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Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Metaanalysis Of The Relationship Between Violent Video Game Play And Physical Aggression Over Time, Anna T. Prescott, James Sargent, Jay G. Hull Oct 2018

Metaanalysis Of The Relationship Between Violent Video Game Play And Physical Aggression Over Time, Anna T. Prescott, James Sargent, Jay G. Hull

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

To clarify and quantify the influence of video game violence (VGV) on aggressive behavior, we conducted a metaanalysis of all prospective studies to date that assessed the relation between exposure to VGV and subsequent overt physical aggression. The search strategy identified 24 studies with over 17,000 participants and time lags ranging from 3 months to 4 years. The samples comprised various nationalities and ethnicities with mean ages from 9 to 19 years. For each study we obtained the standardized regression coefficient for the prospective effect of VGV on subsequent aggression, controlling for baseline aggression. VGV was related to aggression ...


Sex-Specific Associations Of Infants’ Gut Microbiome With Arsenic Exposure In A Us Population, Anne G. Hoen, Juliette C. Madan, Zhigang Li, Modupe Coker, Sara N. Lundgren, Hilary G. Morrison, Thomas J. Palys, Brian P. Jackson, Mitchell L. Sogin, Kathryn L. Cottingham, Margaret R. Karagas Aug 2018

Sex-Specific Associations Of Infants’ Gut Microbiome With Arsenic Exposure In A Us Population, Anne G. Hoen, Juliette C. Madan, Zhigang Li, Modupe Coker, Sara N. Lundgren, Hilary G. Morrison, Thomas J. Palys, Brian P. Jackson, Mitchell L. Sogin, Kathryn L. Cottingham, Margaret R. Karagas

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Arsenic is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant with antimicrobial properties that can be found in food and drinking water. The influence of arsenic exposure on the composition of the human microbiome in US populations remains unknown, particularly during the vulnerable infant period. We investigated the relationship between arsenic exposure and gut microbiome composition in 204 infants prospectively followed as part of the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study. Infant urine was analyzed for total arsenic concentration using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Stool microbiome composition was determined using sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Infant urinary arsenic related to gut microbiome ...


Does Pictorial Health Information Improve Health Behaviours And Other Outcomes? A Systematic Review Protocol, Danielle Schubbe, Sarah Cohen, Renata W. Yen, Maria Vd Muijsenbergh, Peter Scalia, Catherine H. Saunders, Marie-Anne Durand Aug 2018

Does Pictorial Health Information Improve Health Behaviours And Other Outcomes? A Systematic Review Protocol, Danielle Schubbe, Sarah Cohen, Renata W. Yen, Maria Vd Muijsenbergh, Peter Scalia, Catherine H. Saunders, Marie-Anne Durand

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Introduction: Most health information is verbal or written, yet words alone may not be the most effective way to communicate health information. Lower health literacy is prevalent in the US and is linked to limited understanding of one’s medical condition and treatment. Pictures increase comprehension, recall, adherence and attention in health settings. This is called pictorial superiority. No systematic review has examined the impact of pictorial health information among patients and consumers, including those with lower health literacy.

Methods and analysis: This systematic review and meta-analysis will assess the characteristics and effectiveness of pictorial health information on patient and ...


Prevalence Rates Of Arthritis Among Us Older Adults With Varying Degrees Of Depression: Findings From The 2011 To 2014 National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey, Jessica L. Brooks, Alexander J. Titus, Courtney A. Polenick, Nicole M. Orzechowski, Manney Carrington Reid, Todd A. Mackenzie, Stephen J. Bartels, John A. Batsis Aug 2018

Prevalence Rates Of Arthritis Among Us Older Adults With Varying Degrees Of Depression: Findings From The 2011 To 2014 National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey, Jessica L. Brooks, Alexander J. Titus, Courtney A. Polenick, Nicole M. Orzechowski, Manney Carrington Reid, Todd A. Mackenzie, Stephen J. Bartels, John A. Batsis

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Arthritis and depressive symptoms often interact and negatively influence one another to worsen mental and physical health outcomes. Better characterization of arthritis rates among older adults with different levels of depressive symptoms is an important step toward informing mental health professionals of the need to detect and respond to arthritis and related mental health complications. The primary objective is to determine arthritis rates among US older adults with varying degrees of depression. Using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011 to 2014 data (N = 4792), we first identified participants aged ≥50 years. Measures screened for depressive symptoms and self‐reported ...


