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Glial Control Of Synapse Assembly At The Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction: A Dissertation, Kimberly S. Kerr Sep 2012

Glial Control Of Synapse Assembly At The Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction: A Dissertation, Kimberly S. Kerr

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Emerging evidence in both vertebrates and invertebrates is redefining glia as active and mobile players in synapse formation, maturation and function. However, the molecular mechanisms through which neurons and glia interact with each other to regulate these processes is not well known. My thesis work begins to understand how glia use secreted factors to modulate synaptic function. We use Drosophila melanogaster, a simple and genetically tractable model system, to understand the molecular mechanisms by which glia communicate with neurons at glutamatergic neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). We previously showed that a specific subtype of glia, subperineurial peripheral glia cells (SPGs), establish dynamic ...


A Novel Communication Mechanism Between The Presynapse And Postsynapse Through Exosomes: A Dissertation, Ceren Korkut Aug 2012

A Novel Communication Mechanism Between The Presynapse And Postsynapse Through Exosomes: A Dissertation, Ceren Korkut

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The minimal element of the nervous system, the synapse, is a plastic structure that has the ability to change in response to various internal and external factors. This property of the synapse underlies complex behaviors such as learning and memory. However, the exact molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in this process are not fully understood. To understand the mechanisms that regulate synapse development and plasticity I took advantage of a powerful model system, the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ). In this system, both anterograde and retrograde signaling pathways critical for coordinated synapse development and plasticity have been documented.

An anterograde ...


Maintaining The Balance: Coordinating Excitation And Inhibition In A Simple Motor Circuit: A Dissertation, Hilary A. Petrash Aug 2012

Maintaining The Balance: Coordinating Excitation And Inhibition In A Simple Motor Circuit: A Dissertation, Hilary A. Petrash

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The generation of complex behaviors often requires the coordinated activity of diverse sets of neural circuits in the brain. Activation of neuronal circuits drives behavior. Inappropriate signaling can contribute to cognitive disorders such as epilepsy, Parkinson’s, and addiction (Nordberg et al., 1992; Quik and McIntosh, 2006; Steinlein et al., 2012). The molecular mechanisms by which the activity of neural circuits is coordinated remain unclear. What are the molecules that regulate the timing of neural circuit activation and how is signaling between various neural circuits achieved? While much work has attempted to address these points, answers to these questions have ...


Eaters Of The Dead: How Glial Cells Respond To And Engulf Degenerating Axons In The Cns: A Dissertation, Jennifer S. Ziegenfuss Jun 2012

Eaters Of The Dead: How Glial Cells Respond To And Engulf Degenerating Axons In The Cns: A Dissertation, Jennifer S. Ziegenfuss

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Glia, whose name derives from the original Greek word, meaning “glue,” have long been understood to be cells that play an important functional role in the nutritive and structural support of the central nervous system, yet their full involvement has been historically undervalued. Despite the strong evidence that glial reactions to cellular debris govern the health of the nervous system, the specific properties of damaged axonal debris and the mechanisms by which glia sense them, morphologically adapt to their presence, and initiate phagocytosis for clearance, have remained poorly understood. The work presented in this thesis was aimed at addressing this ...


A Role For C-Jun Kinase (Jnk) Signaling In Glial Engulfment Of Degenerating Axons: A Dissertation, Jennifer M. Macdonald Jun 2012

A Role For C-Jun Kinase (Jnk) Signaling In Glial Engulfment Of Degenerating Axons: A Dissertation, Jennifer M. Macdonald

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The central nervous system (CNS) is composed of two types of cells: neurons that send electrical signals to transmit information throughout the animal and glial cells. Glial cells were long thought to be merely support cells for the neurons; however, recent work has identified many critical roles for these cells during development and in the mature animal. In the CNS, glial cells act as the resident immune cell and they are responsible for the clearance of dead or dying material. After neuronal injury or death, glial cells become reactive, exhibiting dramatic changes in morphology and patterns of gene expression and ...


