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Roles Of Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 7 And Jumonji Domain-Containing Protein 6 In Adipocyte Differentiation: A Dissertation, Yu-Jie Hu Oct 2015

Roles Of Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 7 And Jumonji Domain-Containing Protein 6 In Adipocyte Differentiation: A Dissertation, Yu-Jie Hu

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Regulation of gene expression comprises a wide range of mechanisms that control the abundance of gene products in response to environmental and developmental changes. These biological processes can be modulated by posttranslational modifications including arginine methylation. Among the enzymes that catalyze the methylation, protein arginine methyltransferase 7 (PRMT7) is known to modify histones to repress gene expression. Jumonji domain-containing protein 6 (JMJD6) is a putative arginine demethylase that potentially antagonize PRMT7. However, the biological significance of these enzymes is not well understood. This thesis summarizes the investigation of both PRMT7 and JMJD6 in cell culture models for adipocyte differentiation. The ...


A Feedback Loop Couples Musashi-1 Activity To Omega-9 Fatty Acid Biosynthesis: A Dissertation, Carina C. Clingman Sep 2014

A Feedback Loop Couples Musashi-1 Activity To Omega-9 Fatty Acid Biosynthesis: A Dissertation, Carina C. Clingman

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

All living creatures change their gene expression program in response to nutrient availability and metabolic demands. Nutrients and metabolites can directly control transcription and activate second-­‐messenger systems. In bacteria, metabolites also affect post-­‐transcriptional regulatory mechanisms, but there are only a few isolated examples of this regulation in eukaryotes. Here, I present evidence that RNA-­‐binding by the stem cell translation regulator Musashi-­‐1 (MSI1) is allosterically inhibited by 18-­‐22 carbon ω-­‐9 monounsaturated fatty acids. The fatty acid binds to the N-­‐terminal RNA Recognition Motif (RRM) and induces a conformational change that prevents RNA association. Musashi ...


Chromosome-Biased Binding And Function Of C. Elegans Drm Complex, And Its Role In Germline Sex-Silencing: A Dissertation, Tomoko M. Tabuchi Jul 2011

Chromosome-Biased Binding And Function Of C. Elegans Drm Complex, And Its Role In Germline Sex-Silencing: A Dissertation, Tomoko M. Tabuchi

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

DRM is a conserved transcription factor complex that includes E2F/DP and pRB family proteins and plays important roles in the cell cycle and cancer. Recent work has unveiled a new aspect of DRM function in regulating genes involved in development and differentiation. These studies, however, were performed with cultured cells and a genome-wide study involving intact organisms undergoing active proliferation and differentiation was lacking. Our goal was to extend the knowledge of the role of DRM in gene regulation through development and in multiple tissues. To accomplish this, we employed genomic approaches to determine genome-wide targets of DRM using ...


Regulation Of Runx Proteins In Human Cancers: A Dissertation, Sandhya Pande Jul 2011

Regulation Of Runx Proteins In Human Cancers: A Dissertation, Sandhya Pande

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Runt related transcription factors (Runx) play an important role in mammalian development by regulating the expression of key genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and growth. The work described in this thesis details the mechanisms by which the activity of two members of this family are regulated in human cells. Chapter One provides a brief introduction of Runx transcription factors.

Chapter Two describes the regulation of Runx2 protein by the PI3 kinase/Akt pathway in human breast cancer cells. The PI3 kinase/Akt pathway is one of the major signal transduction pathways through which growth factors influence cell proliferation and ...


The Role Of Mir-21 And Mir-31 In Cellular Responses Mediated By Tgf-Β: A Dissertation, Charisa L. Cottonham May 2011

The Role Of Mir-21 And Mir-31 In Cellular Responses Mediated By Tgf-Β: A Dissertation, Charisa L. Cottonham

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The function of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) in cancer is notoriously complex. Initially TGF-β limits tumorigenesis, but at later stages in tumor progression TGF-β promotes the malignant spread of tumor cells. Past studies to understand the pro-metastasis utility of TGF-β centered upon its ability to regulate protein-coding genes. Recently, a small class of non-coding RNAs known as microRNAs (miRNAs) emerged as novel posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. The significance of miRNA function in cellular processes from embryonic development to the maintenance of homeostasis in adult tissues is becoming increasingly clear. Also apparent is the strong association between aberrant miRNA ...


