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Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

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Bmd-Related Genetic Risk Scores Predict Site-Specific Fractures As Well As Trabecular And Cortical Bone Microstructure, Maria Nethander, Ulrika Pettersson-Kymmer, Liesbeth Vandenput, Mattias Lorentzon, Magnus Karlsson, Dan Mellström, Claes Ohlsson Jan 2020

Bmd-Related Genetic Risk Scores Predict Site-Specific Fractures As Well As Trabecular And Cortical Bone Microstructure, Maria Nethander, Ulrika Pettersson-Kymmer, Liesbeth Vandenput, Mattias Lorentzon, Magnus Karlsson, Dan Mellström, Claes Ohlsson

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Context: It is important to identify patients at highest risk of fractures. Objective: To compare the separate and combined performances of bone-related genetic risk scores (GRSs) for prediction of forearm, hip and vertebral fractures separately, as well as of trabecular and cortical bone microstructure parameters separately. Design, Setting, and Participants: Using 1103 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) independently associated with estimated bone mineral density of the heel (eBMD), we developed a weighted GRS for eBMD and determined its contribution to fracture prediction beyond 2 previously developed GRSs for femur neck BMD (49 SNPs) and lumbar spine BMD (48 SNPs). Associations between ...


Epidemiology Of Hip Fractures In Bulgaria: Development Of A Country-Specific Frax Model, E. Kirilova, H. Johansson, N. Kirilov, S. Vladeva, T. Petranova, Z. Kolarov, E. Liu, M. Lorentzon, L. Vandenput, N. C. Harvey, E. Mccloskey, John A. Kanis Jan 2020

Epidemiology Of Hip Fractures In Bulgaria: Development Of A Country-Specific Frax Model, E. Kirilova, H. Johansson, N. Kirilov, S. Vladeva, T. Petranova, Z. Kolarov, E. Liu, M. Lorentzon, L. Vandenput, N. C. Harvey, E. Mccloskey, John A. Kanis

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Summary: A retrospective population-based survey was undertaken in a region of Bulgaria to determine the incidence of hip fracture. The estimated number of hip fractures nationwide for 2015 was 9322 and is predicted to increase to 11,398 in 2050. The hip fracture rates were used to create a FRAX model. Objective: To describe the epidemiology of hip fractures in Bulgaria, which was then used to develop the country-specific fracture prediction FRAX® tool. Methods: We carried out a retrospective population-based survey in Stara Zagora, Bulgaria, representing approximately 4.6% of the country’s population. We identified hip fractures occurring in ...


Effect Of Concentric And Eccentric Hamstring Training On Sprint Recovery, Strength And Muscle Architecture In Inexperienced Athletes [Accepted Manuscript], Steven J. Duhig, Matthew N. Bourne, Robert L. Buhmann, Morgan Williams, Geoffrey M. Minett, Llion A. Roberts, Ryan Gregory Timmins, Casey Sims, Anthony J. Shield Jan 2019

Effect Of Concentric And Eccentric Hamstring Training On Sprint Recovery, Strength And Muscle Architecture In Inexperienced Athletes [Accepted Manuscript], Steven J. Duhig, Matthew N. Bourne, Robert L. Buhmann, Morgan Williams, Geoffrey M. Minett, Llion A. Roberts, Ryan Gregory Timmins, Casey Sims, Anthony J. Shield

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objectives

To investigate whether five-weeks of concentric (CON) or eccentric (ECC) hamstring strength training have different effects on recovery from sprint running, eccentric strength and architecture of the biceps femoris long head (BFLH).

Design

Cohort study.

Methods

Thirty males (age, 22.8 ± 4.1 y; height, 180.1 ± 6.4 cm; weight, 85.2 ± 14.6 kg) were allocated into either a CON or ECC group, both performing nine sessions of resistance training. Prior to and immediately after the five-week intervention, each participant’s BFLH fascicle length (FL), pennation angle (PA), muscle thickness (MT), peak isometric KF torque ...