Metabolic Acidosis After Sodium Thiosulfate Infusion And The Role Of Hydrogen Sulfide, Guenola M. Hunt, Hilary F. Ryder Jul 2018

Metabolic Acidosis After Sodium Thiosulfate Infusion And The Role Of Hydrogen Sulfide, Guenola M. Hunt, Hilary F. Ryder

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Sodium thiosulfate (STS), first-line treatment for calcific uremic arteriolopathy, causes a mild asymptomatic acidosis in many patients. However, severe, life-threatening acidosis out of proportion with the expected acid load of STS may occur, potentially due to metabolism of STS to hydrogen sulfide.


The Workingwell Smartphone App For Individuals With Serious Mental Illnesses: A Proof-Of-Concept, Mixed Methods Feasibility Study (Preprint), Joanne Nicholson, Spenser M. Wright, Alyssa M. Carlisle, Mary Ann Greene Sweeney, Gregory J. Mchugo Jun 2018

The Workingwell Smartphone App For Individuals With Serious Mental Illnesses: A Proof-Of-Concept, Mixed Methods Feasibility Study (Preprint), Joanne Nicholson, Spenser M. Wright, Alyssa M. Carlisle, Mary Ann Greene Sweeney, Gregory J. Mchugo

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Background: The disparities in employment for individuals with serious mental illnesses (SMI) have been well documented, as have the benefits of work. The benefits of mobile technology in providing accessible, in-the-moment support for these individuals has been demonstrated. The WorkingWell mobile app was developed to meet the need for accessible follow-along supports for individuals with SMI in the workplace. Objective: We explore the usability, usage, usefulness and overall feasibility of the WorkingWell mobile app with individuals with SMI receiving community-based services and actively employed. Methods: In this proof-of-concept, mixed methods, two-month feasibility study (N=40), employed individuals with SMI were ...


Clinical Effectiveness Of Family Therapeutic Interventions In The Prevention And Treatment Of Perinatal Depression: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Fallon Cluxton-Keller, Martha L. Bruce Jun 2018

Clinical Effectiveness Of Family Therapeutic Interventions In The Prevention And Treatment Of Perinatal Depression: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Fallon Cluxton-Keller, Martha L. Bruce

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Background:

Family therapy is a potential strategy to increase family support for those suffering from perinatal depression. Family therapeutic interventions for this population typically target depressed women and their adult family members to improve family functioning and reduce depressive symptoms.

Objective:

This systematic review and meta-analysis is a synthesis of the current evidence on the usefulness of family therapy interventions in the prevention and treatment of perinatal depression and impacts on maternal depressive symptoms and family functioning.

Methods:

This study used the Cochrane Collaboration guidelines for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Six electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials and ...


Daily Associations Between Objective Sleep And Consumption Of Highly Palatable Food In Free-Living Conditions, W. S. Chan May 2018

Daily Associations Between Objective Sleep And Consumption Of Highly Palatable Food In Free-Living Conditions, W. S. Chan

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Objectives:

Prior studies have shown that individuals with shorter sleep duration and later sleep timing consume more highly palatable food (HPF). It is unclear if this relationship exists at the within‐individual level, e.g. if sleeping less or later on one night is associated with greater HPF consumption in the following day in naturalistic environments. This study examined the daily associations between naturalistic sleep and HPF consumption.

Methods:

Data were obtained from 78 healthy young adults (age = 20.38 [SD = 2.40] years). Participants carried a wrist actigraph and completed daily diaries tracking food consumption and covariates for seven ...


Continue, Adjust, Or Stop Antipsychotic Medication: Developing And User Testing An Encounter Decision Aid For People With First-Episode And Long-Term Psychosis, Yaara Zisman-Ilani, David Shern, Patricia Deegan, Julie Kreyenbuhl, Lisa Dixon, Robert Drake, William Torrey, Manish Mishra, Ksenia Gorbenko, Glyn Elwyn May 2018

Continue, Adjust, Or Stop Antipsychotic Medication: Developing And User Testing An Encounter Decision Aid For People With First-Episode And Long-Term Psychosis, Yaara Zisman-Ilani, David Shern, Patricia Deegan, Julie Kreyenbuhl, Lisa Dixon, Robert Drake, William Torrey, Manish Mishra, Ksenia Gorbenko, Glyn Elwyn

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Background:

People with psychosis struggle with decisions about their use of antipsychotics. They often want to reduce the dose or stop, while facing uncertainty regarding the effects these decisions will have on their treatment and recovery. They may also fear raising this issue with clinicians. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a shared decision making (SDM) tool to support patients and clinicians in making decisions about antipsychotics.