Transposition Driven Genomic Heterogeneity In The Drosophila Brain: A Dissertation, Paola N. Perrat Jun 2012

Transposition Driven Genomic Heterogeneity In The Drosophila Brain: A Dissertation, Paola N. Perrat

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

In the Drosophila brain, memories are processed and stored in two mirrorsymmetrical structures composed of approximately 5,000 neurons called Mushroom Bodies (MB). Depending on their axonal extensions, neurons in the MB can be further classified into three different subgroups: αβ, α’β’ and γ. In addition to the morphological differences between these groups of neurons, there is evidence of functional differences too. For example, it has been previously shown that while neurotransmission from α’β’ neurons is required for consolidation of olfactory memory, output from αβ neurons is required for its later retrieval. To gain insight into the functional ...


Role Of Glia In Sculpting Synaptic Connections At The Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction: A Dissertation, Yuly F. Fuentes Medel Jan 2012

Role Of Glia In Sculpting Synaptic Connections At The Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction: A Dissertation, Yuly F. Fuentes Medel

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Emerging evidence in both vertebrates and invertebrates is redefining glia as active players in the development and integrity of the nervous system. The formation of functional neuronal circuits requires the precise addition of new synapses. Mounting evidence implicates glial function in synapse remodeling and formation. However, the precise molecular mechanisms governing these functions are poorly understood. My thesis work begins to define the molecular mechanisms by which glia communicate with neurons at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ).

During development glia play a critical role in remodeling neuronal circuits in the CNS. In order to understand how glia remodel synapses, I ...


Cellular And Molecular Mechanisms Driving Glial Engulfment Of Degenerating Axons: A Dissertation, Johnna E. Doherty Nov 2011

Cellular And Molecular Mechanisms Driving Glial Engulfment Of Degenerating Axons: A Dissertation, Johnna E. Doherty

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The nervous system is made up of two major cell types, neurons and glia. The major distinguishing feature between neuronal cells and glial cells is that neurons are capable of transmitting action potentials while glial cells are electrically incompetent. For over a century glial cells were neglected and it was thought they existed merely to provide trophic and structural support to neurons. However, in the past few decades it has become increasingly clear that glial cell functions underlie almost all aspects of nervous system development, maintenance, and health. During development, glia act as permissive substrates for axons, provide guidance cues ...


Autoregulatory And Paracrine Control Of Synaptic And Behavioral Plasticity By Dual Modes Of Octopaminergic Signaling: A Dissertation, Alex C. Koon Oct 2011

Autoregulatory And Paracrine Control Of Synaptic And Behavioral Plasticity By Dual Modes Of Octopaminergic Signaling: A Dissertation, Alex C. Koon

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Synaptic plasticity—the ability of a synapse to change—is fundamental to basic brain function and behavioral adaptation. Studying the mechanisms of synaptic plasticity benefits our understanding of the formation of neuronal connections and circuitry, which has great implications in the field of learning and memory and the studies of numerous human diseases.

The Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ) system is a powerful system for studying synaptic plasticity. The NMJ consists of at least two different types of motorneurons innervating the body wall muscles. Type I motorneurons controls muscle contraction using glutamate as the neurotransmitter, while type II are modulatory ...


Neuronal Diversification In The Postembryonic Drosophila Brain: A Dissertation, Suewei Lin Aug 2011

Neuronal Diversification In The Postembryonic Drosophila Brain: A Dissertation, Suewei Lin

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

A functional central nervous system (CNS) is composed of numerous types of neurons. Neurons are derived from a limited number of multipotent neural stem cells. Previous studies have suggested three major strategies nature uses to diversify neurons: lineage identity specification that gives an individual neural stem cell distinct identity based on its position in the developing CNS; temporal identity specification that gives neurons derived from a neural stem cell distinct identities based on their birth-order within the lineage; and binary cell fate specification that gives different identities to the two sister postmitotic neurons derived from the terminal division of a ...