The Cueped Trial: How Does Environmental Complexity Impact Cue Effectiveness? A Comparison Of Tonic And Phasic Visual Cueing In Simple And Complex Environments In A Parkinson’S Disease Population With Freezing Of Gait, Rodney Marsh, Michael H. Cole, Nadeeka N. W. Dissanayaka, Tiffany R. Au, Sandra Clewett, John D. O'Sullivan, Peter A. Silburn Jan 2019

The Cueped Trial: How Does Environmental Complexity Impact Cue Effectiveness? A Comparison Of Tonic And Phasic Visual Cueing In Simple And Complex Environments In A Parkinson’S Disease Population With Freezing Of Gait, Rodney Marsh, Michael H. Cole, Nadeeka N. W. Dissanayaka, Tiffany R. Au, Sandra Clewett, John D. O'Sullivan, Peter A. Silburn

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background. The optimal prescription of cueing for the treatment of freezing of gait (FoG) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) is currently a difficult problem for clinicians due to the heterogeneity of cueing modalities, devices, and the limited comparative trial evidence. There has been a rise in the development of motion-sensitive, wearable cueing devices for the treatment of FoG in PD. These devices generally produce cues after signature gait or electroencephalographic antecedents of FoG episodes are detected (phasic cues). It is not known whether these devices offer benefit over simple (tonic) cueing devices. Methods. We assembled 20 participants with PD and ...


Traffic Related Air Pollution And The Burden Of Childhood Asthma In The Contiguous United States In 2000 And 2010, Raed Alotaibi, Mathew Bechle, Julian D. Marshall, Tara Ramani, Josias Zietsman, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Haneen Khreis Jan 2019

Traffic Related Air Pollution And The Burden Of Childhood Asthma In The Contiguous United States In 2000 And 2010, Raed Alotaibi, Mathew Bechle, Julian D. Marshall, Tara Ramani, Josias Zietsman, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Haneen Khreis

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background Asthma is one of the leading chronic airway diseases among children in the United States (US). Emerging evidence indicates that Traffic Related Air Pollution (TRAP), as opposed to ambient air pollution, leads to the onset of childhood asthma. We estimated the number of incident asthma cases among children attributable to TRAP in the contiguous US, for the years 2000 and 2010. Methods The number of incident childhood asthma cases and percentage due to TRAP were estimated using standard burden of disease assessment methods. We combined children (<18 years) counts and pollutant exposures at populated US census blocks with a national asthma incidence rate and meta-analysis derived concentration response functions (CRF). NO2, PM2.5 and PM10 were used as surrogates of TRAP exposures, with NO2 being most specific. Annual average concentrations were obtained from previously validated land-use regression (LUR) models. Asthma incidence rate and a CRF for each pollutant were obtained from the literature. Estimates were stratified by urban or rural living and by median household income. We also estimated the number of preventable cases among blocks that exceeded the limit for two counterfactual scenarios. The first scenario used the recommended air quality annual averages from the World Health Organization (WHO) as a limit. The second scenario used the minimum modeled concentration for each pollutant, in either year, as a limit. Results Average concentrations in 2000 and 2010, respectively, were 20.6 and 13.2 μg/m3 for NO2, 12.1 and 9 μg/m3 for PM2.5 and 21.5 and 17.9 μg/m3 for PM10. Attributable number of cases ranged between 209,100–331,200 for the year 2000 and 141,900–286,500 for 2010, depending on the pollutant. Asthma incident cases due to TRAP represented 27%–42% of all cases in 2000 and 18%–36% in 2010. Percentage of cases due to TRAP were higher (1) in urban areas than rural areas, and (2) in block groups with lowest median household income. Online open-access interactive maps and tables summarizing findings at the county level and 498 major US cities, are available at [https://carteehdata.org/l/s/TRAP-burden-of-childhood-asthma]. Assuming that pollutants did not exceed WHO air quality recommendations, the number of incident cases that could have been prevented ranged between 300 and 53,400, depending on the pollutant and year. Assuming that pollutant levels were limited to the minimum modeled concentration, the number of childhood asthma incident cases that could have been prevented ranged between 127,700 and 317,600, depending on the pollutant and year. Conclusion This is the first study to estimate the burden of incident childhood asthma attributable to TRAP at a national scale in the US. The attributable burden of childhood asthma dropped by 33% between 2000 and 2010. However, a significant proportion of cases can be prevented.


