Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Medicine and Health Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 1056

Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Effects Of Sacubitril/Valsartan Versus Irbesartan In Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease: A Randomised Double-Blind Trial [Accepted Manuscript], Richard Hayes, Parminder K. Judge, Natalie Staplin, William G. Herrington, Benjamin C. Storey, Angelyn M. Bethel, Louise Bowman, Nigel Brunskill, Paul Cockwell, Michael Hill, Philip A. Kalra, John J. V. Mcmurray, Maarten Taal, David C. Wheeler, Martin J. Landray, Colin Baigent Oct 2018

Effects Of Sacubitril/Valsartan Versus Irbesartan In Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease: A Randomised Double-Blind Trial [Accepted Manuscript], Richard Hayes, Parminder K. Judge, Natalie Staplin, William G. Herrington, Benjamin C. Storey, Angelyn M. Bethel, Louise Bowman, Nigel Brunskill, Paul Cockwell, Michael Hill, Philip A. Kalra, John J. V. Mcmurray, Maarten Taal, David C. Wheeler, Martin J. Landray, Colin Baigent

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

BACKGROUND: Sacubitril/valsartan reduces the risk of cardiovascular mortality among patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, but its effects on kidney function and cardiac biomarkers in people with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease are unknown. METHODS: The UK HARP-III trial (United Kingdom Heart and Renal Protection-III), a randomized double-blind trial, included 414 participants with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) 20 to 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 who were randomly assigned to sacubitril/valsartan 97/103 mg twice daily versus irbesartan 300 mg once daily. The primary outcome was measured GFR at 12 months using ANCOVA ...


Changes In Waist Circumference Independent Of Weight: Implications For Population Level Monitoring Of Obesity [Accepted Manuscript], Emma Gearon, Stephanie K. Tanamas, Christopher Stevenson, Venurs Hui Yee Loh, Anna Peters Jun 2018

Changes In Waist Circumference Independent Of Weight: Implications For Population Level Monitoring Of Obesity [Accepted Manuscript], Emma Gearon, Stephanie K. Tanamas, Christopher Stevenson, Venurs Hui Yee Loh, Anna Peters

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

ing of obesity is most commonly conducted using body mass index (BMI). We test the hypothesis that because of increases in waist circumference (WC) independent of increases in weight, BMI alone detects an increasingly smaller proportion of the population with obesity. Methods: Australian adults with measured height, weight, and WC were selected from three nationally representative cross-sectional surveys (1989, 1999–2000, 2011–12; n = 8313, 5903 & 3904). Participants were defined as having obesity using classifications for an obese BMI (≥ 30 kg·m− 2) and substantially-increased-risk WC (≥ 88 cm [women], ≥ 102 cm [men]). Age-standardised prevalence of obesity according to BMI and ...


The Prevalence And Impact Of Low Back Pain In Pre-Professional And Professional Dancers: A Prospective Study [Accepted Manuscript], Christopher T. Swain, Elizabeth Bradshaw, Douglas G. Whyte, Christina L. Ekegren Mar 2018

The Prevalence And Impact Of Low Back Pain In Pre-Professional And Professional Dancers: A Prospective Study [Accepted Manuscript], Christopher T. Swain, Elizabeth Bradshaw, Douglas G. Whyte, Christina L. Ekegren

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objectives To determine the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) in pre-professional and professional dancers and its impact on dance participation, care-seeking and medication use. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting One pre-professional ballet school, two pre-professional university dance programs, and a professional ballet company. Participants Male and female classical ballet and contemporary dancers. Main outcome measures An initial questionnaire collected demographic and LBP history data. The monthly prevalence of LBP (all episodes, activity limiting episodes and chronic LBP) and impact (activity limitation, care-seeking, and medication use) was collected over a nine-month period. Results 119 dancers participated, which represented 54% of ...


Self-Compassion Moderates The Link Between Perfectionism And Depression Link In Both Adolescence And Adulthood, Madeleine Ferrari, Keong Yap, Nicole Scott, Danielle A. Einstein, Joseph Ciarrochi Feb 2018

Self-Compassion Moderates The Link Between Perfectionism And Depression Link In Both Adolescence And Adulthood, Madeleine Ferrari, Keong Yap, Nicole Scott, Danielle A. Einstein, Joseph Ciarrochi

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background

Psychological practitioners often seek to directly change the form or frequency of clients' maladaptive perfectionist thoughts, because such thoughts predict future depression. Indirect strategies, such as self-compassion interventions, that seek to change clients' relationships to difficult thoughts, rather than trying to change the thoughts directly could be just as effective. This study aimed to investigate whether self-compassion moderated, or weakened, the relationship between high perfectionism and high depression symptoms in both adolescence and adulthood.

Methods

The present study utilised anonymous self-report questionnaires to assess maladaptive perfectionism, depression, and self-compassion across two samples covering much of the lifespan. Questionnaires were ...


