Sudoko, Marc A. Polacco, Benoit J. Gosselin, Joseph A. Paydarfar

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Objective: Diagnostic rates of unknown primary head and neck carcinoma (UPHNC) using lingual tonsillectomy (LT) are highly variable. This study sought to determine the diagnostic value of LT in UPHNC identification using strict inclusion criteria and definitions to produce a more accurate estimate of diagnosis rate.

Methods: In this retrospective chart review, records of patients who underwent LT for UPHNC were reviewed. Inclusion criteria included absence of suspicious findings on physical exam and positron emission tomography-computed tomography as well as negative biopsies after panendoscopy and palatine tonsillectomy. Following inclusion criteria, 16 patients were reviewed. A systematic literature review on LT ...


Diagnostic Value Of Lingual Tonsillectomy In Unknown Primary Head And Neck Carcinoma Identification After A Negative Clinical Workup And Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography, Chad K. Sudoko, Benoit J. Gosselin, Joseph A. Paydarfar Apr 2018

Diagnostic Value Of Lingual Tonsillectomy In Unknown Primary Head And Neck Carcinoma Identification After A Negative Clinical Workup And Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography, Chad K. Sudoko, Benoit J. Gosselin, Joseph A. Paydarfar

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

OBJECTIVE: Diagnostic rates of unknown primary head and neck carcinoma (UPHNC) using lingual tonsillectomy (LT) are highly variable. This study sought to determine the diagnostic value of LT in UPHNC identification using strict inclusion criteria and definitions to produce a more accurate estimate of diagnosis rate. METHODS: In this retrospective chart review, records of patients who underwent LT for UPHNC were reviewed. Inclusion criteria included absence of suspicious findings on physical exam and positron emission tomography-computed tomography as well as negative biopsies after panendoscopy and palatine tonsillectomy. Following inclusion criteria, 16 patients were reviewed. A systematic literature review on LT ...


Impact Of Prenatal Stress On Offspring Glucocorticoid Levels: A Phylogenetic Meta-Analysis Across 14 Vertebrate Species, Zaneta M. Thayer, Meredith A. Wilson, Andrew W. Kim, Adrian V. Jaeggi Mar 2018

Impact Of Prenatal Stress On Offspring Glucocorticoid Levels: A Phylogenetic Meta-Analysis Across 14 Vertebrate Species, Zaneta M. Thayer, Meredith A. Wilson, Andrew W. Kim, Adrian V. Jaeggi

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Prenatal exposure to maternal stress is commonly associated with variation in Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal (HPA)-axis functioning in ofspring. However, the strength or consistency of this response has never been empirically evaluated across vertebrate species. Here we meta-analyzed 114 results from 39 studies across 14 vertebrate species using Bayesian phylogenetic mixed-efects models. We found a positive overall efect of prenatal stress on ofspring glucocorticoids (d’=0.43) though the 95% Highest Posterior Density Interval overlapped with 0 (−0.16–0.95). Meta-regressions of potential moderators highlighted that phylogeny and life history variables predicted relatively little variation in efect size. Experimental ...


Architecting A System Model For Personalized Healthcare Delivery And Managed Individual Health Outcomes, Inas S. Khayal, Amro M. Farid Mar 2018

Architecting A System Model For Personalized Healthcare Delivery And Managed Individual Health Outcomes, Inas S. Khayal, Amro M. Farid

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

In recent years, healthcare needs have shifted from treating acute conditions to meeting an unprecedented chronic disease burden. The healthcare delivery system has structurally evolved to address two primary features of acute care: the relatively short time period, on the order of a patient encounter, and the siloed focus on organs or organ systems, thereby operationally fragmenting and providing care by organ specialty. Much more so than acute conditions, chronic disease involves multiple health factors with complex interactions between them over a prolonged period of time necessitating a healthcare delivery model that is personalized to achieve individual health outcomes. Using ...


Pre-Post, Mixed Methods Feasibility Study Of The Workingwell Mobile Support Tool For Individuals With Serious Mental Illness In The United States, Johanne Nicholson, Spenser M. Wright, Alyssa M. Carlisle Feb 2018

Pre-Post, Mixed Methods Feasibility Study Of The Workingwell Mobile Support Tool For Individuals With Serious Mental Illness In The United States, Johanne Nicholson, Spenser M. Wright, Alyssa M. Carlisle

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Successful competitive employment has been found to be related to enhanced self-esteem, higher quality of life and reduced mental health service use for individuals living with serious mental illnesses (SMIs) including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression. The effectiveness of the individual placement and support model has been demonstrated in multiple randomised controlled trials in many countries. The management of stress, depression and anxiety in the workplace may be effectively enhanced through digital mental health interventions. The WorkingWell mobile support tool (‘app’) is specifically designed to meet the need for illness management support for individuals with SMI in the workplace ...