C. Elegans Metabolic Gene Regulatory Networks: A Dissertation, H. Efsun Arda Jul 2010

C. Elegans Metabolic Gene Regulatory Networks: A Dissertation, H. Efsun Arda

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

In multicellular organisms, determining when and where genes will be expressed is critical for their development and physiology. Transcription factors (TFs) are major specifiers of differential gene expression. By establishing physical contacts with the regulatory elements of their target genes, TFs often determine whether the target genes will be expressed or not. These physical and/or regulatory TF-DNA interactions can be modeled into gene regulatory networks (GRNs), which provide a systems-level view of differential gene expression. Thus far, much of the GRN delineation efforts focused on metazoan development, whereas the organization of GRNs that pertain to systems physiology remains mostly ...


Regulation Of The Cdc14-Like Phosphatase Clp1 In Schizosaccharomyces Pombe And Identification Of Sid2 Kinase Substrates: A Dissertation, Chun-Ti Chen Nov 2009

Regulation Of The Cdc14-Like Phosphatase Clp1 In Schizosaccharomyces Pombe And Identification Of Sid2 Kinase Substrates: A Dissertation, Chun-Ti Chen

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Coordination of mitosis and cytokinesis is crucial to generate healthy daughter cells with equal amounts of genetic and cytoplasmic materials. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, an evolutionarily conserved Cdc14-like phosphatase (Clp1) functions to couple mitosis and cytokinesis by antagonizing CDK activity. The activity of Clp1 is thought to be regulated in part by its subcellular localization. It is sequestered in the nucleolus and the spindle pole body (SPB) during interphase. Upon mitotic entry, it is released into the cytoplasm and localized to the kinetochores, the actomyosin ring, and the mitotic spindle to carry out distinct functions. It is not ...


Regulation Of Dna Replication Origins In Fission Yeast: A Dissertation, Naveen Kommajosyula Aug 2009

Regulation Of Dna Replication Origins In Fission Yeast: A Dissertation, Naveen Kommajosyula

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Cells need to complete DNA replication in a timely and error-free manner. To ensure that replication is completed efficiently and in a finite amount of time, cells regulate origin firing. To prevent any errors from being transmitted to the next generation, cells have the checkpoint mechanism.

The S-phase DNA damage slows replication to allow the cell to repair the damage. The mechanism of replication slowing by the checkpoint was not clear in fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, at the start of my thesis. The downstream targets of the DNA damage checkpoint in fission yeast were also unclear. I worked on identifying ...


Regulation Of Cancer Cell Survival Mediated By Endogenous Tumor Suppression: A Dissertation, Minakshi Guha Jul 2009

Regulation Of Cancer Cell Survival Mediated By Endogenous Tumor Suppression: A Dissertation, Minakshi Guha

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Cancer is the second leading cause of death among men and women after heart disease. Though our knowledge associated with the complexities of the cancer network has significantly improved over the past several decades, we have only recently started to get a more complete molecular understanding of the disease. To better comprehend signaling pathways that prevent disease development, we focused our efforts on investigating endogenous tumor suppression networks in controlling effectors of cancer cell survival and proliferation. Survivin is one such effector molecule that controls both cell proliferation and survival. In order to identify how this protein is overexpressed in ...


Functional Analysis Of Microrna-10b In Breast Carcinoma: A Dissertation, Charlotte M. Harwood Moriarty May 2009

Functional Analysis Of Microrna-10b In Breast Carcinoma: A Dissertation, Charlotte M. Harwood Moriarty

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression. Recent studies have shown that miRNAs are mis-expressed in various human cancers and that some miRNAs have the potential to act as tumor suppressors or oncogenes. MiR-10b is one miRNA that has been shown to be deregulated in breast cancer. However, current findings regarding miR-10b’s role in breast cancer are controversial. MiR-10b was originally reported to be downregulated in breast cancer compared to normal breast tissue. Subsequently, miR-10b was argued to be upregulated in metastatic breast cancer cell lines, acting as a potent pro-metastatic agent via ...