Alternate Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation Parameters To Manage Motor Symptoms Of Parkinson's Disease: Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis [Accepted Manuscript], Zachary J. Conway, Peter A. Silburn, Wesley Thevathasan, Karen O'Maley, Geraldine Naughton, Michael H. Cole Jan 2019

Alternate Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation Parameters To Manage Motor Symptoms Of Parkinson's Disease: Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis [Accepted Manuscript], Zachary J. Conway, Peter A. Silburn, Wesley Thevathasan, Karen O'Maley, Geraldine Naughton, Michael H. Cole

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background The use of alternate frequencies, amplitudes, and pulse widths to manage motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN‐DBS) is of clinical interest, but currently lacks systematic evidence. Objective/Hypothesis Systematically review whether alternate STN‐DBS settings influence the therapy's efficacy for managing PD motor symptoms. Methods Systematic searches identified studies that; involved bilateral STN‐DBS PD patients; manipulated ≥ 1 STN‐DBS parameter (e.g., amplitude); assessed ≥ 1 motor symptom (e.g., tremor); and contrasted the experimental and chronic stimulation settings. A Mantel‐Haenszel random‐effects meta‐analysis compared the ...


Extensive Undertreatment Of Osteoporosis In Older Swedish Women, Mattias Lorentzon, A. G. Nilsson, Helena Johansson, John A. Kanis, Dan Mellström, D. Sundh Jan 2019

Extensive Undertreatment Of Osteoporosis In Older Swedish Women, Mattias Lorentzon, A. G. Nilsson, Helena Johansson, John A. Kanis, Dan Mellström, D. Sundh

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Summary In a population-based study of older Swedish women, we investigated the proportion of women treated with osteoporosis medication in relation to the proportion of women eligible for treatment according to national guidelines. We found that only a minority (22%) of those eligible for treatment were prescribed osteoporosis medication. Introduction Fracture rates increase markedly in old age and the incidence of hip fracture in Swedish women is among the highest in the world. Although effective pharmacological treatment is available, treatment rates remain low. Limited data are available regarding treatment rates in relation to fracture risk in a population-based setting in ...


Sports Foods And Dietary Supplements For Optimal Function And Performance Enhancement In Track And Field Athletes, Peter Peeling, Linda M. Castell, Wim Derave, Olivier De Hon, Louise M. Burke Jan 2019

Sports Foods And Dietary Supplements For Optimal Function And Performance Enhancement In Track And Field Athletes, Peter Peeling, Linda M. Castell, Wim Derave, Olivier De Hon, Louise M. Burke

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Numerous nutritional products are marketed with claims of optimizing athlete health and function and/or enhancing performance. Products that fall under the banner of “Sports Foods” or “Dietary Supplements,” may be used to support performance during training and competition or for enhancing aspects of training adaptation, recovery, immune function, and/or overall athlete health. Effective marketing campaigns and athlete endorsements may convince us that certain sports foods and supplements are fundamental in allowing athletes to reach their sporting goals. However, this approach is naive in understanding the true foundations of athlete success, such as the inherent genetic predisposition for athletic ...


The Longitudinal Association Between Natural Outdoor Environments And Mortality In 9218 Older Men From Perth, Western Australia, Wilma L. Zijlema, Ania Stasinska, David Blake, Mila Dirgawati, Leon Flicker, Bu B. Yeap, Jonathan Golledge, Graeme J. Hankey, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Jane S. Heyworth Jan 2019

The Longitudinal Association Between Natural Outdoor Environments And Mortality In 9218 Older Men From Perth, Western Australia, Wilma L. Zijlema, Ania Stasinska, David Blake, Mila Dirgawati, Leon Flicker, Bu B. Yeap, Jonathan Golledge, Graeme J. Hankey, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Jane S. Heyworth

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background/Aim Natural outdoor environments may mitigate harmful environmental factors associated with city living. We studied the longitudinal relationship between natural (‘green and blue’) outdoor environments and mortality in a cohort of older men residing in Perth, Western Australia. Methods We studied a cohort of 9218 men aged 65 years and older from the Health In Men Study. Participants were recruited in 1996–99 and followed until 2014, during which 5889 deaths were observed. Time-varying residential surrounding greenness based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and the number and size of parks, natural space and waterbodies were defined to characterize ...


