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Serotonin-Expressing Cells In The Corpus Of The Stomach Originate From Bone Marrow: A Master’S Thesis, Brian T. Johnston Aug 2012

Serotonin-Expressing Cells In The Corpus Of The Stomach Originate From Bone Marrow: A Master’S Thesis, Brian T. Johnston

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Neurogenin 3 and its downstream target NeuroD are basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors which promote endocrine differentiation in the gastrointestinal tract. However, mice lacking Ngn3 still produce several hormones in the stomach. Lineage tracing mouse models demonstrated that a majority of hormone cells in the corpus region of the stomach did not express Ngn3 or NeuroD during differentiation. Serotonin and histamine cells were entirely NeuroD-independently derived, and serotonin cells were additionally entirely Ngn3-independently derived. In this study, we isolated serotonin and histamine cells from the gastric corpus of transgenic mice expressing the fluorescent marker CFP. Serotonin cells expressed multiple mast cell ...


The Role Of Itk In The Development Of Gamma Delta Nkt Cells: A Dissertation, Catherine C. Yin Aug 2012

The Role Of Itk In The Development Of Gamma Delta Nkt Cells: A Dissertation, Catherine C. Yin

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The immune system is a complex network of interacting cells and tissues that is designed to protect the body from pathogens and other foreign substances. T cells are a major component of the immune system and consist of two distinct lineages distinguished by the expression of αβ or γδ T cell receptors (TCR). The Tec family kinase, Itk is an important mediator of signaling downstream of the TCR. Past studies on Itk has focused on how Itk regulates development, activation and differentiation of conventional αβ T cells and more recently how Itk regulates the development of innate-like αβ T cells ...


Molecular Studies Of T Cell Recognition And Cross-Reactivity: A Dissertation, Zu T. Shen Jul 2012

Molecular Studies Of T Cell Recognition And Cross-Reactivity: A Dissertation, Zu T. Shen

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Intracellular pathogens are recognized by a specialized subset of lymphocytes known as CD8+ T cells. Pathogen recognition by CD8+ T cells occurs through binding of T cell receptors (TCR) to processed antigens in complex with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I proteins. TCR engagement of antigens in complex with MHC class I typically lead to cytotoxic CD8+ T cell responses, which result in pathogen clearance. Due to the large number of foreign antigens that might be encountered by any given host a diverse repertoire of TCRs must be available for immune recognition. The main source of TCR diversity is generated ...


Rna-Sensing Pattern Recognition Receptors And Their Effects On T-Cell Immune Responses: A Dissertation, Rachel F. Madera Jul 2012

Rna-Sensing Pattern Recognition Receptors And Their Effects On T-Cell Immune Responses: A Dissertation, Rachel F. Madera

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Virus infection is sensed by the innate immune system through germline encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Toll-like receptors (TLRs), retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptors (RLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs) serve as PRRs that recognize different viral components. Microbial nucleic acids such as Ribonucleic acid (RNA) are important virus-derived pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) to be recognized by PRRs. Virus recognition may occur at multiple stages of the viral life cycle. Replication intermediates such as single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) are detected by the RNA-sensing PRRs that initiate innate and adaptive immune responses. Triggering of the innate immune system ...


Innate Signaling Pathways In The Maintenance Of Serological Memory: A Dissertation, Forum M. Raval Jun 2012

Innate Signaling Pathways In The Maintenance Of Serological Memory: A Dissertation, Forum M. Raval

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Long-term antiviral antibody responses provide protection from re-infection and recurrence of persistent viruses. Using a polyomavirus (PyV) mouse model, our lab has shown that MyD88-deficient mice generate low levels of virus-specific IgG after the acute phase of infection and that these IgG responses have a skewed isotype distribution with low levels of IgG2a/c. Moreover MyD88-deficient mice have reduced numbers of long-lived plasma cells in the bone marrow. These studies suggest an important role of MyD88-mediated signaling in long-term antiviral responses. Our lab has shown that T cell-deficient mice can also maintain long-term virus-specific IgG responses following PyV infection. The ...