Methods:

A diverse editorial research team developed an Encounter Decision Aid (EDA) for patients and clinicians to use as part of the psychiatric consultation. The EDA was tested using ...


Too Important To Ignore: Leveraging Digital Technology To Improve Chronic Illness Management Among Black Men, Stuart W. Grande, Ledric D. Sherman May 2018

Too Important To Ignore: Leveraging Digital Technology To Improve Chronic Illness Management Among Black Men, Stuart W. Grande, Ledric D. Sherman

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Health disparities associated with chronic illness experiences of black men demonstrate widespread, systematic failures to meet an urgent need. Well-established social and behavioral determinants that have led to health disparities among black men include racism, discrimination, and stress. While advocacy work that includes community-engagement and tailoring health promotion strategies have shown local impact, evidence shows the gaps are increasing. We suspect that failure to reduce current disparities may be due to conventional public health interventions and programs; therefore, we submit that innovative interventions, ones that embrace digital technologies and their ability to harness naturally occurring social networks within groups, like ...


Altruism, Scepticism, And Collective Decision-Making In Foreign-Born U.S. Residents In A Tuberculosis Vaccine Trial, Sienna R. Craig, Timothy Lahey, Apoorva Dixit, C. Fordham Von Reyn Apr 2018

Altruism, Scepticism, And Collective Decision-Making In Foreign-Born U.S. Residents In A Tuberculosis Vaccine Trial, Sienna R. Craig, Timothy Lahey, Apoorva Dixit, C. Fordham Von Reyn

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Background:

The current vaccine against tuberculosis, BCG, is effective when given in most TB-endemic countries at birth but has diminished efficacy against pulmonary TB after 15–20 years. As a result, new booster vaccines for adolescents and adults are being developed to realize the World Health Organization target of global elimination of TB by 2035. Multiple TB candidates thus are in active clinical development.

Methods:

One of these, DAR-901, is advancing in human clinical trials. These clinical trials are conducted in BCG immunized adults with and without HIV infection in order to assess safety and efficacy among the people most ...


Diagnostic Value Of Lingual Tonsillectomy In Unknown Primary Head And Neck Carcinoma Identification After A Negative Clinical Workup And Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography, Chad K. Sudoko, Marc A. Polacco, Benoit J. Gosselin, Joseph A. Paydarfar Apr 2018

Diagnostic Value Of Lingual Tonsillectomy In Unknown Primary Head And Neck Carcinoma Identification After A Negative Clinical Workup And Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography, Chad K. Sudoko, Marc A. Polacco, Benoit J. Gosselin, Joseph A. Paydarfar

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Objective: Diagnostic rates of unknown primary head and neck carcinoma (UPHNC) using lingual tonsillectomy (LT) are highly variable. This study sought to determine the diagnostic value of LT in UPHNC identification using strict inclusion criteria and definitions to produce a more accurate estimate of diagnosis rate.

Methods: In this retrospective chart review, records of patients who underwent LT for UPHNC were reviewed. Inclusion criteria included absence of suspicious findings on physical exam and positron emission tomography-computed tomography as well as negative biopsies after panendoscopy and palatine tonsillectomy. Following inclusion criteria, 16 patients were reviewed. A systematic literature review on LT ...


Architecting A System Model For Personalized Healthcare Delivery And Managed Individual Health Outcomes, Inas S. Khayal, Amro M. Farid Mar 2018

Architecting A System Model For Personalized Healthcare Delivery And Managed Individual Health Outcomes, Inas S. Khayal, Amro M. Farid

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

In recent years, healthcare needs have shifted from treating acute conditions to meeting an unprecedented chronic disease burden. The healthcare delivery system has structurally evolved to address two primary features of acute care: the relatively short time period, on the order of a patient encounter, and the siloed focus on organs or organ systems, thereby operationally fragmenting and providing care by organ specialty. Much more so than acute conditions, chronic disease involves multiple health factors with complex interactions between them over a prolonged period of time necessitating a healthcare delivery model that is personalized to achieve individual health outcomes. Using ...


