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Fc Receptor-Mediated Activities Of Env-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies Generated From Human Volunteers Receiving A Dna Prime-Protein Boost Hiv Vaccine: A Dissertation, Matthew R. Costa Oct 2016

Fc Receptor-Mediated Activities Of Env-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies Generated From Human Volunteers Receiving A Dna Prime-Protein Boost Hiv Vaccine: A Dissertation, Matthew R. Costa

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) is able to elicit broadly potent neutralizing antibodies in a very small subset of individuals only after several years’ infection and as a result, vaccines that elicit these types of antibodies have been difficult to design. The RV144 trial showed that a moderate protection is possible, which may correlate with antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity. Previous studies in the Lu lab demonstrated that in an HIV-1 vaccine phase I trial, DP6-001, a polyvalent Env DNA prime-protein boost formulation, could elicit potent and broadly reactive, gp120-specific antibodies with positive neutralization activities along with multiple Fc ...


Tissue Compartmentalization And Tropism Of Hiv-1: A Dissertation, Robin L. Brese Aug 2016

Tissue Compartmentalization And Tropism Of Hiv-1: A Dissertation, Robin L. Brese

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Despite the development of effective antiretroviral treatments, there is still no cure for HIV-1. Major barriers to HIV-1 eradication include the diversity of intrapatient viral quasispecies and the establishment of reservoirs in tissue sanctuary sites. A better understanding of these populations is required for targeted treatments. While previous studies have examined the relationship between brain and blood or immune tissues, few have looked at and compared the properties of viruses from other tissue compartments. In this study, 75 full length HIV-1 envelopes were isolated from the frontal lobe, occipital lobe, parietal lobe, colon, lung, and lymph node of an HIV-1 ...


Characterization Of Envelope-Specific Antibody Response Elicited By Hiv-1 Vaccines: A Dissertation, Yuxin Chen Jan 2015

Characterization Of Envelope-Specific Antibody Response Elicited By Hiv-1 Vaccines: A Dissertation, Yuxin Chen

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Despite 30 years of intensive research,an effective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine still remains elusive. The desirable immune response capable of providing protection against HIV acquisition is still not clear. The accumulating evidence learned from a recent vaccine efficacy correlate study not only confirmed the importance of antibody responses, but also highlighted potential protective functions of antibodies with a broad repertoire of HIV-1 epitope specificities and a wide range of different antiviral mechanisms. This necessitates a deep understanding of the complexity and diversity of antibody responses elicited by HIV-1 vaccines. My dissertation characterizes antibody response profiles of HIV-1 Env ...


Investigating The Roles Of Nedd4.2s And Nef In The Release And Replication Of Hiv-1: A Dissertation, Eric R. Weiss Sep 2012

Investigating The Roles Of Nedd4.2s And Nef In The Release And Replication Of Hiv-1: A Dissertation, Eric R. Weiss

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Replication of HIV-1 requires the assembly and release of mature and infectious viral particles. In order to accomplish this goal, HIV-1 has evolved multiple methods to interact with the host cell. HIV-1 recruits the host cell ESCRT machinery to facilitate the release of nascent viral particles from the host cell membrane. Recruitment of these cellular factors is dependent on the presence of short motifs in Gag referred to as Late-domains. Deletion or mutation of these domains results in substantial decrease in the release of infectious virions. However, previously published work has indicated that over-expression of the E3 ubiquitin ligase, NEDD4 ...


Studies On Cellular Host Factors Involved In The Hiv-1 Life Cycle: A Dissertation, Anna Kristina Serquiña Aug 2012

Studies On Cellular Host Factors Involved In The Hiv-1 Life Cycle: A Dissertation, Anna Kristina Serquiña

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) is the causative agent of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), currently the leading cause of death from infectious diseases. Since HIV-1 co-opts the host cellular machinery, the study of cellular factors involved is a rational approach in discovering novel therapeutic targets for AIDS drug development. In this thesis, we present studies on two such proteins. APOBEC3G is from the family of cytidine deaminases known to keep endogenous retroviruses and retrotransposons at bay to maintain stability of the human genome. APOBEC3G targets Vif-deficient HIV-1 particles and renders them noninfectious, partially through deaminase-dependent hypermutation of the provirus ...