Eaters Of The Dead: How Glial Cells Respond To And Engulf Degenerating Axons In The Cns: A Dissertation, Jennifer S. Ziegenfuss Jun 2012

Eaters Of The Dead: How Glial Cells Respond To And Engulf Degenerating Axons In The Cns: A Dissertation, Jennifer S. Ziegenfuss

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Glia, whose name derives from the original Greek word, meaning “glue,” have long been understood to be cells that play an important functional role in the nutritive and structural support of the central nervous system, yet their full involvement has been historically undervalued. Despite the strong evidence that glial reactions to cellular debris govern the health of the nervous system, the specific properties of damaged axonal debris and the mechanisms by which glia sense them, morphologically adapt to their presence, and initiate phagocytosis for clearance, have remained poorly understood. The work presented in this thesis was aimed at addressing this ...


Hiv-1 R5 Tropism: Determinants, Macrophages, And Dendritic Cells: A Dissertation, Thomas A. Musich May 2012

Hiv-1 R5 Tropism: Determinants, Macrophages, And Dendritic Cells: A Dissertation, Thomas A. Musich

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Around thirty years ago HIV-1 was identified, and from that point the known epidemic has grown to over 30 million infected individuals. Early on in the course of HIV-1 research, viruses were classified as either syncytia inducing, CXCR4-using, T-cell tropic or non-syncytia inducing, CCR5-using, macrophage tropic. Since that time, several groups have shown that this is an oversimplification. There is a great deal of diversity amongst CCR5-using HIV-1 variants. There remains a great deal to be discovered regarding HIV-1 CCR5-tropism and how this affects other aspects of HIV-1 infection.

The CD4 binding site (CD4bs) on the HIV-1 envelope plays a ...


Targeting The Histone Acetyl-Transferase, Rtt109, For Novel Anti-Fungal Drug Development: A Dissertation, Jessica Lopes Da Rosa-Spiegler May 2012

Targeting The Histone Acetyl-Transferase, Rtt109, For Novel Anti-Fungal Drug Development: A Dissertation, Jessica Lopes Da Rosa-Spiegler

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Discovery of new antifungal chemo-therapeutics for humans is limited by the large degree of conservation among eukaryotic organisms. In recent years, the histone acetyl-transferase Rtt109 was identified as the sole enzyme responsible for an abundant and important histone modification, histone H3 lysine 56 (H3K56) acetylation. In the absence of Rtt109, the lack of acetylated H3K56 renders yeast cells extremely sensitive to genotoxic agents. Consequently, the ability to sustain genotoxic stress from the host immune system is crucial for pathogens to perpetuate an infection. Because Rtt109 is conserved only within the fungal kingdom, I reasoned that Rtt109 could be a novel ...


Lack Of Cftr In Cd3+ Lymphocytes Leads To Aberrant Cytokine Secretion And Hyper-Inflammatory Adaptive Immune Responses: A Master's Thesis, Christian Mueller Apr 2012

Lack Of Cftr In Cd3+ Lymphocytes Leads To Aberrant Cytokine Secretion And Hyper-Inflammatory Adaptive Immune Responses: A Master's Thesis, Christian Mueller

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) remains the most common fatal monogenic disease in the US, affecting 1 in 3,300 live births. CF is the result of mutations in CFTR, a chloride channel and regulator of other ion channels. The mechanisms by which CFTR mutations cause chronic lung disease in CF are not fully defined, but may include the combined effects of altered ion and water transport across the airway epithelium and aberrant inflammatory and immune responses to pathogens within the airways. We have shown that Cftr-/- mice mount an exaggerated IgE response towards Aspergillus fumigatus (Af) when compared to Cftr ...


On The Source Of Peptides For Major Histocompatibility Class I Antigen Presentation: A Dissertation, Diego José Farfán Arribas Apr 2012

On The Source Of Peptides For Major Histocompatibility Class I Antigen Presentation: A Dissertation, Diego José Farfán Arribas

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Peptides generated from cellular protein degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway are presented on MHC class I as a means for the immune system to monitor polypeptides being synthesized by cells. For CD8 + T cells to prevent the spread of an incipient infection, it appears essential they should be able to sense foreign polypeptides being synthesized as soon as possible. A prompt detection of viral proteins is of great importance for the success of an adaptive immune response. Defective ribosomal products (DRiPs) have been postulated as a preferential source which would allow for a rapid presentation of peptides derived from the ...