Closed-Loop Stimulation Of Temporal Cortex Rescues Functional Networks And Improves Memory, Yousseff Ezzyat, Paul A. Wanda, Deborah F. Levy, Allison Kadel, Ada Aka, Isaac Pedisich, Michael R. Sperling, Ashwini D. Sharan, Bradley C. Lega, Alexis Burks, Robert E. Gross, Cory S. Inman, Barbara C. Jobst, Mark A. Gorenstein Feb 2018

Closed-Loop Stimulation Of Temporal Cortex Rescues Functional Networks And Improves Memory, Yousseff Ezzyat, Paul A. Wanda, Deborah F. Levy, Allison Kadel, Ada Aka, Isaac Pedisich, Michael R. Sperling, Ashwini D. Sharan, Bradley C. Lega, Alexis Burks, Robert E. Gross, Cory S. Inman, Barbara C. Jobst, Mark A. Gorenstein

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Memory failures are frustrating and often the result of ineffective encoding. One approach to improving memory outcomes is through direct modulation of brain activity with electrical stimulation. Previous efforts, however, have reported inconsistent effects when using open-loop stimulation and often target the hippocampus and medial temporal lobes. Here we use a closed-loop system to monitor and decode neural activity from direct brain recordings in humans. We apply targeted stimulation to lateral temporal cortex and report that this stimulation rescues periods of poor memory encoding. This system also improves later recall, revealing that the lateral temporal cortex is a reliable target ...


Similar Neural Responses Predict Friendship, Carolyn Parkinson, Adam M. Kleinbaum, Thalia Wheatley Jan 2018

Similar Neural Responses Predict Friendship, Carolyn Parkinson, Adam M. Kleinbaum, Thalia Wheatley

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Human social networks are overwhelmingly homophilous: individuals tend to befriend others who are similar to them in terms of a range of physical attributes (e.g., age, gender). Do similarities among friends reflect deeper similarities in how we perceive, interpret, and respond to the world? To test whether friendship, and more generally, social network proximity, is associated with increased similarity of real-time mental responding, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to scan subjects’ brains during free viewing of naturalistic movies. Here we show evidence for neural homophily: neural responses when viewing audiovisual movies are exceptionally similar among friends, and that ...


Machine Learning Based Classification Of Deep Brain Stimulation Outcomes In A Rat Model Of Binge Eating Using Ventral Striatal Oscillations, Wilder Doucette, Lucas Dwiel, Jared E. Boyce, Amanda A. Simon, Jibran Y. Khokhar, Alan I. Green Jan 2018

Machine Learning Based Classification Of Deep Brain Stimulation Outcomes In A Rat Model Of Binge Eating Using Ventral Striatal Oscillations, Wilder Doucette, Lucas Dwiel, Jared E. Boyce, Amanda A. Simon, Jibran Y. Khokhar, Alan I. Green

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Neuromodulation-based interventions continue to be evaluated across an array of appetitive disorders but broader implementation of these approaches remains limited due to variable treatment outcomes. We hypothesize that individual variation in treatment outcomes may be linked to differences in the networks underlying these disorders. Here, Sprague-Dawley rats received deep brain stimulation separately within each nucleus accumbens (NAc) sub-region (core and shell) using a within-animal crossover design in a rat model of binge eating. Significant reductions in binge size were observed with stimulation of either target but with significant variation in effectiveness across individuals. When features of local field potentials (LFPs ...


Impact Of Numeracy On Understanding Of Prostate Cancer Risk Reduction In Psa Screening, Kevin Koo, Charles D. Brackett, Ellen H. Eisenburg, Kelly A. Kieffer, Elias S. Hyams Dec 2017

Impact Of Numeracy On Understanding Of Prostate Cancer Risk Reduction In Psa Screening, Kevin Koo, Charles D. Brackett, Ellen H. Eisenburg, Kelly A. Kieffer, Elias S. Hyams

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer in men of average risk remains controversial. Patients’ ability to incorporate risk reduction data into their decision-making may depend on their numeracy. We assessed the impact of patients’ numeracy on their understanding of the risk reduction benefits of PSA screening. Men attending a general internal medicine clinic were invited to complete a survey. Four versions of the survey each included a three-item numeracy test and PSA risk reduction data, framed one of four ways: absolute (ARR) versus relative risk reduction (RRR), with or without baseline risk (BR). Respondents were asked to adjust their ...


