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Optimizing Crispr/Cas9 For Gene Silencing Of Sod1 In Mouse Models Of Als, Zachary C. Kennedy Aug 2019

Optimizing Crispr/Cas9 For Gene Silencing Of Sod1 In Mouse Models Of Als, Zachary C. Kennedy

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Mutations in the SOD1 gene are the best characterized genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and account for ~20% of inherited cases and 1-3% of sporadic cases. The gene-editing tool Cas9 can silence mutant genes that cause disease, but effective delivery of CRISPR-Cas9 to the central nervous system (CNS) remains challenging. Here, I developed strategies using canonical Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 to silence SOD1. In the first strategy, I demonstrate effectiveness of systemic delivery of guide RNA targeting SOD1 to the CNS in a transgenic mouse model expressing human mutant SOD1 and Cas9. Silencing was observed in both the brain ...


Engineered Exosomes For Delivery Of Therapeutic Sirnas To Neurons, Reka A. Haraszti May 2018

Engineered Exosomes For Delivery Of Therapeutic Sirnas To Neurons, Reka A. Haraszti

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Extracellular vesicles (EVs), exosomes and microvesicles, transfer endogenous RNAs between neurons over short and long distances. We have explored EVs for siRNA delivery to brain. (1) We optimized siRNA chemical modifications and siRNA conjugation to lipids for EV-mediated delivery. (2) We developed a GMP-compatible, scalable method to manufacture active EVs in bulk. (3) We characterized lipid and protein content of EVs in detail. (4) We established how protein and lipid composition relates to siRNA delivering activity of EVs, and we reverse engineered natural exosomes (small EVs) into artificial exosomes based on these data.

We established that cholesterol-conjugated siRNAs passively associate ...


A Translational Pathway For Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus Human Gene Therapy: From Target Identification And Animal Modeling Of The Disease To Non-Human Primate And Human Studies, Alisha Gruntman Nov 2016

A Translational Pathway For Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus Human Gene Therapy: From Target Identification And Animal Modeling Of The Disease To Non-Human Primate And Human Studies, Alisha Gruntman

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Many steps go into developing a clinical viral gene therapy. The course starts with appropriate disease selection and moves through the many hurdles of in-vitro testing, animal model validation and proof-of-concept studies, all the way through pre-clinical large animal studies. In this thesis, I propose to outline the process of developing a translation pathway for a gene therapy using recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV). I will expand on this outline using data that I have generated during the course of my Ph.D. that ranges from animal model validation all the way through pre-clinical vector stability studies. Two disease models will ...


Targeting Drug Resistance In Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: A Dissertation, Leyuan Ma Nov 2016

Targeting Drug Resistance In Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: A Dissertation, Leyuan Ma

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Inhibiting BCR-ABL kinase activity with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has been the frontline therapy for CML. Resistance to TKIs frequently occurs, but the mechanisms remain elusive.

First, to uncover survival pathways involved in TKI resistance in CML, I conducted a genome-wide RNAi screen in human CML cells to identify genes governing cellular sensitivity to the first generation TKI called IM (Gleevec). I identified genes converging on and activating the MEK/ERK pathway through transcriptional up-regulation of PRKCH. Combining IM with a MEK inhibitor synergistically kills TKI-resistant CML cells and CML stem cells.

Next, I performed single cell RNA-seq to compare ...


A Walk On The Fine Line Between Reward And Risk: Aav-Ifnβ Gene Therapy For Glioblastoma: A Dissertation, Dwijit Guhasarkar Jul 2016

A Walk On The Fine Line Between Reward And Risk: Aav-Ifnβ Gene Therapy For Glioblastoma: A Dissertation, Dwijit Guhasarkar

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor. The current standard-of-care treatment including surgery, radiation and temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy does not prolong the survival satisfactorily. Here we have tested the feasibility, efficacy and safety of a potential gene therapy approach using AAV as gene delivery vehicle for treatment of GBM.

Interferon-beta (IFNβ) is a cytokine molecule also having pleiotropic anticancerous properties. Previously it has been shown by our group that AAV mediated local (intracranial) gene delivery of human IFNβ (hIFNβ) could be an effective treatment for non-invasive human glioblastoma (U87) in orthotopic xenograft mouse model.But ...