Functional Analysis Of Yeast Pheromone Receptors In Er Exit, Ligand-Induced Endocytosis And Oligomerization: A Dissertation, Chien-I Chang May 2009

Functional Analysis Of Yeast Pheromone Receptors In Er Exit, Ligand-Induced Endocytosis And Oligomerization: A Dissertation, Chien-I Chang

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

This study investigates endocytosis and ER export signals of the yeast α-factor receptor and the role that receptor oligomerization plays in these processes. The α-factor receptor contains signal sequences in the cytoplasmic C-terminal domain that are essential for ligand-mediated endocytosis. In an endocytosis complementation assay, I found that oligomeric complexes of the receptor undergo ligand-mediated endocytosis when the α-factor binding site and the endocytosis signal sequences are located in different receptors. Both in vitro and in vivo assays strongly suggested that ligand-induced conformational changes in one Ste2 subunit do not affect neighboring subunits. Therefore, the recognition of endocytosis signal sequence ...


Analysis Of Long-Range Chromosomal Interactions In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae: A Dissertation, Adriana Miele Apr 2009

Analysis Of Long-Range Chromosomal Interactions In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae: A Dissertation, Adriana Miele

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Long-range chromosomal interactions have been discovered in a number of organisms, suggesting that gene regulation through direct physical association with regulatory elements and/or other genes is a common and conserved phenomenon. This thesis investigates the relationship between direct physical contact of genomic loci and how these interactions may play a role in gene regulation. Analysis of such levels of chromosomal organization has been made possible in part by the emergence of Chromosome Conformation Capture (3C). This technique makes use of formaldehyde crosslinking to trap interacting chromosomal fragments, which can be detected after a number of manipulations. By adapting the ...


Delineating The C. Elegans Microrna Regulatory Network: A Dissertation, Natalia Julia Martinez Apr 2009

Delineating The C. Elegans Microrna Regulatory Network: A Dissertation, Natalia Julia Martinez

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Metazoan genomes contain thousands of protein-coding and non-coding RNA genes, most of which are differentially expressed, i.e., at different locations, at different times during development, or in response to environmental signals. Differential gene expression is achieved through complex regulatory networks that are controlled in part by two types of trans-regulators: transcription factors (TFs) and microRNAs (miRNAs). TFs bind to cis-regulatory DNA elements that are often located in or near their target genes, while microRNAs hybridize to cis-regulatory RNA elements mostly located in the 3’ untranslated region (3’UTR) of their target mRNAs.

My work in the ...


Differentially Expressed Micrornas Act As Inhibitors Of Bdnf In Prefrontal Cortex - Implications For Schizophrenia: A Dissertation, Nikolaos Mellios Mar 2009

Differentially Expressed Micrornas Act As Inhibitors Of Bdnf In Prefrontal Cortex - Implications For Schizophrenia: A Dissertation, Nikolaos Mellios

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

During my thesis work I studied the expression and potential function of brain expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) in human prefrontal cortex (PFC). Initially, I used combinatorial computational analysis and microarray data to identify miRNAs that are predicted with high probability to target the human Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) 3’ Untranslated Region (3’UTR) and are expressed in moderate to high levels in adult human prefrontal cortex. A subset of 10 miRNAs segregating into 5 different miRNA families (miR-30a-d, miR-103/107, miR-16/195, miR-191 and miR-495) met the above criteria. I then designed a protocol to detect these miRNAs with Locked ...


Chromatin Remodeling And Transcriptional Memory: A Dissertation, Sharmistha Kundu Dec 2008

Chromatin Remodeling And Transcriptional Memory: A Dissertation, Sharmistha Kundu

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Transcriptional regulation of gene expression is critical for all unicellular and multicellular organisms. The ability to selectively induce or repress expression of only a few genes from the entire genome gives cells the ability to respond to changing environmental conditions, grow and proliferate. Multicellular organisms begin life as a single totipotent cell, which undergoes many cell divisions during embryonic and later postnatal development. During this process, the dividing cells of the embryo progressively lose their pluripotency and adopt restricted cell fates. Cell fate restriction leads different cell types to gain unique transcriptional profiles. This transcriptional profile or gene expression pattern ...