Iron Reduction Response And Demographic Differences Between Diabetics And Non-Diabetics With Cardiovascular Disease Entered To A Controlled Clinical Trial, Leo Zacharski, Galina Shamayeva, Bruce Chow Dec 2017

Iron Reduction Response And Demographic Differences Between Diabetics And Non-Diabetics With Cardiovascular Disease Entered To A Controlled Clinical Trial, Leo Zacharski, Galina Shamayeva, Bruce Chow

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Iron-catalyzed oxygen free radical-induced oxidative stress mediates the pathogenesis of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Diabetics (n=473) and non-diabetics (n=804) with CVD entered to a randomized trial of iron (ferritin) reduction by calibrated phlebotomy (www.clinicaltrials.gov, Identifier NCT00032357) had comparable iron measures at entry but diabetics had greater burden of CVD and comorbidities, lower hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and higher glucose levels than non-diabetics. Entry iron measures were lower in diabetics on hypoglycemic therapy compared to diabetics untreated previously. Diabetics and non-diabetics had comparable iron measures during follow-up. Loess analysis of paired ferritin and hemoglobin, and paired ...


Vista Deficiency Attenuates Antibody-Induced Arthritis And Alters Macrophage Gene Expression In Response To Simulated Immune Complexes, Sabrina Ceeraz, Susan K. Eszterhas, Petra Sergent, David A. Armstrong, Alix Ashare, Thomas Broughton, Li Wang, Dov Pechenick, Christopher M. Burns, Randolph J. Noelle, Matthew P. Vincenti, Roy A. Fava Dec 2017

Vista Deficiency Attenuates Antibody-Induced Arthritis And Alters Macrophage Gene Expression In Response To Simulated Immune Complexes, Sabrina Ceeraz, Susan K. Eszterhas, Petra Sergent, David A. Armstrong, Alix Ashare, Thomas Broughton, Li Wang, Dov Pechenick, Christopher M. Burns, Randolph J. Noelle, Matthew P. Vincenti, Roy A. Fava

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

In addition to activated T cells, the immune checkpoint inhibitor “V domain-containing Ig suppressor of T-cell activation” (VISTA) is expressed by myeloid cell types, including macrophages and neutrophils. The importance of VISTA expression by myeloid cells to antibody-induced arthritis and its potential for relevance in human disease was evaluated. Methods: VISTA was immunolocalized in normal and arthritic human synovial tissue sections and synovial tissue lysates were subjected to western blot analysis. The collagen antibody-induced arthritis model (CAIA) was performed with DBA/1 J mice treated with antibodies against VISTA and with VISTA-deficient mice (V-KO). Total mRNA from arthritic joints, spleens ...


Lung Malignancy In Prostate Cancer: A Report Of Both Metastatic And Primary Lung Lesions, Lael Reinstatler, Jonathan Dupuis, Jessica L. Dillon, Candace C. Black, Joseph D. Phillips, Elias S. Hyams Dec 2017

Lung Malignancy In Prostate Cancer: A Report Of Both Metastatic And Primary Lung Lesions, Lael Reinstatler, Jonathan Dupuis, Jessica L. Dillon, Candace C. Black, Joseph D. Phillips, Elias S. Hyams

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous malignancy diagnosed in men. When it metastasizes, it usually spreads to bone and/or lymph nodes. A handful of cases have described prostatic metastases to the lung; however, this is usually in the setting of existing bone lesions. Here we describe a unique case in which a patient was found to have both metastatic prostate cancer to the lung and a primary lung cancer in the absence of any other evidence of extra-prostatic disease.


Small Rna Teg49 Is Derived From A Sara Transcript And Regulates Virulence Genes Independent Of Sara In Staphylococcus Aureus, Adhar Manna, Samin Kim, Liviu Cengher, Anna Corvaglia, Stefano Leo, Patrice Francois, Ambrose L. Cheung Nov 2017

Small Rna Teg49 Is Derived From A Sara Transcript And Regulates Virulence Genes Independent Of Sara In Staphylococcus Aureus, Adhar Manna, Samin Kim, Liviu Cengher, Anna Corvaglia, Stefano Leo, Patrice Francois, Ambrose L. Cheung

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Expression of virulence factors in Staphylococcus aureus is regulated by a wide range of transcriptional regulators, including proteins and small RNAs (sRNAs), at the level of transcription and/or translation. The sarA locus consists of three overlapping transcripts generated from three distinct promoters, all containing the sarA open reading frame (ORF). The 5= untranslated regions (UTRs) of these transcripts contain three separate regions 711, 409, and 146 nucleotides (nt) upstream of the sarA translation start, the functions of which remain unknown. Re- cent transcriptome-sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis and subsequent characterization indicated that two sRNAs, teg49 and teg48, are processed and likely ...