Developing An Adeno-Associated Viral Vector (Aav) Toolbox For Cns Gene Therapy: A Dissertation, Sourav Roy Choudhury Jan 2016

Developing An Adeno-Associated Viral Vector (Aav) Toolbox For Cns Gene Therapy: A Dissertation, Sourav Roy Choudhury

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Neurological disorders – disorders of the brain, spine and associated nerves – are a leading contributor to global disease burden with a sizable economic cost. Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors have emerged as an effective platform for CNS gene therapy and have shown early promise in clinical trials. These trials involve direct infusion into brain parenchyma, an approach that may be suboptimal for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, which often involve more than a single structure in the CNS. However, overall neuronal transduction efficiency of vectors derived from naturally occurring AAV capsids after systemic administration is relatively low. We have developed novel capsids AAV-AS ...


Gene Therapy For Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: An Aav Delivered Artifical Microrna Against Human Sod1 Increases Survival And Delays Disease Progression Of The Sod1G93a Mouse Model: A Dissertation, Lorelei I. Stoica Dec 2015

Gene Therapy For Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: An Aav Delivered Artifical Microrna Against Human Sod1 Increases Survival And Delays Disease Progression Of The Sod1G93a Mouse Model: A Dissertation, Lorelei I. Stoica

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of motor neurons, resulting in progressive muscle weakness, atrophy, paralysis and death within five years of diagnosis. About ten percent of cases are inherited, of which twenty percent are due to mutations in the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene. Since the only FDA approved ALS drug prolongs survival by just a few months, new therapies for this disease are needed. Experiments in transgenic ALS mouse models have shown that decreasing levels of mutant SOD1 protein alters and in some cases entirely prevents disease progression. We explored this potential ...


Raav-Mediated Gene Transfer For Study Of Pathological Mechanisms And Therapeutic Intervention In Canavan's Disease: A Dissertation, Seemin Seher Ahmed Dec 2014

Raav-Mediated Gene Transfer For Study Of Pathological Mechanisms And Therapeutic Intervention In Canavan's Disease: A Dissertation, Seemin Seher Ahmed

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Canavan’s Disease is a fatal Central Nervous System disorder caused by genetic defects in the enzyme – aspartoacylase and currently has no effective treatment options. We report additional phenotypes in a stringent preclinical aspartoacylase knockout mouse model. Using this model, we developed a gene therapy strategy with intravenous injections of the aspartoacylase gene packaged in recombinant adeno associated viruses (rAAVs). We first investigated the CNS gene transfer abilities of rAAV vectors that can cross the blood-brain-barrier in neonatal and adult mice and subsequently used different rAAV serotypes such as rAAV9, rAAVrh.8 and rAAVrh.10 for gene replacement therapy. A ...


Approaches And Considerations Towards A Safe And Effective Adeno-Associated Virus Mediated Therapeutic Intervention For Gm1-Gangliosidosis: A Dissertation, Cara M. Weismann Aug 2014

Approaches And Considerations Towards A Safe And Effective Adeno-Associated Virus Mediated Therapeutic Intervention For Gm1-Gangliosidosis: A Dissertation, Cara M. Weismann

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

GM1 gangliosidosis is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency in the catabolizing enzyme β-galactosidase (βgal). This leads to accumulation of GM1-ganglioside (GM1) in the lysosome inducing ER stress and cell death. GM1 gangliosidosis is primarily a disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) with peripheral organ involvement. In this work we report two major findings, 1) systemic treatment of GM1 gangliosidosis with an adenoassociated virus (AAV9) encoding mouse-βgal (mβgal) in a GM1 gangliosidosis mouse model (βGal-/-), and 2) an investigation into an intracranial injection of a therapeutic AAVrh8 encoding mβgal. Systemic treatment of GM1 gangliosidosis with AAV9 resulted ...


Hepatitis C Virus Non-Structural Protein 3/4a: A Tale Of Two Domains: A Dissertation, Cihan Aydin Aug 2012

Hepatitis C Virus Non-Structural Protein 3/4a: A Tale Of Two Domains: A Dissertation, Cihan Aydin

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Two decades after the discovery of the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), Hepatitis C infection still persists to be a global health problem. With the recent approval of the first set of directly acting antivirals (DAAs), the rate of sustained viral response for HCV-infected patients increased significantly. However, a complete cure has not been found yet. Drug development efforts primarily target NS3/4A protease, bifunctional serine protease-RNA helicase of HCV. HCV NS3/4A is critical in viral function; protease domain processes the viral polyprotein and helicase domain aids replication of HCV genome by unwinding double stranded RNA transcripts produced by NS5B ...