Analysis Of Cpeb Family Protein Member Cpeb4 Function In Mammalian Neurons: A Dissertation, Ming-Chung Kan Jun 2008

Analysis Of Cpeb Family Protein Member Cpeb4 Function In Mammalian Neurons: A Dissertation, Ming-Chung Kan

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Local protein synthesis is required for long-term memory formation in the brain. One protein family, Cytoplasmic Polyadenylation Element binding Protein (CPEB) that regulates protein synthesis is found to be important for long-term memory formation possibly through regulating local protein synthesis in neurons. The well-studied member of this family, CPEB1, mediates both translational repression and activation of its target mRNAs by regulating mRNA polyadenylation. Mouse with CPEB1 KO shows defect in memory extinction but not long-term memory formation. Three more CPEB1 homologs (CPEB2-4) are identified in mammalian system. To test if CPEB2-4 may have redundant role in replacing CPEB1 in mediating ...


Molecular Dissection Of The Cellular Reponse To Dengue Virus Infection, Rajas V. Warke Apr 2008

Molecular Dissection Of The Cellular Reponse To Dengue Virus Infection, Rajas V. Warke

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The immune response to viral infection involves a complexity of both innate and adaptive pathways at the cellular and the molecular level. There are many approaches to begin to define the pathways at work to control viral pathogenesis. The approach favored in this thesis was to conduct a broad screen of the innate immune response at the gene expression level of infected cells.

The innate immune response is critical to the control of viral infections. Type I interferons (IFN), IFNα and IFNβ, are antiviral proteins that are an integral part of the innate immune response. Furthermore, by virtue of their ...


Regulation Of Cell Growth And Differentiation Within The Context Of Nuclear Architecture By The Runx2 Transcription Factor: A Dissertation, Daniel W. Young Sep 2005

Regulation Of Cell Growth And Differentiation Within The Context Of Nuclear Architecture By The Runx2 Transcription Factor: A Dissertation, Daniel W. Young

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The Runx family of transcription factors performs an essential role in animal development by controlling gene expression programs that mediate cell proliferation, growth and differentiation. The work described in this thesis is concerned with understanding mechanisms by which Runx proteins support this program of gene expression within the architectural context of the mammalian cell nucleus. Multiple aspects of nuclear architecture are influenced by Runx2 proteins including sequence-specific DNA binding at gene regulatory regions, organization of promoter chromatin structure, and higher-order compartmentalization of proteins in nuclear foci. This work provides evidence for several functional activities of Runx2 in relation to architectural ...


Biochemical Mechanism Of Rna Interference In Higher Organisms: A Dissertation, Dianne S. Schwarz Aug 2005

Biochemical Mechanism Of Rna Interference In Higher Organisms: A Dissertation, Dianne S. Schwarz

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

RNA interference (RNAi) is an evolutionarily conserved, sequence-specific gene silencing pathway found in eukaryotes, in which 21-nucleotide, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) guide destruction of a corresponding target mRNA. RNAi is a natural mechanism for both genome surveillance and gene regulation. Moreover, siRNAs can be transfected into cultured mammalian cells, causing the sequence-specific ‘knock down’ of an mRNA. My work in the Zamore lab has centered around the Drosophilain vitro system and cultured mammalian cells to study the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which culminates in the cleavage of ...


Functions Of The Cdc14-Family Phosphatase Clp1p In The Cell Cycle Regulation Of Schizosaccharomyces Pombe: A Dissertation, Susanne Trautmann May 2005

Functions Of The Cdc14-Family Phosphatase Clp1p In The Cell Cycle Regulation Of Schizosaccharomyces Pombe: A Dissertation, Susanne Trautmann

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

In order to generate healthy daughter cells, nuclear division and cytokinesis need to be coordinated. Premature division of the cytoplasm in the absence of chromosome segregation or nuclear proliferation without cytokinesis might lead to aneuploidy and cancer.

The cyclin dependent kinases, CDKs, are a main regulator of the cell cycle. Timely increase and decrease in their activity is required for cell cycle progression. To enter mitosis, mitotic CDK activity needs to rise. CDK activity stays elevated until chromosome segregation is completed and exit from mitosis requires decrease in CDK activity.

Observations in several experimental systems suggest that coordination of cytokinesis ...


Cytoplasmic Localization Of Hiv-1 Vif Is Necessary For Apobec3g Neutralization And Viral Replication: A Dissertation, Melissa Ann Farrow May 2005

Cytoplasmic Localization Of Hiv-1 Vif Is Necessary For Apobec3g Neutralization And Viral Replication: A Dissertation, Melissa Ann Farrow

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The binding of HIV-1 Vif to the cellular cytidine deaminase Apobec3G and subsequent prevention of Apobec3G virion incorporation have recently been identified as critical steps for the successful completion of the HIV-1 viral life cycle. This interaction occurs in the cytoplasm where Vif complexes with Apobec3G and directs its degradation via the proteasome pathway or sequesters it away from the assembling virion, thereby preventing viral packaging of Apobec3G.