The Subtype Specific And Cross-Reactive T Cell Responses To Influenza Viruses In Humans: A Dissertation, Jenny Aurielle B. Babon Apr 2012

The Subtype Specific And Cross-Reactive T Cell Responses To Influenza Viruses In Humans: A Dissertation, Jenny Aurielle B. Babon

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Human influenza is a contagious respiratory disease resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. With the recent cases of avian influenza infections in humans and the heightened concern for an influenza pandemic arising from these infections, it is essential to understand host responses that would confer protective immunity to influenza. The cell-mediated immune responses to influenza virus play an important role during influenza infection.

To analyze the specificity and diversity of memory T-cell responses, we performed a genome-wide screening of T cell epitopes to influenza A virus in healthy adult donors. We identified a total of 83 peptides, 54 of ...


The Role Of Heterologous Immunity In Mediating Natural Resistance To Infection In Human Subjects: A Dissertation, Levi B. Watkin Mar 2012

The Role Of Heterologous Immunity In Mediating Natural Resistance To Infection In Human Subjects: A Dissertation, Levi B. Watkin

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Heterologous immunity is a mechanism by which immunological memory within an individual, developed in response to a previous infection, plays a role in the immune response to a subsequent unrelated infection. In murine studies, heterologous immunity facilitated by cross-reactive CD8 T-cell responses can mediate either beneficial (protective immunity) or detrimental effects (e.g. enhanced lung and adipose immunopathology and enhanced viral titers) (Selin et al., 1998; Chen et al., 2001; Welsh and Selin, 2002; Nie et al., 2010; Welsh et al., 2010). Protective heterologous immunity results in enhanced clearance of virus during a subsequent infection with an unrelated pathogen. Such ...


Primary And Secondary Immune Responses During Sequential West Nile Virus And Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infections: A Dissertation, Derek W. Trobaugh Feb 2012

Primary And Secondary Immune Responses During Sequential West Nile Virus And Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infections: A Dissertation, Derek W. Trobaugh

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are closely related Flaviviruses that are important arthropod-borne human pathogens. Both of these viruses can cause encephalitis with significant morbidity and mortality after infection. Flaviviruses co-circulate in many areas of the world, which raises the risk for sequential infection between heterologous viruses. Sequential infection between dengue virus serotypes can lead to cross-protection, but in some cases, it leads to a severe outcome, dengue hemorrhagic fever. Previous work in hamsters and non-human primates demonstrated that prior JEV immunity protects against a lethal WNV infection. However, the ability of prior WNV immunity to ...


Distinct Gene Circuits Control The Differentiation Of Innate Versus Adaptive Il-17 Producing T Cells: A Dissertation, Nidhi Malhotra Feb 2012

Distinct Gene Circuits Control The Differentiation Of Innate Versus Adaptive Il-17 Producing T Cells: A Dissertation, Nidhi Malhotra

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

T lymphocytes are distinguished by the expression of αβ TCR or γδ TCR on their cell surface. The kinetic differences in the effector functions classifies γδ T cells as innate-like lymphocytes and αβ T cells as adaptive lymphocytes. Although distinct, αβ and γδ T cell lineages produce a common array of cytokines to mount an effective immune response against a pathogen. The production of cytokine IL-17 is a shared characteristic between the γδ T (Tγδ17) cells and the CD4 T (Th17) cells. γδ T cells develop into Tγδ17 cells in the thymus whereas CD4 T cells differentiate into Th17 cells ...


M.Tb Killing By Macrophage Innate Immune Mechanisms: A Dissertation, Michelle L. Hartman Sep 2011

M.Tb Killing By Macrophage Innate Immune Mechanisms: A Dissertation, Michelle L. Hartman

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Macrophages infected with a heavy burden of M.tb Erdman undergo a cell death that initially resembles apoptosis but quickly transitions to necrosis. Unlike the previously reported TNF dependent apoptosis induced by avirulent Mycobacterium [1], this form of macrophage cell death is not microbicidal [2]. Microbicidal effects are observed however, when the heavily infected macrophage encounters an uninfected naïve macrophage. My studies describe in part, the crosstalk between the uninfected and infected macrophage that results in the killing of the intracellular M.tb Cell contact between the two cell populations is not necessary for this killing of bacilli to occur ...