Inflammation Alters Histone Methylation In The Central Nervous System: Implications For Neuropsychiatric Disease: A Dissertation, Caroline M. Connor May 2011

Inflammation Alters Histone Methylation In The Central Nervous System: Implications For Neuropsychiatric Disease: A Dissertation, Caroline M. Connor

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Maternal infection during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of both schizophrenia and autism in offspring. Based on this observation, the maternal immune activation mouse model was developed, in which pregnant rodents are treated with immune-activating agents and the brains and behavior of the adult offspring studied. This model has been found to recapitulate a variety of molecular, cellular, and behavioral abnormalities observed in both schizophrenia and autism. However, despite the abundant evidence provided by these studies that prenatal exposure to inflammation alters brain development and function later in life, the molecular mechanisms by which inflammation mediates these effects remains ...


Identification Of A Command Neuron Directing The Expression Of Feeding Behavior In Drosophila Melanogaster: A Dissertation, Thomas F. Flood May 2011

Identification Of A Command Neuron Directing The Expression Of Feeding Behavior In Drosophila Melanogaster: A Dissertation, Thomas F. Flood

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Feeding is one of the most important behaviors for an animal’s survival. At a gross level, it is known that the nervous system plays a major role in the expression of this complex behavior, yet a detailed understanding of the neural circuits directing feeding behavior remains unknown. Here we identify a command neuron in Drosophila melanogaster whose artificial activation, using dTrpA1, a heat-activated cation channel, induces the appearance of complete feeding behavior. We use behavioral, genetic, cellular and optical imaging techniques to show that the induced behavior is composed of multiple motor programs and can function to uptake exogenous ...


Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors: Molecular Targets For Alcoholism And Ethanol Reward: A Dissertation, Linzy M. Hendrickson Jan 2011

Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors: Molecular Targets For Alcoholism And Ethanol Reward: A Dissertation, Linzy M. Hendrickson

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

While it is clear that most drugs of abuse act to increase extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), the molecular mechanisms mediating this process vary depending on the molecular target each drug acts on. The rewarding properties of most drugs of abuse including cocaine, amphetamine, and heroin have been well established for some time; however, the molecular mechanisms by which ethanol acts to mediate reward have not been fully elucidated. In this thesis, I have examined the role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), known molecular targets for nicotine addiction, in mediating the initial rewarding properties of alcohol. Using ...


Axon Death Prevented: WldS And Other Neuroprotective Molecules: A Dissertation, Michelle A. Avery Dec 2010

Axon Death Prevented: WldS And Other Neuroprotective Molecules: A Dissertation, Michelle A. Avery

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

A common feature of many neuropathies is axon degeneration. While the reasons for degeneration differ greatly, the process of degeneration itself is similar in most cases. Axon degeneration after axotomy is termed ‘Wallerian degeneration,’ whereby injured axons rapidly fragment and disappear after a short period of latency (Waller, 1850). Wallerian degeneration was thought to be a passive process until the discovery of the Wallerian degeneration slow (Wlds) mouse mutant. In these mice, axons survive and function for weeks after nerve transection. Furthermore, when the full-length protein is inserted into mouse models of disease with an axon degeneration phenotype (such ...


Mri Contrast Agent Studies Of Compartmental Differentiation, Dose-Dependence, And Tumor Characterization In The Brain: A Dissertation, Mohammed S. Shazeeb Nov 2010

Mri Contrast Agent Studies Of Compartmental Differentiation, Dose-Dependence, And Tumor Characterization In The Brain: A Dissertation, Mohammed S. Shazeeb

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has increasingly become the preferred imaging modality in modern day research to study disease. MRI presents an imaging technique that is practically non-invasive and without any ionizing radiation. This dissertation presents the use of contrast agents in MRI studies to differentiate compartments, to study dose dependence of relaxation times, and to characterize tumors using signal amplifying enzymes in the brain.

Differentiating compartments in the brain can be useful in diffusion studies to detect stroke at an early stage. Diffusion-weighted NMR techniques have established that the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of cerebral tissue water decreases during ischemia ...


A Glia-Mediated Feedback Mechanism For The Termination Of Drosophila Visual Response: A Dissertation, Peiyi Guo Sep 2010

A Glia-Mediated Feedback Mechanism For The Termination Of Drosophila Visual Response: A Dissertation, Peiyi Guo

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

High temporal resolution of vision relies on the rapid kinetics of the photoresponse in the light-sensing photoreceptor neurons. It is well known that the rapid recovery of photoreceptor membrane potential at the end of light stimulation depends on timely deactivation of the visual transduction cascade within photoreceptors. Whether any extrinsic factor contributes to the termination speed of the photoresponse is unknown.