While many recent studies have focused on several aspects of Vif interaction with Apobec3G, the subcellular localization of Vif and Apobec3G during the viral life cycle have not been fully considered. Inhibition ...


The Epigenetic Silencing Of Pmp24 During The Progression Of Prostate Cancer From An Androgen-Dependent To Androgen-Independent State In The Lncap Cell Model: A Dissertation, Mengchu Wu Jan 2005

The Epigenetic Silencing Of Pmp24 During The Progression Of Prostate Cancer From An Androgen-Dependent To Androgen-Independent State In The Lncap Cell Model: A Dissertation, Mengchu Wu

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

One important objective of prostate cancer (PCa) research is to understand the molecular basis underlying the progression of these cancers from an androgen dependent to an androgen independent state. Hypermethylation of the promoter CpG islands is associated with the transcriptional silencing of specific gene sets in each tumor type and subtype. Transcriptional silencing of antitumor genes via CpG island hypermethylation could be a mechanism mediating PCa progression from an androgen-dependent to an androgen-independent state.

Hypermethylation associated gene silencing has been reported for a great number of genes in PCa with the exception of the genes that undergo methylation associated silencing ...


Essential Roles Of The Meis Family Proteins During Segmentation Of The Zebrafish Hindbrain : A Dissertation, Seong-Kyu Choe Dec 2003

Essential Roles Of The Meis Family Proteins During Segmentation Of The Zebrafish Hindbrain : A Dissertation, Seong-Kyu Choe

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Hindbrain patterning requires many factors involved in early segmentation and later segment identity of the specific domains of the hindbrain. Hox proteins and their cofactors are of great importance during segmentation of the hindbrain, because segmentation and/or segment identity are lost when any of them are lost. Previously, we have reported that Meis proteins synergize with Pbx, another Hox cofactor, and Hox proteins expressed in the hindbrain. To further investigate Meis function during hindbrain development, we utilized a Meis dominant-negative molecule, ΔCPbx4, and expressed it in zebrafish embryos. We find that ΔCPbx4 affects gene expression and neuronal differentiation especially ...


Regulation Of Zebrafish Hindbrain Development By Fibroblast Growth Factor And Retinoic Acid: A Dissertation, Nicole Marie Roy Oct 2003

Regulation Of Zebrafish Hindbrain Development By Fibroblast Growth Factor And Retinoic Acid: A Dissertation, Nicole Marie Roy

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) and Retinoic acid (RA) are known to be involved in patterning the posterior embryo. Work has shown that Fgf can convert anterior tissue into posterior fates and that embryos deficient in Fgf signaling lack posterior trunk and tail structures. Likewise, studies performed on RA have shown that overexpression of RA posteriorizes anterior tissue, while disrupting RA signaling yields a loss of posterior fates. While it appears these signals are necessary for posterior development, the role Fgf and RA play in development of the hindbrain is still enigmatic. A detailed study of the requirements for Fgf and ...


Mechanistic Analysis Of Chromatin Remodeling Enzymes: A Dissertation, Mariela Jaskelioff May 2003

Mechanistic Analysis Of Chromatin Remodeling Enzymes: A Dissertation, Mariela Jaskelioff

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The inherently repressive nature of chromatin presents a sizeable barrier for all nuclear processes in which access to DNA is required. Therefore, eukaryotic organisms ranging from yeast to humans rely on a battery of enzymes that disrupt the chromatin structure as a means of regulating DNA transactions.

These enzymes can be divided into two broad classes: those that covalently modify histone proteins, and those that actively disrupt nucleosomal structure using the free energy derived from ATP hydrolysis. The latter group, huge, multisubunit ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors, are emerging as a common theme in all nuclear processes in which access to ...