Intranasal Colonization By Streptococcus Pneumoniae Induces Immunological Protection From Pulmonary And Systemic Infection: A Dissertation, Nang H. Maung Aug 2011

Intranasal Colonization By Streptococcus Pneumoniae Induces Immunological Protection From Pulmonary And Systemic Infection: A Dissertation, Nang H. Maung

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Given that Streptococcus pneumoniae can cause life-threatening pulmonary and systemic infection, an apparent paradox is that the bacterium resides, usually harmlessly, in the nasopharynx of many people. Humoral immunity is thought to be the primary defense against serious pneumococcal infection, and we hypothesized that nasopharyngeal colonization of mice results in the generation of an antibody response that provides long-term protection against lung infection. We found that survival of of C57L/6 mice after intranasal inoculation with wild-type serotype 4 strain TIGR4 pneumococci required B cells but not T cells, suggesting that nasopharyngeal colonization elicited a protective humoral immune response. In ...


Two Distinct Modes Of Signaling By Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C Guide Blood And Lymphatic Vessel Patterning In Zebrafish: A Dissertation, Jacques A. Villefranc Aug 2011

Two Distinct Modes Of Signaling By Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C Guide Blood And Lymphatic Vessel Patterning In Zebrafish: A Dissertation, Jacques A. Villefranc

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-3 (VEGFR3/Flt4) and its ligand Vegfc are necessary for development of both blood and lymphatic vasculature in vertebrates. In zebrafish, Vegfc/Flt4 signaling is essential for formation of arteries, veins, and lymphatic vessels. Interestingly, Flt4 appears to utilize distinct signaling pathways during the development of each of these vessels. To identify components of this pathway, we performed a transgenic haploid genetic screen in zebrafish that express EGFP under the control of a blood vessel specific promoter. As a result, we indentified a mutant allele of vascular endothelial growth factor c (vegfc), vegfcum18. vegfcum18 ...


Nucleic Acid Sensing By The Immune System: Roles For The Receptor For Advanced Glycation End Products (Rage) And Intracellular Receptor Proteins: A Dissertation, Cherilyn M. Sirois Jul 2011

Nucleic Acid Sensing By The Immune System: Roles For The Receptor For Advanced Glycation End Products (Rage) And Intracellular Receptor Proteins: A Dissertation, Cherilyn M. Sirois

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

As humans, we inhabit an environment shared with many microorganisms, some of which are harmless or beneficial, and others which represent a threat to our health. A complex network of organs, cells and their protein products form our bodies’ immune system, tasked with detecting these potentially harmful agents and eliminating them. This same system also serves to detect changes in the healthy balance of normal functions in the body, and for repairing tissue damage caused by injury. Immune recognition of nucleic acids, DNA and RNA, is one way that the body detects invading pathogens and initiates tissue repair. A number ...


Dynamics Of Erythropoietic Survival Pathways In Vivo: A Dissertation, Miroslav Koulnis Jul 2011

Dynamics Of Erythropoietic Survival Pathways In Vivo: A Dissertation, Miroslav Koulnis

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Erythropoiesis maintains stable tissue oxygenation in the basal state, while accelerating red cell production in anemia, blood loss or high altitude. The principal regulator of erythropoiesis is the hormone erythropoietin (Epo). In response to hypoxic stress, Epo can increase a 1000-fold, driving erythropoietic rate by up to 10-fold. It’s been suggested that survival pathways activated by the Epo receptor (EpoR) underlie its regulation of erythropoietic rate. A number of apparently redundant EpoR survival pathways were identified in vitro, raising the possibility of their functional specialization in vivo.

Here I assessed the roles of three survival pathways activated by EpoR ...


Regulation Of Humoral Immunity By Pim Kinases: A Dissertation, Kristen N. Willems Jun 2011

Regulation Of Humoral Immunity By Pim Kinases: A Dissertation, Kristen N. Willems

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Pim (Provirus Integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus) kinases are a family of three serine/threonine kinases involved in cell cycle, survival and metabolism. These kinases were first identified in malignant cells and are most often associated with their role in cancer. Their role in immunity and lymphocytes is less well known. To date, it has been shown that Pim 1 and/or Pim 2 are important for T lymphocyte survival and activation when the Akt signaling pathway is inhibited by rapamycin. In addition, our laboratory has shown that Pim 2 is critical for BLyS-mediated naive B lymphocyte survival ...