Higher Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels Are Associated With Decreased Mortality In Patients With Intracerebral Hemorrhage [Accepted Manuscript], Jason J. Chang, Aristeidis Katsanos, Yasser Khorchid, Kira Dillard, Ali Kerro, Lucia Goodwin Burgess, Nitin Goyal, Anne W. Alexandrov, Andrei V. Alexandrov, Georgios Tsivgoulis Feb 2018

Higher Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels Are Associated With Decreased Mortality In Patients With Intracerebral Hemorrhage [Accepted Manuscript], Jason J. Chang, Aristeidis Katsanos, Yasser Khorchid, Kira Dillard, Ali Kerro, Lucia Goodwin Burgess, Nitin Goyal, Anne W. Alexandrov, Andrei V. Alexandrov, Georgios Tsivgoulis

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background and aims: The relationship between lipoprotein levels, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and clinical outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remains controversial. We sought to evaluate the association of lipoprotein cholesterol levels and statin dosage with clinical and neuroimaging outcomes in patients with ICH. Methods: Data on consecutive patients hospitalized with spontaneous acute ICH was prospectively collected over a 5-year period and retrospectively analyzed. Demographic characteristics, clinical severity documented by NIHSS-score and ICH-score, neuroimaging parameters, pre-hospital statin use and doses, and LDL-C and HDL-C levels were recorded. Outcome events characterized were hematoma volume, hematoma expansion, in-hospital functional ...


Perceptual-Motor Regulation In Locomotor Pointing While Approaching A Curb [Accepted Manuscript], Steven Van Andel, Michael H. Cole, Gert-Jan Pepping Feb 2018

Perceptual-Motor Regulation In Locomotor Pointing While Approaching A Curb [Accepted Manuscript], Steven Van Andel, Michael H. Cole, Gert-Jan Pepping

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Locomotor pointing is a task that has been the focus of research in the context of sport (e.g. long jumping and cricket) as well as normal walking. Collectively, these studies have produced abroad understanding of locomotor pointing, but generalizability has been limited to laboratory type tasks and/or tasks with high spatial demands. The current study aimed to generalize previous findings in locomotor pointing to the common daily task of approaching and stepping on to a curb. Sixteen people completed 33 repetitions of a task that required them to walk up to and step onto a curb. Information about ...


More A Marathon Than A Hurdle: Towards Children’S Informed Consent In A Study On Safety [Accepted Manuscript], Tim Moore, Morag Mcarthur Dr, Debbie Noble-Carr Feb 2018

More A Marathon Than A Hurdle: Towards Children’S Informed Consent In A Study On Safety [Accepted Manuscript], Tim Moore, Morag Mcarthur Dr, Debbie Noble-Carr

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Informed consent is critical in research with children. Although much has been written about the need to see consent as an ongoing process, less has considered how to do it in practice. This article reflects on the authors’ experiences of conducting a piece of research focusing on children’s experiences of safety from abuse within institutional contexts. It draws on feedback provided by participants and the guidance of three Children’s Reference Groups. The importance of presenting information in accessible and appropriate ways, of providing opportunities for participants to negotiate their participation and for in-the-moment challenges be dealt with collaboratively ...


Coding Variants In Rpl3l And Myzap Increase Risk Of Atrial Fibrillation, Rosa B. Thorolfsdottir, Gardar Sveinbjornsson, Patrick Sulem, Jonas B. Nielsen, Stefan Jonsson, Gisli H. Halldorson, Pall Melsted, Erna V. Ivarsdottir, Olafur B. Davidsson, Ragnar P. Kristjansson, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Anna Helgadottir, Solveig Gretarsdottir, Gudmundur Norddahl, Sridharan Rajamani, Bjarni Torfason, Atli S. Valgardsson, Jon Sverrisson, Vinicius Tragante, Oddgeir L. Holmen, Folkert W. Asselbergs, Dan M. Roden, Dawood Darbar, Terje R. Pedersen, Marc S. Sabatine, Cristen J. Willer, Maja-Lisa Loechen, Bjarni V. Halldorsson, Ingileif Jonsdottir, Kristian Hveem, David O. Arnar, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Daniel F. Gudbjartsson, Hilma Holm, Kari Stefansson Jan 2018