Patient-Predicted Sleep Position Vs. Hst Data: A Tendency To Underestimate Supine Sleep, Adam J. Sorscher, Anthony P. Anzivino, Todd Mackenzie Oct 2017

Patient-Predicted Sleep Position Vs. Hst Data: A Tendency To Underestimate Supine Sleep, Adam J. Sorscher, Anthony P. Anzivino, Todd Mackenzie

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Purpose The purpose of this study is to measure people’s accuracy when they estimate what proportion of their nightly sleep at home is supine vs. non-supine. Methods A series of patients referred for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) evaluation were asked if they Bknew with confidence^ how they slept with regard to their body position. BYes^ responders were then asked to estimate what percentage of their sleep was supine vs. non-supine. This value was compared with the actual proportion of supine vs. non-supine sleep that they exhibited in a home sleep test (HST) that followed. Results We obtained data from ...


Intrinsic And Innate Defenses Of Neurons: Détente With The Herpesviruses, Lynn Enquist, David A. Leib Oct 2017

Intrinsic And Innate Defenses Of Neurons: Détente With The Herpesviruses, Lynn Enquist, David A. Leib

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Neuroinvasive herpesviruses have evolved to efficiently infect and establish latency in neurons. The nervous system has limited capability to regenerate, so immune responses therein are carefully regulated to be nondestructive, with dependence on atypical intrinsic and innate defenses. In this article we review studies of some of these noncanonical defense pathways and how herpesvirus gene products counter them, highlighting the contributions that primary neuronal in vitro models have made to our understanding of this field.


Anthropometric Factors And Cutaneous Melanoma: Prospective Data From The Population-Based Janus Cohort, Jo S. Stenehjem, Marit B. Veierød, Lill Tove Nilsen, Reza Ghiasvand, Bjørn Johnsen, Tom K. Grimsrud, Ronnie Babigumira, Judy R. Rees, Trude E. Robsahm Oct 2017

Anthropometric Factors And Cutaneous Melanoma: Prospective Data From The Population-Based Janus Cohort, Jo S. Stenehjem, Marit B. Veierød, Lill Tove Nilsen, Reza Ghiasvand, Bjørn Johnsen, Tom K. Grimsrud, Ronnie Babigumira, Judy R. Rees, Trude E. Robsahm

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

The aim of the present study was to prospectively examine risk of cutaneous melanoma (CM) according to measured anthropometric factors, adjusted for exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), in a large population-based cohort in Norway. The Janus Cohort, including 292,851 Norwegians recruited 1972–2003, was linked to the Cancer Registry of Norway and followed for CM through 2014. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of CM with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Restricted cubic splines were incorporated into the Cox models to assess possible non-linear relationships. All analyses were adjusted for attained age, indicators of UVR exposure, education ...


Non-Aggregated Aβ25-35 Upregulates Primary Astrocyte Proliferation In Vitro, Elise C. Ohki, Thomas J. Langan, Kyla R. Rodgers, Richard C. Chou Sep 2017

Non-Aggregated Aβ25-35 Upregulates Primary Astrocyte Proliferation In Vitro, Elise C. Ohki, Thomas J. Langan, Kyla R. Rodgers, Richard C. Chou

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Amyloid beta (Aβ) is a peptide cleaved from amyloid precursor protein that contributes to the formation of senile plaques in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The relationship between Aβ and astrocyte proliferation in AD remains controversial. Despite pathological findings of increased astrocytic mitosis in AD brains, in vitro studies show an inhibitory effect of Aβ on astrocyte proliferation. In this study, we determined the effect of an active fragment of Aβ (Aβ25-35) on the cell cycle progression of primary rat astrocytes. We found that Aβ25-35 (0.3–1.0 μg/ml) enhanced astrocyte proliferation in vitro in a time- ...