Closed-Loop Stimulation Of Temporal Cortex Rescues Functional Networks And Improves Memory, Yousseff Ezzyat, Paul A. Wanda, Deborah F. Levy, Allison Kadel, Ada Aka, Isaac Pedisich, Michael R. Sperling, Ashwini D. Sharan, Bradley C. Lega, Alexis Burks, Robert E. Gross, Cory S. Inman, Barbara C. Jobst, Mark A. Gorenstein Feb 2018

Closed-Loop Stimulation Of Temporal Cortex Rescues Functional Networks And Improves Memory, Yousseff Ezzyat, Paul A. Wanda, Deborah F. Levy, Allison Kadel, Ada Aka, Isaac Pedisich, Michael R. Sperling, Ashwini D. Sharan, Bradley C. Lega, Alexis Burks, Robert E. Gross, Cory S. Inman, Barbara C. Jobst, Mark A. Gorenstein

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Memory failures are frustrating and often the result of ineffective encoding. One approach to improving memory outcomes is through direct modulation of brain activity with electrical stimulation. Previous efforts, however, have reported inconsistent effects when using open-loop stimulation and often target the hippocampus and medial temporal lobes. Here we use a closed-loop system to monitor and decode neural activity from direct brain recordings in humans. We apply targeted stimulation to lateral temporal cortex and report that this stimulation rescues periods of poor memory encoding. This system also improves later recall, revealing that the lateral temporal cortex is a reliable target ...


Similar Neural Responses Predict Friendship, Carolyn Parkinson, Adam M. Kleinbaum, Thalia Wheatley Jan 2018

Similar Neural Responses Predict Friendship, Carolyn Parkinson, Adam M. Kleinbaum, Thalia Wheatley

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Human social networks are overwhelmingly homophilous: individuals tend to befriend others who are similar to them in terms of a range of physical attributes (e.g., age, gender). Do similarities among friends reflect deeper similarities in how we perceive, interpret, and respond to the world? To test whether friendship, and more generally, social network proximity, is associated with increased similarity of real-time mental responding, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to scan subjects’ brains during free viewing of naturalistic movies. Here we show evidence for neural homophily: neural responses when viewing audiovisual movies are exceptionally similar among friends, and that ...


Machine Learning Based Classification Of Deep Brain Stimulation Outcomes In A Rat Model Of Binge Eating Using Ventral Striatal Oscillations, Wilder Doucette, Lucas Dwiel, Jared E. Boyce, Amanda A. Simon, Jibran Y. Khokhar, Alan I. Green Jan 2018

Machine Learning Based Classification Of Deep Brain Stimulation Outcomes In A Rat Model Of Binge Eating Using Ventral Striatal Oscillations, Wilder Doucette, Lucas Dwiel, Jared E. Boyce, Amanda A. Simon, Jibran Y. Khokhar, Alan I. Green

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Neuromodulation-based interventions continue to be evaluated across an array of appetitive disorders but broader implementation of these approaches remains limited due to variable treatment outcomes. We hypothesize that individual variation in treatment outcomes may be linked to differences in the networks underlying these disorders. Here, Sprague-Dawley rats received deep brain stimulation separately within each nucleus accumbens (NAc) sub-region (core and shell) using a within-animal crossover design in a rat model of binge eating. Significant reductions in binge size were observed with stimulation of either target but with significant variation in effectiveness across individuals. When features of local field potentials (LFPs ...


Impact Of Numeracy On Understanding Of Prostate Cancer Risk Reduction In Psa Screening, Kevin Koo, Charles D. Brackett, Ellen H. Eisenburg, Kelly A. Kieffer, Elias S. Hyams Dec 2017

Impact Of Numeracy On Understanding Of Prostate Cancer Risk Reduction In Psa Screening, Kevin Koo, Charles D. Brackett, Ellen H. Eisenburg, Kelly A. Kieffer, Elias S. Hyams

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer in men of average risk remains controversial. Patients’ ability to incorporate risk reduction data into their decision-making may depend on their numeracy. We assessed the impact of patients’ numeracy on their understanding of the risk reduction benefits of PSA screening. Men attending a general internal medicine clinic were invited to complete a survey. Four versions of the survey each included a three-item numeracy test and PSA risk reduction data, framed one of four ways: absolute (ARR) versus relative risk reduction (RRR), with or without baseline risk (BR). Respondents were asked to adjust their ...