Coding Variants In Rpl3l And Myzap Increase Risk Of Atrial Fibrillation, Rosa B. Thorolfsdottir, Gardar Sveinbjornsson, Patrick Sulem, Jonas B. Nielsen, Stefan Jonsson, Gisli H. Halldorson, Pall Melsted, Erna V. Ivarsdottir, Olafur B. Davidsson, Ragnar P. Kristjansson, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Anna Helgadottir, Solveig Gretarsdottir, Gudmundur Norddahl, Sridharan Rajamani, Bjarni Torfason, Atli S. Valgardsson, Jon Sverrisson, Vinicius Tragante, Oddgeir L. Holmen, Folkert W. Asselbergs, Dan M. Roden, Dawood Darbar, Terje R. Pedersen, Marc S. Sabatine, Cristen J. Willer, Maja-Lisa Loechen, Bjarni V. Halldorsson, Ingileif Jonsdottir, Kristian Hveem, David O. Arnar, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Daniel F. Gudbjartsson, Hilma Holm, Kari Stefansson

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Most sequence variants identified hitherto in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of atrial fibrillation are common, non-coding variants associated with risk through unknown mechanisms. We performed a meta-analysis of GWAS of atrial fibrillation among 29,502 cases and 767,760 controls from Iceland and the UK Biobank with follow-up in samples from Norway and the US, focusing on low-frequency coding and splice variants aiming to identify causal genes. We observe associations with one missense (OR = 1.20) and one splice-donor variant (OR = 1.50) in RPL3L, the first ribosomal gene implicated in atrial fibrillation to our knowledge. Analysis of 167 RNA ...


Organizational Factors Associated With Readiness For Change In Residential Aged Care Settings, Kathryn Von Treuer, Gery Karantzas, Marita Mccabe, David Mellor, Anastasia Konis, Tanya Davison, Daniel O'Connor Jan 2018

Organizational Factors Associated With Readiness For Change In Residential Aged Care Settings, Kathryn Von Treuer, Gery Karantzas, Marita Mccabe, David Mellor, Anastasia Konis, Tanya Davison, Daniel O'Connor

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Organizational change is inevitable in any workplace. Previous research has shown that leadership and a number of organizational climate and contextual variables can affect the adoption of change initiatives. The effect of these workplace variables is particularly important in stressful work sectors such as aged care where employees work with challenging older clients who frequently exhibit dementia and depression. Methods: This study sought to examine the effect of organizational climate and leadership variables on organizational readiness for change across 21 residential aged care facilities. Staff from each facility (N = 255) completed a self-report measure assessing organizational factors including organizational ...


Costs Of Potentially Inappropriate Medication Use In Residential Aged Care Facilities, S. L. Harrison, L. K. O'Donnell, R. Milte, S. M. Dyer, E. S. Gnanamanickam, C. Bradley, Enwu Liu, S. N. Hilmer, M. Crotty Jan 2018

Costs Of Potentially Inappropriate Medication Use In Residential Aged Care Facilities, S. L. Harrison, L. K. O'Donnell, R. Milte, S. M. Dyer, E. S. Gnanamanickam, C. Bradley, Enwu Liu, S. N. Hilmer, M. Crotty

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: The potential harms of some medications may outweigh their potential benefits (inappropriate medication use). Despite recommendations to avoid the use of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) in older adults, the prevalence of PIM use is high in different settings including residential aged care. However, it remains unclear what the costs of these medications are in this setting. The main objective of this study was to determine the costs of PIMs in older adults living in residential care. A secondary objective was to examine if there was a difference in costs of PIMs in a home-like model of residential care compared ...


Capturing Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure And Physical Activity: Feasibility Study And Comparison Between Self-Reports, Mobile Apps, Dosimeters, And Accelerometers, Elke Hacker, Caitlin Horsham, Martin Allen, Andrea Nathan, John Lowe, Monika Janda Jan 2018

Capturing Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure And Physical Activity: Feasibility Study And Comparison Between Self-Reports, Mobile Apps, Dosimeters, And Accelerometers, Elke Hacker, Caitlin Horsham, Martin Allen, Andrea Nathan, John Lowe, Monika Janda

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Skin cancer is the most prevalent cancer in Australia. Skin cancer prevention programs aim to reduce sun exposure and increase sun protection behaviors. Effectiveness is usually assessed through self-report. Objective: It was the aim of this study to test the acceptance and validity of a newly developed ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure app, designed to reduce the data collection burden to research participants. Physical activity data was collected because a strong focus on sun avoidance may result in unhealthy reductions in physical activity. This paper provides lessons learned from collecting data from participants using paper diaries, a mobile app, dosimeters ...


Psychotropic Medications In Older People In Residential Care Facilities And Associations With Quality Of Life: A Cross-Sectional Study, Stephanie L. Harrison, Clare E. Bradley, Rachel Milte, Enwu Liu, Lisa K. O'Donnell, Sarah N. Hilmer, Maria Crotty Jan 2018

Psychotropic Medications In Older People In Residential Care Facilities And Associations With Quality Of Life: A Cross-Sectional Study, Stephanie L. Harrison, Clare E. Bradley, Rachel Milte, Enwu Liu, Lisa K. O'Donnell, Sarah N. Hilmer, Maria Crotty

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Psychotropic medications have been associated with many adverse outcomes in older people living in residential care. Home-like models of residential care may be preferable to traditional models of care and we hypothesized that this model may impact on the prevalence of psychotropic medications. The objectives were to: 1) examine associations between psychotropic medications and quality of life in older adults living in residential care facilities with a high prevalence of cognitive impairment and dementia and 2) determine if there was a difference in prevalence of psychotropic medications in facilities which provide a small group home-like model of residential care ...