Hiv-1 R5 Tropism: Determinants, Macrophages, And Dendritic Cells: A Dissertation, Thomas A. Musich May 2012

Hiv-1 R5 Tropism: Determinants, Macrophages, And Dendritic Cells: A Dissertation, Thomas A. Musich

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Around thirty years ago HIV-1 was identified, and from that point the known epidemic has grown to over 30 million infected individuals. Early on in the course of HIV-1 research, viruses were classified as either syncytia inducing, CXCR4-using, T-cell tropic or non-syncytia inducing, CCR5-using, macrophage tropic. Since that time, several groups have shown that this is an oversimplification. There is a great deal of diversity amongst CCR5-using HIV-1 variants. There remains a great deal to be discovered regarding HIV-1 CCR5-tropism and how this affects other aspects of HIV-1 infection.

The CD4 binding site (CD4bs) on the HIV-1 envelope plays a ...


Structural Studies Of The Anti-Hiv Human Protein Apobec3g Catalytic Domain: A Dissertation, Shivender Shandilya Aug 2011

Structural Studies Of The Anti-Hiv Human Protein Apobec3g Catalytic Domain: A Dissertation, Shivender Shandilya

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

HIV/AIDS is a disease of grave global importance with over 33 million people infected world-wide and nearly 2 million deaths each year. The rapid emergence of drug resistance, due to viral mutation, renders anti-retroviral drug candidates ineffective with alarming speed and regularity. Instead of targeting mutation prone viral proteins, an alternative approach is to target host proteins that interact with viral proteins and are critical for the HIV life-cycle. APOBEC3G is a host anti-HIV restriction factor that can exert tremendous negative pressure by hypermutating the viral genome and has the potential to be a promising candidate for anti-retroviral therapeutic ...


Investigation Of The C-Terminal Helix Of Hiv-1 Matrix: A Region Essential For Multiple Functions In The Viral Life Cycle: A Dissertation, Laura A. Brandano Jul 2011

Investigation Of The C-Terminal Helix Of Hiv-1 Matrix: A Region Essential For Multiple Functions In The Viral Life Cycle: A Dissertation, Laura A. Brandano

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Since the first cases were reported over thirty years ago, great strides have been made to control disease progression in people living with HIV/AIDS. However, current estimates report that there are about 34 million individuals infected with HIV worldwide. Critical in the ongoing fight against this pandemic is the continuing development of highly active anti-retroviral therapies, ideally those with novel mechanisms of action. Currently, there are no medications approved for use that exploit the HIV-1 MA protein, despite its central role in multiple stages of the virus life cycle.

This thesis sought to examine whether a highly conserved glutamate ...


Molecular And Functional Properties Of Transmitted Hiv-1 Envelope Variants: A Dissertation, Michael G. Kishko Feb 2011

Molecular And Functional Properties Of Transmitted Hiv-1 Envelope Variants: A Dissertation, Michael G. Kishko

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

In 2008 the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to the co-discoverers of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1), the causative agent of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). This award acknowledged the enormous worldwide impact of the HIV-1/AIDS pandemic and the importance of research aimed at halting its spread. Since the syndrome was first recognized, 25 million people have succumbed to AIDS and over 33 million are currently infected with HIV-1 (www.unaids.org). The most effective strategy for ending the pandemic is the creation of a prophylactic vaccine. Yet, to date, all efforts at HIV-1 vaccine ...