In this thesis, using Drosophilaas a model system, I show that a feedback circuit mediated by both neurons and glia in the visual neuropile lamina is required for rapid repolarization of the photoreceptor at the end of the ...


Elucidating The Transcriptional Network Underlying Expression Of A Neuronal Nicotinic Receptor Gene: A Dissertation, Michael D. Scofield Sep 2010

Elucidating The Transcriptional Network Underlying Expression Of A Neuronal Nicotinic Receptor Gene: A Dissertation, Michael D. Scofield

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are involved in a plethora of fundamental biological processes ranging from muscle contraction to the formation of memories. The studies described in this work focus on the transcriptional regulation of the CHRNB4 gene, which encodes the ß4 subunit of neuronal nAChRs. We previously identified a regulatory sequence (5´– CCACCCCT –3´), or “CA box”, critical for CHRNB4 promoter activity in vitro. Here I report transcription factor interaction at the CA box along with an in vivo analysis of CA box transcriptional activity. My data indicate that Sp1, Sp3, Sox10 and c-Jun interact with the CHRNB4 CA ...


Molecular Mechanisms Of Neurite Complexity In The Drosophila Brain: A Dissertation, Lei Shi Jun 2010

Molecular Mechanisms Of Neurite Complexity In The Drosophila Brain: A Dissertation, Lei Shi

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Development of functional neural circuits involves a series of complicated steps, including neurogenesis and neuronal morphogenesis. To understand the molecular mechasnims of neurite complexity, especially neurite branching/arborization, the Drosophila brain, especially MBNs (mushroom body neurons) and PNs (projection neurons) in olfactory circuitry, was used in this dissertation work as the model system to study how two molecules, Dscam and Kr-h1 affect neurite complexity in the Drosophilabrain.

For the Drosophila Dscam, through alternative splicing it could encode up to 152,064 distinct immunoglobulin/fibronectin type cell adhesion molecules. Each Dscam isoform is derived from one of the 19,008 ...


The Role Of Macropinocytosis In Sonic Hedgehog-Induced Axon Growth And Guidance: A Dissertation, Adrianne L. Kolpak Dec 2009

The Role Of Macropinocytosis In Sonic Hedgehog-Induced Axon Growth And Guidance: A Dissertation, Adrianne L. Kolpak

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Axon pathfinding is an important process required for the establishment of proper neuronal connections during development. An increasing number of secreted and membrane-anchored molecules have been identified as axon guidance cues, which can act as positive or negative factors to increase or decrease the growth of axons and influence the direction of axonal growth. These axon guidance factors present in the extracellular environment interact with receptors present on the growth cone, a structure located at the tip of the axon which functions as the motor unit for the axon. Upon binding to their receptors on the growth cone, the guidance ...


Neural Circuit Analyses Of The Olfactory System In Drosophila: Input To Output: A Dissertation, Shamik Dasgupta Sep 2009

Neural Circuit Analyses Of The Olfactory System In Drosophila: Input To Output: A Dissertation, Shamik Dasgupta

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

This thesis focuses on several aspects of olfactory processing in Drosophila. In chapter I and II, I will discuss how odorants are encoded in the brain. In both insects and mammals, olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) expressing the same odorant receptor gene converge onto the same glomerulus. This topographical organization segregates incoming odor information into combinatorial maps. One prominent theory suggests that insects and mammals discriminate odors based on these distinct combinatorial spatial codes. I tested the combinatorial coding hypothesis by engineering flies that have only one class of functional ORNs and therefore cannot support combinatorial maps. These files can be ...


Systems Level Processing Of Memory In The Fly Brain: A Dissertation, Michael Jonathan Krashes May 2009

Systems Level Processing Of Memory In The Fly Brain: A Dissertation, Michael Jonathan Krashes

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Understanding the mechanisms of memory is vital in making sense of the continuity of the self, our experience of time and of the relation between mind and body. The invertebrate Drosophila melanogaster offers us an opportunity to study and comprehend the overwhelming complexity of memory on a smaller scale. The work presented here investigates the neural circuitry in the fly brain required for olfactory memory processing. Our observation that Dorsal Paired Medial (DPM) neurons, which project only to mushroom body (MB) neurons, are required during memory storage but not for acquisition or retrieval, led us to revisit the role of ...