Psychosocial And Behavioral Determinants Of Medication Nonadherence Among African Americans With Hypertension: A Dissertation, Yendelela L. Cuffee Aug 2012

Psychosocial And Behavioral Determinants Of Medication Nonadherence Among African Americans With Hypertension: A Dissertation, Yendelela L. Cuffee

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The overarching goal of this dissertation was to elucidate the psychosocial and behavioral determinants of medication nonadherence among African Americans with hypertension. One in three Americans in the United States has hypertension, and the prevalence of hypertension among African Americans is among the highest in the world. In addition to healthy behaviors such as following a low-salt and low-fat diet, getting regular exercise, and reducing stress, patients with hypertension must also adhere to antihypertensive medications. Poor medication adherence may be driven by psychosocial and behavioral factors; however, the impact of these factors on medication adherence is unclear especially within the ...


The Role Of Itk In The Development Of Gamma Delta Nkt Cells: A Dissertation, Catherine C. Yin Aug 2012

The Role Of Itk In The Development Of Gamma Delta Nkt Cells: A Dissertation, Catherine C. Yin

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The immune system is a complex network of interacting cells and tissues that is designed to protect the body from pathogens and other foreign substances. T cells are a major component of the immune system and consist of two distinct lineages distinguished by the expression of αβ or γδ T cell receptors (TCR). The Tec family kinase, Itk is an important mediator of signaling downstream of the TCR. Past studies on Itk has focused on how Itk regulates development, activation and differentiation of conventional αβ T cells and more recently how Itk regulates the development of innate-like αβ T cells ...


Studies On Cellular Host Factors Involved In The Hiv-1 Life Cycle: A Dissertation, Anna Kristina Serquiña Aug 2012

Studies On Cellular Host Factors Involved In The Hiv-1 Life Cycle: A Dissertation, Anna Kristina Serquiña

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) is the causative agent of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), currently the leading cause of death from infectious diseases. Since HIV-1 co-opts the host cellular machinery, the study of cellular factors involved is a rational approach in discovering novel therapeutic targets for AIDS drug development. In this thesis, we present studies on two such proteins. APOBEC3G is from the family of cytidine deaminases known to keep endogenous retroviruses and retrotransposons at bay to maintain stability of the human genome. APOBEC3G targets Vif-deficient HIV-1 particles and renders them noninfectious, partially through deaminase-dependent hypermutation of the provirus ...


Microrna Markers Of Acetaminophen Toxicity: A Master's Thesis, Jeanine Ward Jul 2012

Microrna Markers Of Acetaminophen Toxicity: A Master's Thesis, Jeanine Ward

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Background
To investigate plasma microRNA (miRNA) profiles indicative of hepatotoxicity in the setting of lethal acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity in mice.

Methods
Using plasma from APAP poisoned mice, either lethally (500 mg/kg) or sublethally (150 mg/kg) dosed, we screened commercially available murine microRNA libraries (SABiosciences, Qiagen Sciences, MD) to evaluate for unique miRNA profiles between these two dosing parameters.

Results
We distinguished numerous, unique plasma miRNAs both up- and down-regulated in lethally compared to sublethally dosed mice. Of note, many of the greatest up- and down-regulated miRNAs, included, but were not limited to, 574-5p, 466g, 466f-3p, 375, 29c, and ...


Rna-Sensing Pattern Recognition Receptors And Their Effects On T-Cell Immune Responses: A Dissertation, Rachel F. Madera Jul 2012

Rna-Sensing Pattern Recognition Receptors And Their Effects On T-Cell Immune Responses: A Dissertation, Rachel F. Madera

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Virus infection is sensed by the innate immune system through germline encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Toll-like receptors (TLRs), retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptors (RLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs) serve as PRRs that recognize different viral components. Microbial nucleic acids such as Ribonucleic acid (RNA) are important virus-derived pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) to be recognized by PRRs. Virus recognition may occur at multiple stages of the viral life cycle. Replication intermediates such as single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) are detected by the RNA-sensing PRRs that initiate innate and adaptive immune responses. Triggering of the innate immune system ...