Regulation Of Cellular And Hiv-1 Gene Expression By Positive Transcription Elongation Factor B: A Dissertation, Siobhan O'Brien Oct 2010

Regulation Of Cellular And Hiv-1 Gene Expression By Positive Transcription Elongation Factor B: A Dissertation, Siobhan O'Brien

GSBS Dissertations and Theses


RNA polymerase II-mediated transcription of HIV-1 genes depends on positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), the complex of cyclin T1 and CDK9. Recent evidence suggests that regulation of transcription by P-TEFb involves chromatin binding and modifying factors. To determine how P-TEFb may connect chromatin remodeling to transcription, we investigated the relationship between P-TEFb and histone H1. We show that P-TEFb interacts with H1 and that H1 phosphorylation in cell culture correlates with P-TEFb activity. Importantly, P-TEFb also directs H1 phosphorylation during Tat transactivation and wild type HIV-1 infection. Our results also show that P-TEFb phosphorylates histone H1.1 at a ...


Exploring Molecular Mechanisms Of Drug Resistance In Hiv-1 Protease Through Biochemical And Biophysical Studies: A Dissertation, Rajintha M. Bandaranayake May 2010

Exploring Molecular Mechanisms Of Drug Resistance In Hiv-1 Protease Through Biochemical And Biophysical Studies: A Dissertation, Rajintha M. Bandaranayake

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is the leading cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the world. As there is no cure currently available to treat HIV-1 infections or AIDS, the major focus of drug development efforts has been to target viral replication in an effort to slow down the progression of the infection to AIDS. The aspartyl protease of HIV-1 is an important component in the viral replication cycle and thus, has been an important anti-HIV-1 drug target. Currently there are nine protease inhibitors (PIs) that are being used successfully as a part of highly active antiretroviral therapy ...


Antibody Responses Elicited By Dna Prime-Protein Boost Hiv Vaccines: A Dissertation, Michael Vaine Apr 2010

Antibody Responses Elicited By Dna Prime-Protein Boost Hiv Vaccines: A Dissertation, Michael Vaine

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The best known correlate of protection provided by vaccines is the presence of pathogen specific antibodies after immunization. However, against the Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) the mere presence of antibodies specific for the viral Envelope (Env) protein is not sufficient to provide protection. This necessitates in depth study of the humoral responses elicited during infection and by vaccination. While a significant amount of effort has been invested in studying the evolution of antibody responses to viral infection, only limited progress in understanding antibody responses elicited through vaccination has been made. In the studies described here, I attempt to rectify this ...


Identification And Characterization Of Snapin As A Novel Antagonist Of Hiv-1 Egress: A Dissertation, Patrick Younan Apr 2010

Identification And Characterization Of Snapin As A Novel Antagonist Of Hiv-1 Egress: A Dissertation, Patrick Younan

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Vpu has been shown to possess two distinct roles in the pathogenesis of HIV. First, Vpu has been shown to down-regulate the expression of CD4 molecules at the plasma membrane of infected cells by targeting CD4 molecules for degradation in the endoplasmic reticulum. Second, Vpu promotes viral egress in specific cell lines termed non-permissive cells by mechanism that remain relatively unclear.

Therefore, experiments were conducted in order to identify cellular factors involved in the Vpu-dependent phenotype. Using full-length Vpu as bait in yeast two-hybrid experiments, several candidate cellular factors were identified. One protein, SNAPIN, was identified as a cellular factor ...


Co-Evolution Of Hiv-1 Protease And Its Substrates: A Dissertation, Madhavi Kolli Nov 2009

Co-Evolution Of Hiv-1 Protease And Its Substrates: A Dissertation, Madhavi Kolli

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Drug resistance is the most important factor that influences the successful treatment of individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the causative organism of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Tremendous advances in our understanding of HIV and AIDS have led to the development of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), a combination of drugs that includes HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, protease, and more recently, integrase and entry inhibitors, to combat the virus. Though HAART has been successful in reducing AIDS-related morbidity and mortality, HIV rapidly evolves resistance leading to therapy failure. Thus, a better understanding of the mechanisms of ...