Effects Of 24 Months Of Treatment With Romosozumab Followed By 12 Months Of Denosumab Or Placebo In Postmenopausal Women With Low Bone Mineral Density: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase 2, Parallel Group Study, Michael Mcclung, Jacques P. Brown, Aldolfo Diez-Perez, Heinrich Resch, John Caminis, Paul Meisner, Michael A. Bolognese, Stefan Goemaere, Henry G. Bone, Jose R. Zanchetta, Judy Maddox, Sarah Bray, Andreas Grauer Jan 2018

Effects Of 24 Months Of Treatment With Romosozumab Followed By 12 Months Of Denosumab Or Placebo In Postmenopausal Women With Low Bone Mineral Density: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase 2, Parallel Group Study, Michael Mcclung, Jacques P. Brown, Aldolfo Diez-Perez, Heinrich Resch, John Caminis, Paul Meisner, Michael A. Bolognese, Stefan Goemaere, Henry G. Bone, Jose R. Zanchetta, Judy Maddox, Sarah Bray, Andreas Grauer

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Over 12 months, romosozumab increased bone formation and decreased bone resorption, resulting in increased bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women with lowBMD (NCT00896532). Herein, we report the study extension evaluating 24 months of treatment with romosozumab, discontinuation of romosozumab, alendronate followed by romosozumab, and romosozumab followed by denosumab. Postmenopausal women aged 55 to 85 years with a lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TH), or femoral neck T-score ≤–2.0 and ≥–3.5 were enrolled and randomly assigned to placebo, one of five romosozumab regimens (70 mg, 140 mg, 210 mg monthly [QM]; 140 mg Q3M; 210 mg Q3M) for ...


The Classification Of Body Dysmorphic Disorder Symptoms In Male And Female Adolescents [Accepted Manuscript], Sophie C. Schneider, Andrew J. Baillie, Jonathan Mond, Cynthia Michelle Turner, Jennifer L. Hudson Jan 2018

The Classification Of Body Dysmorphic Disorder Symptoms In Male And Female Adolescents [Accepted Manuscript], Sophie C. Schneider, Andrew J. Baillie, Jonathan Mond, Cynthia Michelle Turner, Jennifer L. Hudson

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) was categorised in DSM-5 within the newly created ‘obsessive-compulsive and related disorders’ chapter, however this classification remains subject to debate. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test competing models of the co-occurrence of symptoms of BDD, obsessive-compulsive disorder, unipolar depression, anxiety, and eating disorders in a community sample of adolescents, and to explore potential sex differences in these models. Methods: Self-report questionnaires assessing disorder symptoms were completed by 3149 Australian adolescents. The fit of correlated factor models was calculated separately in males and females, and measurement invariance testing compared parameters of the best-fitting model between ...


The Role Of The Individual In The Coming Era Of Processed-Based Therapy [Accepted Manuscript], Steven C. Hayes, Stefan G. Hofmann, Corey E. Stanton, Joseph K. Carpenter, Brandon T. Sandford, Joshua E. Curtiss, Joseph Ciarrochi Jan 2018

The Role Of The Individual In The Coming Era Of Processed-Based Therapy [Accepted Manuscript], Steven C. Hayes, Stefan G. Hofmann, Corey E. Stanton, Joseph K. Carpenter, Brandon T. Sandford, Joshua E. Curtiss, Joseph Ciarrochi

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

For decades the development of evidence-based therapy has been based on experimental tests of protocols designed to impact psychiatric syndromes. As this paradigm weakens, a more process-based therapy approach is rising in its place, focused on how to best target and change core biopsychosocial processes in specific situations for given goals with given clients. This is an inherently more idiographic question than has normally been at issue in evidence-based therapy over the last few decades. In this article we explore methods of assessment and analysis that can integrate idiographic and nomothetic approaches in a process-based era.