Iron Reduction Response And Demographic Differences Between Diabetics And Non-Diabetics With Cardiovascular Disease Entered To A Controlled Clinical Trial, Leo Zacharski, Galina Shamayeva, Bruce Chow Dec 2017

Iron Reduction Response And Demographic Differences Between Diabetics And Non-Diabetics With Cardiovascular Disease Entered To A Controlled Clinical Trial, Leo Zacharski, Galina Shamayeva, Bruce Chow

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Iron-catalyzed oxygen free radical-induced oxidative stress mediates the pathogenesis of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Diabetics (n=473) and non-diabetics (n=804) with CVD entered to a randomized trial of iron (ferritin) reduction by calibrated phlebotomy (www.clinicaltrials.gov, Identifier NCT00032357) had comparable iron measures at entry but diabetics had greater burden of CVD and comorbidities, lower hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and higher glucose levels than non-diabetics. Entry iron measures were lower in diabetics on hypoglycemic therapy compared to diabetics untreated previously. Diabetics and non-diabetics had comparable iron measures during follow-up. Loess analysis of paired ferritin and hemoglobin, and paired ...


Vista Deficiency Attenuates Antibody-Induced Arthritis And Alters Macrophage Gene Expression In Response To Simulated Immune Complexes, Sabrina Ceeraz, Susan K. Eszterhas, Petra Sergent, David A. Armstrong, Alix Ashare, Thomas Broughton, Li Wang, Dov Pechenick, Christopher M. Burns, Randolph J. Noelle, Matthew P. Vincenti, Roy A. Fava Dec 2017

Vista Deficiency Attenuates Antibody-Induced Arthritis And Alters Macrophage Gene Expression In Response To Simulated Immune Complexes, Sabrina Ceeraz, Susan K. Eszterhas, Petra Sergent, David A. Armstrong, Alix Ashare, Thomas Broughton, Li Wang, Dov Pechenick, Christopher M. Burns, Randolph J. Noelle, Matthew P. Vincenti, Roy A. Fava

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

In addition to activated T cells, the immune checkpoint inhibitor “V domain-containing Ig suppressor of T-cell activation” (VISTA) is expressed by myeloid cell types, including macrophages and neutrophils. The importance of VISTA expression by myeloid cells to antibody-induced arthritis and its potential for relevance in human disease was evaluated. Methods: VISTA was immunolocalized in normal and arthritic human synovial tissue sections and synovial tissue lysates were subjected to western blot analysis. The collagen antibody-induced arthritis model (CAIA) was performed with DBA/1 J mice treated with antibodies against VISTA and with VISTA-deficient mice (V-KO). Total mRNA from arthritic joints, spleens ...


Lung Malignancy In Prostate Cancer: A Report Of Both Metastatic And Primary Lung Lesions, Lael Reinstatler, Jonathan Dupuis, Jessica L. Dillon, Candace C. Black, Joseph D. Phillips, Elias S. Hyams Dec 2017

Lung Malignancy In Prostate Cancer: A Report Of Both Metastatic And Primary Lung Lesions, Lael Reinstatler, Jonathan Dupuis, Jessica L. Dillon, Candace C. Black, Joseph D. Phillips, Elias S. Hyams

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous malignancy diagnosed in men. When it metastasizes, it usually spreads to bone and/or lymph nodes. A handful of cases have described prostatic metastases to the lung; however, this is usually in the setting of existing bone lesions. Here we describe a unique case in which a patient was found to have both metastatic prostate cancer to the lung and a primary lung cancer in the absence of any other evidence of extra-prostatic disease.


Small Rna Teg49 Is Derived From A Sara Transcript And Regulates Virulence Genes Independent Of Sara In Staphylococcus Aureus, Adhar Manna, Samin Kim, Liviu Cengher, Anna Corvaglia, Stefano Leo, Patrice Francois, Ambrose L. Cheung Nov 2017

Small Rna Teg49 Is Derived From A Sara Transcript And Regulates Virulence Genes Independent Of Sara In Staphylococcus Aureus, Adhar Manna, Samin Kim, Liviu Cengher, Anna Corvaglia, Stefano Leo, Patrice Francois, Ambrose L. Cheung

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Expression of virulence factors in Staphylococcus aureus is regulated by a wide range of transcriptional regulators, including proteins and small RNAs (sRNAs), at the level of transcription and/or translation. The sarA locus consists of three overlapping transcripts generated from three distinct promoters, all containing the sarA open reading frame (ORF). The 5= untranslated regions (UTRs) of these transcripts contain three separate regions 711, 409, and 146 nucleotides (nt) upstream of the sarA translation start, the functions of which remain unknown. Re- cent transcriptome-sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis and subsequent characterization indicated that two sRNAs, teg49 and teg48, are processed and likely ...