Characterization Of The Nef-Tcr Zeta Interaction And Its Role In Modulation Of Src Family Kinase Activity: A Dissertation, Walter Minsub Kim Aug 2009

Characterization Of The Nef-Tcr Zeta Interaction And Its Role In Modulation Of Src Family Kinase Activity: A Dissertation, Walter Minsub Kim

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

One of the hallmarks of an infection with pathogenic HIV-1 is the elevated level of immune activation that leads to rapid progression to AIDS. Surprisingly, nonhuman primates naturally infected with SIV do not exhibit an augmented activation phenotype nor severe immunodeficiency. One of the viral components implicated in determining the state of immune activation is the accessory protein Nef which has been demonstrated to affect T cell signaling pathways from within the intracellular compartment and for Nef from SIV, to downregulate TCR surface expression. Recently, Nef from HIV-1 and SIV have been demonstrated to bind the ζ chain of the ...


Mutations In The Vpu And Env Genes Of Hiv-1 Can Adversely Impact Infectivity: A Dissertation, Kathryn H. Richards May 2008

Mutations In The Vpu And Env Genes Of Hiv-1 Can Adversely Impact Infectivity: A Dissertation, Kathryn H. Richards

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is able to infect CD4+ T cells as well as macrophages. Macrophage-tropism has been linked to determinants in the envelope of HIV. These determinants allow envelopes to exploit low levels of CD4 for infection. Macrophages are an important reservoir of virus, especially during chronic infection, and are likely responsible for the bulk of virus produced after CD4+T cells have declined. Viral factors that may impact the ability to infect macrophages are worth studying because this cell type is so important in infection.

It was previously reported that the macrophage-tropic primary isolate AD8 was vpu-independent ...


Folding And Assembly Of Multimeric Proteins: Dimeric Hiv-1 Protease And A Trimeric Coiled Coil Component Of A Complex Hemoglobin Scaffold: A Dissertation, Amanda Ann Fitzgerald Aug 2007

Folding And Assembly Of Multimeric Proteins: Dimeric Hiv-1 Protease And A Trimeric Coiled Coil Component Of A Complex Hemoglobin Scaffold: A Dissertation, Amanda Ann Fitzgerald

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Knowledge of how a polypeptide folds from a space-filling random coil into a biologically-functional, three-dimensional structure has been the essence of the protein folding problem. Though mechanistic details of DNA transcription and RNA translation are well understood, a specific code by which the primary structure dictates the acquisition of secondary, tertiary, and quarternary structure remains unknown. However, the demonstrated reversibility of in vitroprotein folding allows for a thermodynamic analysis of the folding reaction. By probing both the equilibrium and kinetics of protein folding, a protein folding mechanism can be postulated. Over the past 40 years, folding mechanisms have been ...


Probing Protein Dynamics Through Mutational And Computational Studies Of Hiv-1 Protease: A Dissertation, Jennifer E. Murzycki Sep 2006

Probing Protein Dynamics Through Mutational And Computational Studies Of Hiv-1 Protease: A Dissertation, Jennifer E. Murzycki

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

How proteins undergo conformational changes to bind a ligand is one of the most fundamental questions of protein biology. MD simulations provide a useful computational tool for studying the theoretical movements of protein in solution on nanosecond timescales. The results of these simulations can be used to guide experimental design. By correlating the theoretical models with the results of experimental studies, we can obtain a significant amount of information about protein dynamics. This study represents the application of both computational and traditional experimental techniques to study protein dynamics in HIV-1 protease. The results provide a novel mechanism for the conformational ...


Cytoplasmic Localization Of Hiv-1 Vif Is Necessary For Apobec3g Neutralization And Viral Replication: A Dissertation, Melissa Ann Farrow May 2005

Cytoplasmic Localization Of Hiv-1 Vif Is Necessary For Apobec3g Neutralization And Viral Replication: A Dissertation, Melissa Ann Farrow

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The binding of HIV-1 Vif to the cellular cytidine deaminase Apobec3G and subsequent prevention of Apobec3G virion incorporation have recently been identified as critical steps for the successful completion of the HIV-1 viral life cycle. This interaction occurs in the cytoplasm where Vif complexes with Apobec3G and directs its degradation via the proteasome pathway or sequesters it away from the assembling virion, thereby preventing viral packaging of Apobec3G.

While many recent studies have focused on several aspects of Vif interaction with Apobec3G, the subcellular localization of Vif and Apobec3G during the viral life cycle have not been fully considered. Inhibition ...