The 2017 Dutch Physical Activity Guidelines, Rianne M. Weggemans, Frank J.G. Backx, Lars Borghouts, Mai J.M. Chinapaw, Maria T. Hopman, Annemarie Koster, Stef Kremers, Luc Van Loon, Anne M. May, Arend Mosterd, Hidde Van Der Ploeg, Tim Takken, Marjolein Visser, Wanda Wendel-Vos, Eco J.C. De Geus Jan 2018

The 2017 Dutch Physical Activity Guidelines, Rianne M. Weggemans, Frank J.G. Backx, Lars Borghouts, Mai J.M. Chinapaw, Maria T. Hopman, Annemarie Koster, Stef Kremers, Luc Van Loon, Anne M. May, Arend Mosterd, Hidde Van Der Ploeg, Tim Takken, Marjolein Visser, Wanda Wendel-Vos, Eco J.C. De Geus

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background The objective of this study was to derive evidence-based physical activity guidelines for the general Dutch population. Methods Two systematic reviews were conducted of English language meta-analyses in PubMed summarizing separately randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies on the relation between physical activity and sedentary behaviour on the one hand and the risk of all-cause mortality and incidence of 15 major chronic diseases and conditions on the other hand. Other outcome measures were risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, physical functioning, and fitness. On the basis of these reviews, an expert committee derived physical activity ...


Validity And Reliability Of Japanese-Language Self-Reported Measures For Assessing Adults Domain-Specific Sedentary Time, Kaori Ishii, Ai Shibata, Satoshi Kurita, Shohei Yano, Shigeru Inoue, Takemi Sugiyama, Neville Owen, Koichiro Oka Jan 2018

Validity And Reliability Of Japanese-Language Self-Reported Measures For Assessing Adults Domain-Specific Sedentary Time, Kaori Ishii, Ai Shibata, Satoshi Kurita, Shohei Yano, Shigeru Inoue, Takemi Sugiyama, Neville Owen, Koichiro Oka

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Good quality measures of Japanese adults’ sedentary behaviors are needed to accurately assess correlates of specific sedentary behaviors. The present study assessed criterion validity of total sedentary behavior and test-retest reliability of six domain-specific sedentary behaviors. Methods: We administered a questionnaire, based on previous studies, that measured domain-specific sedentary behaviors. To examine validity, agreement between self-reported time spent in sedentary behaviors from the questionnaire and objectivelymeasured sedentary timeusing accelerometers was compared among 392 adults (aged 40-64 years) in two Japanese cities. For reliability, a 2-week interval test-retest was administered to a convenience sample of 34 participants. Results: The correlation ...


Human Metabolomics Reveal Daily Variations Under Nutritional Challenges Specific To Serum And Skeletal Muscle, Shogo Sato, Parr, Evelyn, Brooke Devlin, John Hawley, Paolo Sassone-Corsi Jan 2018

Human Metabolomics Reveal Daily Variations Under Nutritional Challenges Specific To Serum And Skeletal Muscle, Shogo Sato, Parr, Evelyn, Brooke Devlin, John Hawley, Paolo Sassone-Corsi

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objective: Advances in the field of metabolomics and the concomitant development of bioinformatics tools constitute a promising avenue towards the development of precision medicine and personalized profiling for numerous disease states. Studies in animal models have strengthened this concept, but the application in human subjects is scarce. Methods: Utilizing high-throughput metabolomics, we have analyzed the metabolome levels of human serum and skeletal muscle in the morning and evening in response to divergent nutritional challenges in order to identify unique signatures present in serum and muscle. Results: We reveal dynamic daily variation of human metabolome unique to serum and muscle. The ...


Non-Knee-Spanning Muscles Contribute To Tibiofemoral Shear As Well As Valgus And Rotational Joint Reaction Moments During Unanticipated Sidestep Cutting, Nirav Maniar, Anthony Schache, Prasanna Sritharan, David Opar Jan 2018

Non-Knee-Spanning Muscles Contribute To Tibiofemoral Shear As Well As Valgus And Rotational Joint Reaction Moments During Unanticipated Sidestep Cutting, Nirav Maniar, Anthony Schache, Prasanna Sritharan, David Opar

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are a burdensome condition due to potential surgical requirements and increased risk of long term debilitation. Previous studies indicate that muscle forces play an important role in the development of ligamentous loading, yet these studies have typically used cadaveric models considering only the knee-spanning quadriceps, hamstrings and gastrocnemius muscle groups. Using a musculoskeletal modelling approach, we investigated how lower-limb muscles produce and oppose key tibiofemoral reaction forces and moments during the weight acceptance phase of unanticipated sidestep cutting. Muscles capable of opposing (or controlling the magnitude of) the anterior shear force and the external valgus ...


Cycling For Transportation In Sao Paulo City: Associations With Bike Paths, Train And Subway Stations, Alex A. Florindo, Ligia V. Barrozo, Gavin Turrell, João P.D.A.S Barbosa, William Cabral-Miranda, Chester L.G. Cesar, Moisés Goldbaum Jan 2018

Cycling For Transportation In Sao Paulo City: Associations With Bike Paths, Train And Subway Stations, Alex A. Florindo, Ligia V. Barrozo, Gavin Turrell, João P.D.A.S Barbosa, William Cabral-Miranda, Chester L.G. Cesar, Moisés Goldbaum

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Cities that support cycling for transportation reap many public health benefits. However, the prevalence of this mode of transportation is low in Latin American countries and the association with facilities such as bike paths and train/subway stations have not been clarified. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the relationship between bike paths, train/subway stations and cycling for transportation in adults from the city of Sao Paulo. We used data from the Sao Paulo Health Survey (n = 3145). Cycling for transportation was evaluated by a questionnaire and bike paths and train/subway stations were geocoded using the geographic coordinates ...