Quantity Over Quality—Findings From A Systematic Review And Environmental Scan Of Patient Decision Aids On Early Abortion Methods, Kyla Z. Donnelly, Glyn Elwyn, Rachel Thompson Sep 2017

Quantity Over Quality—Findings From A Systematic Review And Environmental Scan Of Patient Decision Aids On Early Abortion Methods, Kyla Z. Donnelly, Glyn Elwyn, Rachel Thompson

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Background: The availability and effectiveness of decision aids (DAs) on early abortion methods remain unknown, despite their potential for supporting women’s decision making. Objective: To describe the availability, impact and quality of DAs on surgical and medical early abortion methods for women seeking induced abortion. Search strategy: For the systematic review, we searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, EMBASE and PsycINFO. For the environmental scan, we searched Google and App Stores and consulted key informants. Inclusion criteria: For the systematic review, we included studies evaluating an early abortion method DA (any format and language) vs a comparison group on women ...


Pneumoscrotum With Extensive Penile And Abdominal Subcutaneous Emphysema: A Case Report Of Uncertain Etiology, Eric Raffin, Gina Tundo, Florian Schroek Sep 2017

Pneumoscrotum With Extensive Penile And Abdominal Subcutaneous Emphysema: A Case Report Of Uncertain Etiology, Eric Raffin, Gina Tundo, Florian Schroek

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Pneumoscrotum and subcutaneous emphysema make for impressive findings on examination and imaging. With ranging etiologies, thorough investigation into the source is essential to rule out potentially life threatening situations. We present a 31-year-old man with pneumoscrotum and extensive subcutaneous emphysema of his penis, abdomen, and perineum. History and physical exam didn't reveal a clear cause and he subsequently underwent surgical exploration showing no soft tissue infection. On post-operative day 1, he remained clinically stable and was discharged. Despite the usual benign nature of pneumoscrotum, full assessment is necessary to identify possible underlying conditions of significant morbidity and mortality.


Assembling And Validating Data From Multiple Sources To Study Care For Veterans With Bladder Cancer, Florian R. Schroek, Brenda E. Sirovich, John D. Seigne, Douglas J. Robertson, Philip P. Goodney Sep 2017

Assembling And Validating Data From Multiple Sources To Study Care For Veterans With Bladder Cancer, Florian R. Schroek, Brenda E. Sirovich, John D. Seigne, Douglas J. Robertson, Philip P. Goodney

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Despite the high prevalence of bladder cancer, research on optimal bladder cancer care is limited. One way to advance observational research on care is to use linked data from multiple sources. Such big data research can provide real-world details of care and outcomes across a large number of patients. We assembled and validated such data including (1) administrative data from the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), (2) Medicare claims, (3) data abstracted by tumor registrars, (4) data abstracted via chart review from the national electronic health record, and (5) full text pathology reports.


“Provoking Conversations”: Case Studies Of Organizations Where Option Grid™ Decision Aids Have Become ‘Normalized’, Peter Scalia, Glyn Elwyn, Marie-Anne Durand Aug 2017

“Provoking Conversations”: Case Studies Of Organizations Where Option Grid™ Decision Aids Have Become ‘Normalized’, Peter Scalia, Glyn Elwyn, Marie-Anne Durand

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Background: Implementing patient decision aids in clinic workflow has proven to be a challenge for healthcare organizations and physicians. Our aim was to determine the organizational strategies, motivations, and facilitating factors to the routine implementation of Option Grid™ encounter decision aids at two independent settings. Method: Case studies conducted by semi-structured interview, using the Normalization Process Theory (NPT) as a framework for thematic analysis. Twenty three interviews with physicians, nurses, hospital staff and stakeholderswere conducted at: 1) CapitalCare Medical Group in Albany, New York; 2) HealthPartners Clinics in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Results: ‘Coherent’ motivations were guided by financial incentives at CapitalCare ...


Using Collaborate, A Brief Patient-Reported Measure Of Shared Decision Making: Results From Three Clinical Settings In The United States, Rachel C. Forcino, Paul James Barr, A. James O'Malley, Roger Arend, Molly G. Castaldo, Elissa M. Ozanne, Sanja Percac-Lima, Cheryl D. Stults, Ming Tai-Seale, Rachel Thompson, Glyn Elwyn Jul 2017

Using Collaborate, A Brief Patient-Reported Measure Of Shared Decision Making: Results From Three Clinical Settings In The United States, Rachel C. Forcino, Paul James Barr, A. James O'Malley, Roger Arend, Molly G. Castaldo, Elissa M. Ozanne, Sanja Percac-Lima, Cheryl D. Stults, Ming Tai-Seale, Rachel Thompson, Glyn Elwyn

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

No abstract provided.