Therapeutic Silencing Of Mutant Huntingtin By Targeting Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms: A Dissertation, Edith L. Pfister Jul 2012

Therapeutic Silencing Of Mutant Huntingtin By Targeting Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms: A Dissertation, Edith L. Pfister

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Huntington’s disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant, progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Invariably fatal, HD is caused by expansion of the CAG repeat region in exon 1 of the Huntingtin gene which creates a toxic protein with an extended polyglutamine tract 1. Silencing mutant Huntingtin messenger RNA (mRNA) is a promising therapeutic approach 2-6. The ideal silencing strategy would reduce mutant Huntingtin while leaving the wild-type mRNA intact. Unfortunately, targeting the disease causing CAG repeat expansion is difficult and risks targeting other CAG repeat containing genes.

We examined an alternative strategy, targeting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Huntingtin mRNA. The ...


Slow-Cycling Cancer Cells: A Dissertation, Nathan F. Moore Jun 2012

Slow-Cycling Cancer Cells: A Dissertation, Nathan F. Moore

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Tumor recurrence after chemotherapy is a major cause of patient morbidity and mortality. Recurrences are thought to be due to small subsets of stem-like cancer cells that are able to survive chemotherapy and drive tumor re-growth. A more complete understanding of stem-like cancer cell regulation is required to develop therapies to better target and eliminate these cells.

Slow-cycling stem cells are integral components of adult epithelial tissues and may give rise to cancer stem cell populations that share similar characteristics. These slow-cycling adult stem cells are inherently resistant to traditional forms of chemotherapy and transference of this characteristic may help ...


Characterization Of Drug Resistance In Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Via Saturating Mutagenesis Of Drug Targets: A Master’S Thesis, Michelle J. Harris Jun 2012

Characterization Of Drug Resistance In Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Via Saturating Mutagenesis Of Drug Targets: A Master’S Thesis, Michelle J. Harris

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from multiple drug resistant or extensively drug resistant patients show a particular set of mutations in drug targets conferring resistance. However, the selection of drug-resistant strains in vitro yields an alternative set of mutations, thought to result from the cost-benefit associated with drug resistance. Mutations allowing for survival under antibiotic may not be beneficial when presented with the host environment or with a drug-free environment. These fitness effects drive the natural evolution of this bacterium. Using recombineering a large cohort of mutations was generated within two drug targets, inhA and gyrA, to study in vitro the variability ...


The Molecular Mechanisms For Maintenance Of Cancer Stem Cells In Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: A Dissertation, Haojian Zhang May 2012

The Molecular Mechanisms For Maintenance Of Cancer Stem Cells In Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: A Dissertation, Haojian Zhang

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorder associated with the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) that arises from a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22, thereby resulting in the formation of the chimeric BCR-ABL oncogene encoding a constitutively activated tyrosine kinase. BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) induce a complete hematologic and cytogenetic response in the majority of chronic phrase CML patients. However, TKIs cannot efficiently eradicate leukemia stem cells (LSCs) because of the insensitivity of LSCs to TKIs. Therefore, developing new strategies to target LSCs is necessary and critical for curing CML, and success of this approach ...


The Role Of Adaptor Protein Complex-3 Delta-Mediated Hiv-1 Gag Trafficking In Hiv-1 Replication: A Dissertation, Adonia Lee Kim May 2012

The Role Of Adaptor Protein Complex-3 Delta-Mediated Hiv-1 Gag Trafficking In Hiv-1 Replication: A Dissertation, Adonia Lee Kim

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The process of HIV-1 particle production is a multi-step process directed by the viral structural protein Gag. As Gag is the only viral protein required to form virus-like particles, it presents a viable target for anti-viral therapeutics of which there are currently none. Although the functions of Gag during the particle assembly process have been well characterized, one of the least known parts of the assembly process is how Gag is targeted to the site of virus assembly.

Two main virus assembly sites have been identified in cells that support HIV-1 replication: the plasma membrane or multivesicular bodies (MVBs). However ...