Application Of Frax To Determine The Risk Of Osteoporotic Fractures In The Ukrainian Population, V. V. Povoroznyuk, Nataliia V. Grygorieva, Eugene Mccloskey, Helena Johansson, John Kanis Jan 2018

Application Of Frax To Determine The Risk Of Osteoporotic Fractures In The Ukrainian Population, V. V. Povoroznyuk, Nataliia V. Grygorieva, Eugene Mccloskey, Helena Johansson, John Kanis

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Abstract: Background and Objective: FRAX is the most widely used tool for the assessment of the risk of osteoporotic fractures. The first country-specific FRAX model for Ukraine, calibrated to the total Ukrainian population, was developed in October, 2016. This study aimed to describe the output of the Ukrainian FRAX model and to illustrate its features compared to models for neighbouring countries. Materials and Methods: The development of the Ukrainian model of FRAX was based on two regional epidemiological studies in Ukraine [Vinnitsa city (1997-2002), STOP-study (Uzhgorod city and Vinnitsa area, 2011-2012)], which were performed to derive the incidence of hip ...


The Cape Town Declaration On Access To Cardiac Surgery In The Developing World, Peter Zilla, R M. Bolman, Magdi H. Yacoub, Friedhelm Beyersdorf, Karen Sliwa-Hahnle, Liesl J. Zuhlke, Robert Higgins, Bongani Mayosi, Alain Carpentier, David Williams Jan 2018

The Cape Town Declaration On Access To Cardiac Surgery In The Developing World, Peter Zilla, R M. Bolman, Magdi H. Yacoub, Friedhelm Beyersdorf, Karen Sliwa-Hahnle, Liesl J. Zuhlke, Robert Higgins, Bongani Mayosi, Alain Carpentier, David Williams

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Twelve years after cardiologists and cardiac surgeons from all over the world issued the ‘Drakensberg Declaration on the Control of Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease in Africa’, calling on the world community to address the prevention and treatment of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) through improving living conditions, to develop pilot programmes at selected sites for control of rheumatic fever and RHD, and to periodically review progress made and challenges that remain, RHD still accounts for a major proportion of cardiovascular diseases in children and young adults in low- and middle-income countries, where more than 80% of the world population ...


Peripartum Cardiomyopathy: An Update, Feriel Azibani, Karen Sliwa-Hahnle Jan 2018

Peripartum Cardiomyopathy: An Update, Feriel Azibani, Karen Sliwa-Hahnle

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Purpose of Review Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is an idiopathic disorder defined as heart failure occurring in women during the last month of pregnancy and up to 5 months postpartum. In this review, we outline recent reports about the disease pathogenesis and management and highlight the use of diagnosis and prognosis biomarkers. Recent Findings Novel data strengthen the implication of endothelial function in PPCM pathogenesis. The first international registry showed that patient presentations were similar globally, with heterogeneity in patient management and outcome. Summary Despite large improvement in patient management and treatment, there is still a sub-group of women who die ...


Mild Cognitive Impairment Is Associated With Subclinical Diastolic Dysfunction In Patients With Chronic Heart Disease, Julian W. Sacre, Jocasta Ball, Chiew Wong, Kai Chan, Simon Stewart, Bronwyn A. Kingwell, Melinda Carrington Jan 2018

Mild Cognitive Impairment Is Associated With Subclinical Diastolic Dysfunction In Patients With Chronic Heart Disease, Julian W. Sacre, Jocasta Ball, Chiew Wong, Kai Chan, Simon Stewart, Bronwyn A. Kingwell, Melinda Carrington