Involvement Of Cdp/Cux In The Regulation Of Histone H4 Gene Expression, Proliferation And Differentiation: A Dissertation, Mai X. Luong May 2003

Involvement Of Cdp/Cux In The Regulation Of Histone H4 Gene Expression, Proliferation And Differentiation: A Dissertation, Mai X. Luong

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Proliferation and differentiation are essential processes for the growth and development of higher eukaryotic organisms. Regulation of gene expression is essential for control of cell division and differentiation. Normal eukaryotic cells have a limited proliferative capacity, and ultimately undergo cellular senescence and apoptosis. Terminal differentiation of cells is associated with loss of proliferative capacity and acquisition of specialized functions. Proliferation and differentiation are processes required for the creation and maintenance of diverse tissues both during embryonic development and postnatal life. The cell cycle is the process by which cells reproduce, and requires duplication and segregation of hereditary material. Loss of ...


Hiv-1 Gene Expression: Transcriptional Regulation And Rna Interference Studies: A Dissertation, Ya-Lin Chiu Jan 2003

Hiv-1 Gene Expression: Transcriptional Regulation And Rna Interference Studies: A Dissertation, Ya-Lin Chiu

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Gene expression of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), which causes Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), is regulated at the transcriptional level, where negative factors can block elongation that is overcome by HIV Tat protein and P-TEFb. P-TEFb, a positive elongation transcription factor with two subunits, CDK9 and Cyclin T1 (CycT1), catalyzes Tat-dependent phosphorylation of Ser-5 in the Pol II C-terminal domain (CTD), allowing production of longer mRNAs. Ser-5 phosphorylation enables the CTD to recruit mammalian mRNA capping enzyme (Mce1) and stimulate its guanylyltransferase activity. This dissertation demonstrates that stable binding of Mce1 and cap methyltransferase to template-engaged Pol II depends on ...


Differential Mechanisms Of Nuclear Receptor Regulation By The Coactivator Rac3: A Dissertation, Christopher Leo Oct 2000

Differential Mechanisms Of Nuclear Receptor Regulation By The Coactivator Rac3: A Dissertation, Christopher Leo

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The steroid/thyroid hormone receptor superfamily is a large class of ligand-dependent transcription factors that plays a critical role in regulating the expression of genes involved in a broad range of physiological functions, including development, homeostasis, and reproduction. In the absence of cognate hormone, several receptors are able to repress transcription below the basal level via the recruitment of the nuclear receptor corepressors SMRT and NCoR. Upon hormone binding by the receptor, the corepressor complex is dissociated and a coactivator complex is subsequently recruited. This thesis details the mechanisms by which receptor-associated coactivator 3 (RAC3) interacts with nuclear receptors, particularly ...


Structural Association Of Xist Rna With Inactive Chromosomes In Somatic Cells : A Key Step In The Process That Establishes And Faithfully Maintains X-Inactivation, Christine Moulton Clemson May 1998

Structural Association Of Xist Rna With Inactive Chromosomes In Somatic Cells : A Key Step In The Process That Establishes And Faithfully Maintains X-Inactivation, Christine Moulton Clemson

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The XIST gene is implicated in X-chromosome inactivation, yet the RNA contains no apparent open reading frame. An accumulation of XIST RNA is observed near its site of transcription, the inactive X chromosome (Xi). A series of molecular cytogenetic studies comparing properties of XIST RNA to other protein coding RNAs, support a critical distinction for XIST RNA; XIST RNA does not concentrate at Xi simply because it is transcribed and processed there. Most notably, morphometric and 3-D analysis reveals that XIST RNA and Xi are coincident in 2-D and 3-D space; hence the XIST RNA essentially paints Xi. Several results ...


Transcriptional Regulation Of A Human H4 Histone Gene Is Mediated By Multiple Elements Interacting With Similar Transcription Factors: A Dissertation, Thomas J. Last May 1998

Transcriptional Regulation Of A Human H4 Histone Gene Is Mediated By Multiple Elements Interacting With Similar Transcription Factors: A Dissertation, Thomas J. Last

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Synthesis of histone proteins occurs largely during the S phase of the cell cycle and coincides with DNA replication to provide adequate amounts of histones necessary to properly package newly replicated DNA. Controlling transcription from cell cycle dependent and proliferation specific genes, including histone H4, is an important level of regulation in the overall governance of the cell growth process. Coordination of histone gene transcription results from the cumulative effects of cell signaling pathways, dynamic chromatin structure and multiple transcription factor interactions. The research of this dissertation focused on the characterization and identification of transcription factors interacting on the human ...