Targeting The Histone Acetyl-Transferase, Rtt109, For Novel Anti-Fungal Drug Development: A Dissertation, Jessica Lopes Da Rosa-Spiegler May 2012

Targeting The Histone Acetyl-Transferase, Rtt109, For Novel Anti-Fungal Drug Development: A Dissertation, Jessica Lopes Da Rosa-Spiegler

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Discovery of new antifungal chemo-therapeutics for humans is limited by the large degree of conservation among eukaryotic organisms. In recent years, the histone acetyl-transferase Rtt109 was identified as the sole enzyme responsible for an abundant and important histone modification, histone H3 lysine 56 (H3K56) acetylation. In the absence of Rtt109, the lack of acetylated H3K56 renders yeast cells extremely sensitive to genotoxic agents. Consequently, the ability to sustain genotoxic stress from the host immune system is crucial for pathogens to perpetuate an infection. Because Rtt109 is conserved only within the fungal kingdom, I reasoned that Rtt109 could be a novel ...


Getting A Tight Grip On Dna: Optimizing Zinc Fingers For Efficient Zfn-Mediated Gene Editing: A Dissertation, Ankit Gupta Apr 2012

Getting A Tight Grip On Dna: Optimizing Zinc Fingers For Efficient Zfn-Mediated Gene Editing: A Dissertation, Ankit Gupta

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The utility of a model organism for studying biological processes is closely tied to its amenability to genome manipulation. Although tools for targeted genome engineering in mice have been available since 1987, most organisms including zebrafish have lacked efficient reverse genetic tools, which has stymied their broad implementation as a model system to study biological processes. The development of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) that can create double-strand breaks at desired sites in a genome has provided a universal platform for targeted genome modification. ZFNs are artificial restriction endonucleases that comprise of an array of 3- to 6-C2H2 ...


Origin Of White And Brown Adipose Cells From Vascular Endothelium: A Dissertation, Khanh-Van T. Tran Apr 2012

Origin Of White And Brown Adipose Cells From Vascular Endothelium: A Dissertation, Khanh-Van T. Tran

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Obesity is associated with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease. The current obesity epidemic is the result of surplus energy consumption. Excess energy is stored in expanding adipose tissue. Adipose tissue growth entails the enlargement of existing adipocytes, the formation of new fat cells from preexisting progenitors, and the coordinated development of supporting vasculature. Identifying adipocyte progenitors and the mechanism of adipose tissue expansion is crucial for the development of new strategies to combat obesity and its complications.

Though important progress has been made towards understanding the developmental origin of adipocytes, the identities of adipocyte progenitors are still not completely ...


Gene Therapy For Very Long Chain Acyl-Coa Dehydrogenase Deficiency Using Adeno-Associated Virus Vectors: A Dissertation, Allison M. Keeler Apr 2012

Gene Therapy For Very Long Chain Acyl-Coa Dehydrogenase Deficiency Using Adeno-Associated Virus Vectors: A Dissertation, Allison M. Keeler

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Very long chain acyl-coA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) is the rate-limiting step in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. VLCAD deficient mice and patients’ clinical symptoms stem from not only an energy deficiency but also long-chain metabolite accumulations. VLCAD deficient mice were treated systemically with 1x10 12 vector genomes of rAAV9-VLCAD. Expression was detected in the liver, heart and muscle. Also substantial expression of VLCAD was noted in the brain, where it was expressed across different sections of the brain and in different cell types with different morphologies. Biochemical correction was observed in vector-treated mice beginning two weeks post-injection, as characterized by a significant ...


Control Of Bovine Papillomavirus E2 Function By Acetylation And The Novel E2 Interacting Protein Rint1: A Dissertation, Edward J. Quinlan Jan 2012

Control Of Bovine Papillomavirus E2 Function By Acetylation And The Novel E2 Interacting Protein Rint1: A Dissertation, Edward J. Quinlan

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Human papillomavirus infection is the cause of more than 99% of cervical cancer cases. The current vaccine is ineffective therapeutically; highlighting the need for continued papillomavirus research. One avenue that could be explored in this regard is the function of the papillomavirus E2 regulatory proteins. HPV E2 represses expression of the viral E6 and E7 oncoproteins. Reintroduction of E2 into cervical carcinoma cells results in growth arrest and cellular senescence. Understanding the mechanism of how E2 regulates the early promoter may be key to developing new therapeutic and prophylactic vaccines. Here, we describe regulation of E2 through acetylation and possibly ...