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: To examine mild cognitive impairment and its associations with subclinical cardiac dysfunction in patients with chronic heart disease yet to develop the clinical syndrome of chronic heart failure (CHF). Methods and results: Patients from the Nurse-led Intervention for Less Chronic Heart Failure Study (n = 373 with chronic heart disease other than CHF; 64 ± 11 years, 69% men) were screened for mild cognitive impairment [Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) score < 26] and underwent echocardiographic/clinical profiling. We investigated associations of mild cognitive impairment and MoCA cognitive domain subscores with global cardiac status (‘normal’ vs. ‘diastolic dysfunction’ vs. ‘other cardiac abnormality’) and individual echocardiographic parameters. Patients with mild cognitive impairment (n = 161; 43%) demonstrated a higher age-adjusted prevalence of diastolic dysfunction (37% vs. 24%; P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression (adjusted for age, sex, and other relevant clinical factors) indicated that the odds of mild cognitive impairment were two-times higher with diastolic dysfunction (P = 0.030) and 1.7-times higher with ‘other cardiac abnormalities’ (P = 0.082) vs. normal cardiac status. In turn, mild cognitive impairment was predicted by left-ventricular (LV) filling pressure (based on the ratio of early diastolic filling and annular velocities; adjusted odds ratio 1.07 per unit increase, P = 0.022), but not LV structural parameters. Specific deficits in the cognitive domains of executive functioning and visuo-constructional abilities were also independently predicted by diastolic dysfunction (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Mild cognitive impairment is prevalent in patients with subclinical chronic heart disease at high-risk of CHF. Independent associations with LV diastolic dysfunction suggest a link between cardiac and cognitive functioning beyond shared risk factors.


Impact Of First Meal Size During Prolonged Sitting On Postprandial Glycaemia In Individuals With Prediabetes: A Randomised, Crossover Study, Evelyn Parr, Brooke Devlin, Samuel Pinto, David Dunstan, John Hawley Jan 2018

Impact Of First Meal Size During Prolonged Sitting On Postprandial Glycaemia In Individuals With Prediabetes: A Randomised, Crossover Study, Evelyn Parr, Brooke Devlin, Samuel Pinto, David Dunstan, John Hawley

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

We compared the impact of a high versus low energy intake first meal on glucose and insulin responses during prolonged sitting in individuals with prediabetes. Thirteen adults with overweight/obesity and prediabetes (mean ± SD age: 60 ± 6 years, BMI: 33 ± 4 kg/m2; 2 h OGTT: 8.9 ± 1.1 mmol/L) completed two randomised trials: 10 h uninterrupted sitting, incorporating three meals with matching macronutrient compositions but different energy distributions: High-Energy Breakfast (HE-BF; breakfast: 50%, lunch: 30%, dinner: 20% energy intake), Low-Energy Breakfast (LE-BF: 20%/30%/50% energy intake). Venous blood was sampled from 08:00–18:00 h ...


Pitfalls In The Measurement Of Muscle Mass: A Need For A Reference Standard, Fanny Buckinx, Francesco Landi, Matteo Cesari, Roger A. Fielding, Marjolein Visser, Klaus Engelke, Stefania Maggi, Elaine Dennison, Nasser M. Al-Daghri, Sophie Allepaerts, Jurgen Bauer, Ivan Bautmans, Maria Luisa Brandi, Olivier Bruyère, Tommy Cederholm, Francesca Cerreta, Antonio Cherubini, Cyrus Cooper, Alphonso Cruz-Jentoft, Eugene Mccloskey, Bess Dawson-Hughes, Jean-Marc Kaufman, Andrea Laslop, Jean Petermans, Jean-Yves Reginster, René Rizzoli, Sian Robinson, Yves Rolland, Ricardo Rueda, Bruno Vellas, John A. Kanis Jan 2018

Pitfalls In The Measurement Of Muscle Mass: A Need For A Reference Standard, Fanny Buckinx, Francesco Landi, Matteo Cesari, Roger A. Fielding, Marjolein Visser, Klaus Engelke, Stefania Maggi, Elaine Dennison, Nasser M. Al-Daghri, Sophie Allepaerts, Jurgen Bauer, Ivan Bautmans, Maria Luisa Brandi, Olivier Bruyère, Tommy Cederholm, Francesca Cerreta, Antonio Cherubini, Cyrus Cooper, Alphonso Cruz-Jentoft, Eugene Mccloskey, Bess Dawson-Hughes, Jean-Marc Kaufman, Andrea Laslop, Jean Petermans, Jean-Yves Reginster, René Rizzoli, Sian Robinson, Yves Rolland, Ricardo Rueda, Bruno Vellas, John A. Kanis

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: All proposed definitions of sarcopenia include the measurement of muscle mass, but the techniques and threshold values used vary. Indeed, the literature does not establish consensus on the best technique for measuring lean body mass. Thus, the objective measurement of sarcopenia is hampered by limitations intrinsic to assessment tools. The aim of this study was to review the methods to assess muscle mass and to reach consensus on the development of a reference standard.

Methods: Literature reviews were performed by members of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis working group on frailty and ...