Critical Molecular Pathways In Cancer Stem Cells Of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: A Dissertation, Yaoyu Chen May 2011

Critical Molecular Pathways In Cancer Stem Cells Of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: A Dissertation, Yaoyu Chen

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a disease characterized by the expansion of granulocytic cells. The BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib, the frontline treatment for Ph+ leukemias, can induce complete hematologic and cytogenetic response in most chronic phase CML patients. Despite the remarkable initial clinic effects, it is now recognized that imatinib will unlikely cure patients because a small cell population containing leukemic stem cells (LSCs) with self-renewal capacity is insensitive to tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

In Chapter I, I briefly review the BCR-ABL kinase and its related signaling pathways. BCR-ABL kinase activates several signaling pathways including MAPK, STAT, and JNK/SAPK ...


The Function Of Innate Γδ T Cell Subsets Is Molecularly Programmed In The Thymus In Three Stages: A Dissertation, Kavitha Narayan Mar 2011

The Function Of Innate Γδ T Cell Subsets Is Molecularly Programmed In The Thymus In Three Stages: A Dissertation, Kavitha Narayan

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The immune system generates discrete lineages of cells that are designed to respond optimally to environmental cues and infectious agents. Two distinct lineages of T cells, distinguished by expression of either an αβ or γδ T cell receptor (TCR), arise from a common progenitor in the thymus. The type of pathogen and the cytokine milieu directs effector differentiation of αβ T cells in the periphery through the induction of specific transcriptional networks. γδ T cell development is distinct from that of αβ T cells in its ordered rearrangement of TCR genes and the pairing of Vγ and Vδ chains to ...


Immunity, Pathogenesis, And Prevention Of Poxvirus Infections: A Dissertation, Mina O. Seedhom Dec 2010

Immunity, Pathogenesis, And Prevention Of Poxvirus Infections: A Dissertation, Mina O. Seedhom

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Vaccinia virus (VAC) is the prototypical member of the orthopoxvirus genus of the poxvirus family and the virus used for smallpox vaccinations. The following describes the testing of VAC variants designed to have similar immuno-protective profiles with decreased pathogenicity, examines the immune response to VAC after lethal infection in wild type and lupus-prone mice, and describes a method that allows for the enumeration of VAC-specific CD8+ T in naïve and VAC-immune mice.

The first part describes work examining VAC Wyeth (VAC-Wy) variants engineered to be less pathogenic in vivo. VAC-Wy variants included genes that code for three immunomodulatory proteins, an ...


Cd8+ T Cell Serotype-Cross-Reactivity Is A Predominant Feature Of Dengue Virus Infections In Humans: A Dissertation, Heather L. Friberg-Robertson Nov 2010

Cd8+ T Cell Serotype-Cross-Reactivity Is A Predominant Feature Of Dengue Virus Infections In Humans: A Dissertation, Heather L. Friberg-Robertson

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV 1-4) have a significant and growing impact on global health. Dengue disease encompasses a wide range of clinical symptoms, usually presenting as an uncomplicated febrile illness lasting 5-7 days; however, a small percentage of infections are associated with plasma leakage and bleeding tendency (called dengue hemorrhagic fever, DHF), which can result in shock. Epidemiological studies indicate that severe dengue disease most often occurs during secondary heterotypic DENV infection. Additionally, plasma leakage (the hallmark of DHF) coincides with defervescence and viral clearance, suggesting that severe disease arises from the immune response to infection rather ...


Drosophila Pirna Function In Genome Maintenance, Telomere Protection And Genome Evolution: A Dissertation, Jaspreet S. Khurana Oct 2010

Drosophila Pirna Function In Genome Maintenance, Telomere Protection And Genome Evolution: A Dissertation, Jaspreet S. Khurana

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Upon fertilization, the early embryo sustains most of the cellular processes using the maternally deposited reserves in the egg itself until the zygotic gene expression takes charge. Among the plethora of essential components provided by the mother are small non-coding RNAs called PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), which provide immunity to the zygote against transposon challenge. In this thesis, I have presented three different functions of piRNAs in Drosophila melanogaster- in maintenance of genomic integrity, telomere protection and their role as an adaptive immune system against genomic parasites.

In Chapter 2, I have described the phenotypic effects of the loss of piRNA ...