Herbal Marijuana Alternatives Investigation: K2 And Spice: A Masters Thesis, Christopher D. Rosenbaum Dec 2011

Herbal Marijuana Alternatives Investigation: K2 And Spice: A Masters Thesis, Christopher D. Rosenbaum

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Background

Herbal marijuana alternatives (HMA), legal plant products adulterated with synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists, represent a growing public health concern. Only a few case reports describe HMA and synthetic cannabinoid’s clinical toxicity. We describe an outbreak of HMA abuse primarily in the Midwest, the clinical presentation of HMA toxicity, and clinical and forensic testing.

Methods

During the course of ongoing surveillance for emerging drugs of abuse between November 2009 and August 2010, we retrospectively and prospectively identified a convenience sample comprising 81 cases of abuse of HMA products. Subject demographics, vital signs, lab results and urine were obtained (when ...


Comparative Effectiveness Of Alendronate And Risedronate On The Risk Of Non-Vertebral Fractures In Older Women: An Instrumental Variables Approach: A Dissertation, Yong Chen Dec 2011

Comparative Effectiveness Of Alendronate And Risedronate On The Risk Of Non-Vertebral Fractures In Older Women: An Instrumental Variables Approach: A Dissertation, Yong Chen

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Osteoporosis is a significant public health problem in the U.S. It not only affects the physical well-being of the older women but also creates a substantial financial burden for the health care system. The mainstay of osteoporosis medications is bisphosphonate treatment of which alendronate and risedronate are the most commonly prescribed in clinical practice. However, there have been no head-to-head randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of these two bisphosphonates on fracture outcomes.

In the absence of RCTs, observational studies are necessary to provide alternative evidence on the comparative effectiveness between alendronate and risedronate on fracture outcomes. However ...


Telomere Length Dynamics In Human T Cells: A Dissertation, Joel M. O'Bryan Oct 2011

Telomere Length Dynamics In Human T Cells: A Dissertation, Joel M. O'Bryan

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Telomere length has been shown to be a critical determinant of T cell replicative capacity and in vivo persistence in humans. We evaluated telomere lengths in virus-specific T cells to understand how they may both shape and be changed by the maintenance of memory T cells during a subsequent virus re-infection or reactivation. We used longitudinal peripheral blood samples from healthy donors and samples from a long-term HCV clinical interferon therapy trial to test our hypotheses.

To assess T cell telomere lengths, I developed novel modifications to the flow cytometry fluorescence in situ hybridization (flowFISH) assay. These flowFISH modifications were ...


Treating Gm1 Gangliosidosis With Ex Vivo Hematopoietic Stem Cell Gene Therapy Without Using Total Body Irradiation: A Masters Thesis, Michael Whalen Aug 2011

Treating Gm1 Gangliosidosis With Ex Vivo Hematopoietic Stem Cell Gene Therapy Without Using Total Body Irradiation: A Masters Thesis, Michael Whalen

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

GM1 gangliosidosis is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease, caused by a deficiency in the enzyme β-galactosidase. The disease affects the CNS, liver, kidney, heart and skeletal system, leading to severe neurodegeneration and death. We propose to treat this disorder using ex vivo hematopoietic stem cell therapy. The effectiveness of this therapy requires the recruitment of transduced donor cells to the CNS. This is only found to occur after mice are conditioned with total body irradiation, due to the increase in CNS cytokine production and blood brain barrier permeability that occurs. As the use of total body irradiation in pediatric ...


Role Of Protein Flexibility In Function, Resistance Pathways And Substrate Recognition Specificity In Hiv-1 Protease: A Dissertation, Seema Mittal Aug 2011

Role Of Protein Flexibility In Function, Resistance Pathways And Substrate Recognition Specificity In Hiv-1 Protease: A Dissertation, Seema Mittal

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

In the 30 years since the Center for Disease Control's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report published the first mention of what later was determined to be AIDS (Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) and HIV (Human immunodeficiency virus) recognized as the causative pathogen, much has been done to understand this disease’s pathogenesis, development of drugs and emergence of drug resistance under selective drug therapy. Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), a combination of drugs that includes HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, protease, and more recently, integrase and entry inhibitors, have helped stabilize the HIV prevalence at extraordinarily high levels. Despite the recent stabilization of ...