Ioc Consensus Statement: Dietary Supplements And The High-Performance Athlete0306, Ronald J. Maughan, Louise Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. E. Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc Van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard Budgett, Arne Ljunggvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis P. Pitsiladis, Torbjorn Soligard, Ugur Erdener, Lars Engebretsen Jan 2018

Ioc Consensus Statement: Dietary Supplements And The High-Performance Athlete0306, Ronald J. Maughan, Louise Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. E. Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc Van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard Budgett, Arne Ljunggvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis P. Pitsiladis, Torbjorn Soligard, Ugur Erdener, Lars Engebretsen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Nutrition usually makes a small but potentially valuable contribution to successful performance in elite athletes, and dietary supplements can make a minor contribution to this nutrition programme. Nonetheless, supplement use is widespread at all levels of sport. Products described as supplements target different issues, including (1) the management of micronutrient deficiencies, (2) supply of convenient forms of energy and macronutrients, and (3) provision of direct benefits to performance or (4) indirect benefits such as supporting intense training regimens. The appropriate use of some supplements can benefit the athlete, but others may harm the athlete's health, performance, and/or livelihood ...


Ampk Signaling To Acetyl-Coa Carboxylase Is Required For Fasting - And Cold-Induced Appetite But Not Thermogenesis, Sandra Galic, Kim Loh, Lisa Murray-Segal, Gregory R. Steinberg, Zane B. Andrews, Bruce Kemp Jan 2018

Ampk Signaling To Acetyl-Coa Carboxylase Is Required For Fasting - And Cold-Induced Appetite But Not Thermogenesis, Sandra Galic, Kim Loh, Lisa Murray-Segal, Gregory R. Steinberg, Zane B. Andrews, Bruce Kemp

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a known regulator of whole-body energy homeostasis, but the downstream AMPK substrates mediating these effects are not entirely clear. AMPK inhibits fatty acid synthesis and promotes fatty acid oxidation by phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) 1 at Ser79 and ACC2 at Ser212. Using mice with Ser79Ala/Ser212Ala knock-in mutations (ACC DKI) we find that inhibition of ACC phosphorylation leads to reduced appetite in response to fasting or cold exposure. At sub-thermoneutral temperatures, ACC DKI mice maintain normal energy expenditure and thermogenesis, but fail to increase appetite and lose weight. We demonstrate that the ACC DKI ...


Blood Pressure Target Achievement And Antihypertensive Medication Use In Women And Men After First-Ever Myocardial Infarction: The Tromso Study 1994-2016, Laila A. Hopstock, Anne E. Eggen, Maja-Lisa Loechen, Ellisiv B. Mathiesen, Amalie Nilsen, Inger Njolstad, Tom Wilsgaard Jan 2018

Blood Pressure Target Achievement And Antihypertensive Medication Use In Women And Men After First-Ever Myocardial Infarction: The Tromso Study 1994-2016, Laila A. Hopstock, Anne E. Eggen, Maja-Lisa Loechen, Ellisiv B. Mathiesen, Amalie Nilsen, Inger Njolstad, Tom Wilsgaard

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background Recurrent cardiovascular events after myocardial infarction (MI) are frequent, and gender differences in blood pressure treatment have been reported. Despite increased focus on secondary prevention, recent reports indicate that treatment targets are not achieved. There is a need for gender-specific analyses of post-MI blood pressure treatment target achievement and antihypertensive medication adherence. Design We investigated the change in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and antihypertensive drug use after first-ever MI over two time periods in a Norwegian population-based study. Methods We followed 10 089 participants (55% women) attending the Tromso Study in 1994-1995 (MI-cohort I) and 8412 participants (55 ...


Mitochondrial Fission Protein Drp1 Inhibition Promotes Cardiac Mesodermal Differentiation Of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells, Ashfaqul Hoque, Priyadharshini Sivakumaran, Simon T. Bond, Naomi Ling, Anne M. Kong, John W. Scott, Nadeeka Bandara, Damian Hernandez, Guei-Sheung Liu, Raymond Wong, Michael T. Ryan, Derek Hausenloy, Bruce Kemp, Jonathan S. Oakhill, Brian Drew, Alice Pebay, Shiang Y. Lim Jan 2018

Mitochondrial Fission Protein Drp1 Inhibition Promotes Cardiac Mesodermal Differentiation Of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells, Ashfaqul Hoque, Priyadharshini Sivakumaran, Simon T. Bond, Naomi Ling, Anne M. Kong, John W. Scott, Nadeeka Bandara, Damian Hernandez, Guei-Sheung Liu, Raymond Wong, Michael T. Ryan, Derek Hausenloy, Bruce Kemp, Jonathan S. Oakhill, Brian Drew, Alice Pebay, Shiang Y. Lim

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a valuable tool for studying the cardiac developmental process in vitro, and cardiomyocytes derived from iPSCs are a putative cell source for personalized medicine. Changes in mitochondrial morphology have been shown to occur during cellular reprogramming and pluripotent stem cell differentiation. However, the relationships between mitochondrial dynamics and cardiac mesoderm commitment of iPSCs remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that changes in mitochondrial morphology from a small granular fragmented phenotype in pluripotent stem cells to a filamentous reticular elongated network in differentiated cardiomyocytes are required for cardiac mesodermal differentiation. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of ...