T Cell Immunity And Hiv-1 Replication In Vertically-Infected Infants And Children: A Dissertation, Zachary Aaron Scott May 2003

T Cell Immunity And Hiv-1 Replication In Vertically-Infected Infants And Children: A Dissertation, Zachary Aaron Scott

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Virus-specific cellular immune responses have been shown to be important in the control of viral replication in several animal and human virus models. Cells of both the CD8+ and CD4+T cell lineages have been shown to play protective roles during viral infections by exerting effector functions that can kill infected host cells or inhibit the production and spread of infectious virions. The continued spread of HIV-1 infection throughout the world, as well as the lack of a prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine have generated much interest in HIV-specific cellular immune responses. Recent technical advances have yielded a tremendous increase in our ...


Hiv-1 Gene Expression: Transcriptional Regulation And Rna Interference Studies: A Dissertation, Ya-Lin Chiu Jan 2003

Hiv-1 Gene Expression: Transcriptional Regulation And Rna Interference Studies: A Dissertation, Ya-Lin Chiu

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Gene expression of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), which causes Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), is regulated at the transcriptional level, where negative factors can block elongation that is overcome by HIV Tat protein and P-TEFb. P-TEFb, a positive elongation transcription factor with two subunits, CDK9 and Cyclin T1 (CycT1), catalyzes Tat-dependent phosphorylation of Ser-5 in the Pol II C-terminal domain (CTD), allowing production of longer mRNAs. Ser-5 phosphorylation enables the CTD to recruit mammalian mRNA capping enzyme (Mce1) and stimulate its guanylyltransferase activity. This dissertation demonstrates that stable binding of Mce1 and cap methyltransferase to template-engaged Pol II depends on ...


Type-Specific Immunity In Hiv-1 Vertically Infected Infants, Cheryl A. Pikora Dec 1995

Type-Specific Immunity In Hiv-1 Vertically Infected Infants, Cheryl A. Pikora

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

High frequencies of CTL recognizing laboratory strains of HIV-1 are present in HIV-1 infected adults as early as preseroconversion. The presence of HIV-1 specific CTL during primary infection has been correlated with better control of early viremia and a more delayed onset of CD4 lymphocyte loss. Previous experiments in our laboratory have demonstrated that, unlike HIV-1 infected adults, the majority of vertically infected infants lack CTL which recognize laboratory strains of HIV-1 within the first year of life. ADCC antibody responses against laboratory strains of HIV-1 env gene products are also delayed until at least two years of age. As ...


Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Infection Of Human Myeloid Cells, Cynthia Ann Pise-Masison Jun 1994

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Infection Of Human Myeloid Cells, Cynthia Ann Pise-Masison

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) results in a wide range of immunologic and hematopoietic abnormalities. The overall goal of this dissertation was directed toward obtaining a better understanding of the interactions of HIV-1 and myeloid cells in relation to the pathogenesis of AIDS. The human myelomonocytic cell line, HL-60, was used as a model system to determine if HIV-1 infects myeloid progenitor cells and subsequently, if infection affects their differentiation. HL-60 cells and the human prototypic T cell line, H9 were infected with three different HIV-l isolates (IIIB, PM213, and NL4-3) which are known to infect T ...


Hiv-1 Sequences In The Establishment Of Chronic Virus Producers: A Thesis, Farah Mustafa Jan 1993

Hiv-1 Sequences In The Establishment Of Chronic Virus Producers: A Thesis, Farah Mustafa

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections have different patterns of expression in different T-cell lines. HIV-1 encodes regulatory as well as structural genes. The role of HIV-1 regulatory gene expression in determining different patterns of infection was explored in four T-cell lines: C8166, H9, A3.01, and Jurkat. The hypothesis being tested was that differences in the expression of regulatory genes would determine differences in the kinetics of infection.

To study patterns of regulatory and structural gene expression, RNA was isolated from cultures infected with HIV-1-NL4-3 (NL4-3). During the early and acute phases of infection, the absolute amounts of ...