Regulation Of Early T Cell Activation By Tnf Superfamily Members Tnf And Fasl: A Dissertation, Bhavana Priyadharshini Sep 2010

Regulation Of Early T Cell Activation By Tnf Superfamily Members Tnf And Fasl: A Dissertation, Bhavana Priyadharshini

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The instructive signals received by T cells during the programming stages of activation will determine the fate of effector and memory populations generated during an immune response. Members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily play an essential role in influencing numerous aspects of T cell adaptive immune responses including cell activation, differentiation, proliferation, survival, and apoptosis. My thesis dissertation describes the involvement of two such members of the TNF superfamily, TNF and FasL, and their influence on the fate of T cells early during responses to viral infections and to the induction of transplantation tolerance.

TNF is a pleiotropic ...


Dissecting The Role Of Innate Pattern Recognition Receptors And Interferon Regulatory Factor-5 In The Immune Response To Human Metapneumovirus And Other Pathogens: A Dissertation, Zhaozhao Jiang Aug 2010

Dissecting The Role Of Innate Pattern Recognition Receptors And Interferon Regulatory Factor-5 In The Immune Response To Human Metapneumovirus And Other Pathogens: A Dissertation, Zhaozhao Jiang

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The Innate immune system is the first line of defense against invading microbial pathogens. It is a fast-acting and non-antigen-specific defense system, which employs germline encoded surveillance systems capable of responding to a broad-spectrum of pathogens. The innate immune system involves a variety of immune cells, which express different profiles of surveillance or detection receptors. Upon sensing pathogens, these receptors trigger cell signalling to turn on transcription of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, anti-microbial peptides and type I Interferons. These effectors have direct effects on the control of pathogen load and also activate the adaptive immune system, which is ultimately required to ...


Endocytosis, Phagocytosis, And Innate Immune Responses: A Dissertation, Christine A. St. Pierre Jul 2010

Endocytosis, Phagocytosis, And Innate Immune Responses: A Dissertation, Christine A. St. Pierre

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

In this dissertation, the roles of endocytosis and phagocytosis pathways in a variety of clinically relevant scenarios were examined. These scenarios include antibody-mediated internalization of cell surface proteins, titanium wear-particle uptake in failed joint replacements, and polymeric microparticle uptake and immune responses for drug delivery or adjuvant use.

The use of antibodies specific for cell surface proteins has become a popular method to deliver therapeutics to target cells. As such, it is imperative to fully understand the ability of antibodies to mediate internalization and endosomal trafficking of the surface protein that it recognizes, so that drug delivery can be optimized ...


Pathogenesis Of The Helicobacter Induced Mucosal Disease: A Dissertation, Calin Stoicov Jun 2010

Pathogenesis Of The Helicobacter Induced Mucosal Disease: A Dissertation, Calin Stoicov

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Helicobacter pylori causes chronic gastritis, peptic ulceration and gastric cancer. This bacterium is one of the most prevalent in the world, but affects mostly the populations with a lower socioeconomical status. While it causes gastric and duodenal ulcers in only 20% of infected patients, less then 1% will develop gastric adenocarcinoma. In fact, H. pylori is the most important risk factor in developing gastric cancer. Epidemiological studies have shown that 80% of gastric cancer patients are H. pylori positive. The outcome of the infection with this bacterium depends on bacterial factors, diet, genetic background of the host, and coinfection with ...


T Cells Aid In Limiting Pathogen Burden And In Enhancing B1 And B2 Cell Antibody Responses To Membrane Glycolipid And The Surface Lipoprotein Decorin-Binding Protein A During Borrelia Burgdorferi Infection: A Dissertation, Robyn Lynn Marty-Roix Jun 2010

T Cells Aid In Limiting Pathogen Burden And In Enhancing B1 And B2 Cell Antibody Responses To Membrane Glycolipid And The Surface Lipoprotein Decorin-Binding Protein A During Borrelia Burgdorferi Infection: A Dissertation, Robyn Lynn Marty-Roix

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Murine infection by the Lyme disease spirochete, B. burgdorferi, results in the generation of pathogen-specific antibody that can provide protection against Lyme disease, but the cells involved in this response are poorly characterized. T cells are not required for generating a protective antibody response to B. burgdorferi infection, but their exact role in providing protection against tissue colonization had not been previously determined. We found that TCRβxδ;-/- mice were susceptible to high pathogen loads and decreased antibody titers, but inhibition of CD40L-dependent interactions resulted in partial protection suggesting that a portion of the help provided by T cells was not ...