Differentially Expressed Micrornas Act As Inhibitors Of Bdnf In Prefrontal Cortex - Implications For Schizophrenia: A Dissertation, Nikolaos Mellios Mar 2009

Differentially Expressed Micrornas Act As Inhibitors Of Bdnf In Prefrontal Cortex - Implications For Schizophrenia: A Dissertation, Nikolaos Mellios

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

During my thesis work I studied the expression and potential function of brain expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) in human prefrontal cortex (PFC). Initially, I used combinatorial computational analysis and microarray data to identify miRNAs that are predicted with high probability to target the human Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) 3’ Untranslated Region (3’UTR) and are expressed in moderate to high levels in adult human prefrontal cortex. A subset of 10 miRNAs segregating into 5 different miRNA families (miR-30a-d, miR-103/107, miR-16/195, miR-191 and miR-495) met the above criteria. I then designed a protocol to detect these miRNAs with Locked ...


The Molecular Mechanisms Underlying The Polarized Distribution Of Drosophila Dscam In Neurons: A Dissertation, Shun-Jen Yang Oct 2008

The Molecular Mechanisms Underlying The Polarized Distribution Of Drosophila Dscam In Neurons: A Dissertation, Shun-Jen Yang

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Neurons exhibit highly polarized structures, including two morphologically and functionally distinct domains, axons and dendrites. Dendrites and axons receive versus send information, and proper execution of each requires different sets of molecules. Differential distribution of membrane proteins in distinct neuronal compartments plays essential roles in neuronal functions. The major goal of my doctoral thesis was to study the molecular mechanisms that govern the differential distribution of membrane proteins in neurons, using the Drosophilalarval mushroom body (MB) as a model system.

My work was initiated by an observation of differential distribution of distinct Dscam isoforms in neurons. Dscam stands for ...


Analysis Of Cpeb Family Protein Member Cpeb4 Function In Mammalian Neurons: A Dissertation, Ming-Chung Kan Jun 2008

Analysis Of Cpeb Family Protein Member Cpeb4 Function In Mammalian Neurons: A Dissertation, Ming-Chung Kan

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Local protein synthesis is required for long-term memory formation in the brain. One protein family, Cytoplasmic Polyadenylation Element binding Protein (CPEB) that regulates protein synthesis is found to be important for long-term memory formation possibly through regulating local protein synthesis in neurons. The well-studied member of this family, CPEB1, mediates both translational repression and activation of its target mRNAs by regulating mRNA polyadenylation. Mouse with CPEB1 KO shows defect in memory extinction but not long-term memory formation. Three more CPEB1 homologs (CPEB2-4) are identified in mammalian system. To test if CPEB2-4 may have redundant role in replacing CPEB1 in mediating ...


Molecular Mechanisms Of Neuropeptide Secretion From Neurohypophysial Terminals: A Dissertation, James M. Mcnally May 2008

Molecular Mechanisms Of Neuropeptide Secretion From Neurohypophysial Terminals: A Dissertation, James M. Mcnally

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

A clear definition of the mechanisms involved in synaptic transmission is of paramount importance for the understanding of the processes governing synaptic efficacy. Despite decades of intense study, these mechanisms remain poorly understood. The work contained in this thesis examines several such mechanisms using the hypothalamic-neurohypophysial system (HNS), a classical preparation for the study of Ca2+-dependent neuropeptide release.

The first portion of this thesis is comprised of my efforts to define the cellular machinery essential for the exocytosis of secretory granules isolated from peptidergic neurohypophysial terminals of the HNS. Here, using the planar lipid bilayer model system, I ...


Epigenetic Determinants Of Altered Gene Expression In Schizophrenia: A Dissertation, Hsien-Sung Huang May 2008

Epigenetic Determinants Of Altered Gene Expression In Schizophrenia: A Dissertation, Hsien-Sung Huang

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting 1% of the general population. Dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is associated with the etiology of schizophrenia. Moreover, a substantial deficit of GAD1mRNA in schizophrenic PFC has been reported by different groups. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Interestingly, epigenetic factors such as histone modifications and DNA methylation could be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia during the maturation of the PFC. In my work, I identified potential epigenetic changes in schizophrenic PFC and developmental changes of epigenetic marks in normal human PFC. Furthermore, mouse and neuronal precursor cell models ...


Modulation Of Neuropeptide Release Via Voltage-Dependent And -Independent Signaling In Isolated Neurohypophysial Terminals: A Dissertation, Cristina M. Velazquez-Marrero Apr 2008

Modulation Of Neuropeptide Release Via Voltage-Dependent And -Independent Signaling In Isolated Neurohypophysial Terminals: A Dissertation, Cristina M. Velazquez-Marrero

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

This thesis details my examination of several mechanisms for modulation of neuropeptide release via voltage-dependent and voltage-independent intraterminal signaling in isolated neurohypophysial terminals. The first part of this work characterizes depolarization-induced neuropeptide release in the absence of extracellular calcium. The goal of this project was to examine the relationship between depolarization-induced release of intracellular calcium stores and depolarization-secretion coupling of neuropeptides. We demonstrate that depolarization in the absence of extracellular calcium induced by either High K+ or electrical stimulation induces a rise in [Ca2+]i and subsequent neuropeptide release from Hypothalamic Neurohypophysial System (HNS) terminals. A portion of extracellular ...


A Role For Histone Modification In The Mechanism Of Action Of Antidepressant And Stimulant Drugs: A Dissertation, Frederick Albert Schroeder Dec 2007

A Role For Histone Modification In The Mechanism Of Action Of Antidepressant And Stimulant Drugs: A Dissertation, Frederick Albert Schroeder

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Depression and stimulant drug addiction each result in massive losses of health, productivity and human lives every year. Despite decades of research, current treatment regimes for depression are ineffective in approximately half of all patients. Therapy available to stimulant drug addicts is largely ineffective and moreover, dedicated treatments for drug dependence (including abuse of cocaine) are non-existent. Thus, there is a pressing need to further understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying these disorders in order to develop novel, targeted therapeutic strategies.

Chromatin remodeling, including changes in histone acetylation, has been proposed to play a role in both the etiology and ...


Molecular And Neuronal Analysis Of Circadian Photoresponses In Drosophila: A Dissertation, Alejandro D. Murad Oct 2007

Molecular And Neuronal Analysis Of Circadian Photoresponses In Drosophila: A Dissertation, Alejandro D. Murad

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Most organisms, from cyanobacteria to humans are equipped with circadian clocks. These endogenous and self-sustained pacemakers allow organisms to adapt their physiology and behavior to daily environmental variations, and to anticipate them. The circadian clock is synchronized by environmental cues (i.e. light and temperature fluctuations).

The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is well established as a model for the study of circadian rhythms. Molecular mechanisms of the Drosophilacircadian clock are conserved in mammals. Using genetic screens, several essential clock proteins (PER, TIM, CLK, CYC, DBT, SGG and CK-II) were identified in flies. Homologs of most of these proteins are ...


Neural Diversity In The Drosophila Olfactory Circuitry: A Dissertation, Sen-Lin Lai Jul 2007

Neural Diversity In The Drosophila Olfactory Circuitry: A Dissertation, Sen-Lin Lai

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Different neurons and glial cells in the Drosophila olfactory circuitry have distinct functions in olfaction. The mechanisms to generate most of diverse neurons and glial cells in the olfactory circuitry remain unclear due to the incomprehensive study of cell lineages. To facilitate the analyses of cell lineages and neural diversity, two independent binary transcription systems were introduced into Drosophila to drive two different transgenes in different cells. A technique called ‘dual-expression-control MARCM’ (mosaic analysis with a repressible cell marker) was created by incorporating a GAL80-suppresible transcription factor LexA::GAD (GAL4 activation domain) into the MARCM. This technique allows the induction ...