Increased Cortical Porosity And Reduced Trabecular Density Are Not Necessarily Synonymous With Bone Loss And Microstructural Deterioration, Roger M. Zebaze, Elizabeth J. Atkinson, Yu Peng, Minh Bui, Ali Ghasem-Zadeh, Sundeep Khosla, Ego Seeman Jan 2019

Increased Cortical Porosity And Reduced Trabecular Density Are Not Necessarily Synonymous With Bone Loss And Microstructural Deterioration, Roger M. Zebaze, Elizabeth J. Atkinson, Yu Peng, Minh Bui, Ali Ghasem-Zadeh, Sundeep Khosla, Ego Seeman

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Absolute values of cortical porosity and trabecular density are used to estimate fracture risk, but these values are the net result of their growth‐related assembly and age‐related deterioration. Because bone loss affects both cortical and trabecular bone, we hypothesized that a surrogate measure of bone fragility should capture the age‐related deterioration of both traits, and should do so independently of their peak values. Accordingly, we developed a structural fragility score (SFS), which quantifies the increment in distal radial cortical porosity and decrement in trabecular density relative to their premenopausal mean values in 99 postmenopausal women with forearm ...


Diagnostic Tests, Drug Prescriptions, And Follow-Up Patterns After Incident Heart Failure: A Cohort Study Of 93,000 Uk Patients, Nathalie Conrad, Andrew Judge, Dexter Canoy, Jenny Tran, Johanna O'Donnell, Milad Nazarzadeh, Gholamreza Salimi-Khorshidi, Richard Hobbs, John G. Cleland, John J. V. Mcmurray, Kazem Rahimi Jan 2019

Diagnostic Tests, Drug Prescriptions, And Follow-Up Patterns After Incident Heart Failure: A Cohort Study Of 93,000 Uk Patients, Nathalie Conrad, Andrew Judge, Dexter Canoy, Jenny Tran, Johanna O'Donnell, Milad Nazarzadeh, Gholamreza Salimi-Khorshidi, Richard Hobbs, John G. Cleland, John J. V. Mcmurray, Kazem Rahimi

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background Effective management of heart failure is complex, and ensuring evidence-based practice presents a major challenge to health services worldwide. Over the past decade, the United Kingdom introduced a series of national initiatives to improve evidence-based heart failure management, including a landmark pay-for-performance scheme in primary care and a national audit in secondary care started in 2004 and 2007, respectively. Quality improvement efforts have been evaluated within individual clinical settings, but patterns of care across its continuum, although a critical component of chronic disease management, have not been studied. We have designed this study to investigate patients’ trajectories of care ...


Differences In Brain Processing Of Proprioception Related To Postural Control In Patients With Recurrent Non-Specific Low Back Pain And Healthy Controls, Nina Goossens, Lotte Janssens, Karen Caeyenberghs, Geneviève Albouy, Simon Brumagne Jan 2019

Differences In Brain Processing Of Proprioception Related To Postural Control In Patients With Recurrent Non-Specific Low Back Pain And Healthy Controls, Nina Goossens, Lotte Janssens, Karen Caeyenberghs, Geneviève Albouy, Simon Brumagne

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Patients with non-specific low back pain (NSLBP) show an impaired postural control during standing and a slower performance of sit-to-stand-to-sit (STSTS) movements. Research suggests that these impairments could be due to an altered use of ankle compared to back proprioception. However, the neural correlates of these postural control impairments in NSLBP remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated brain activity during ankle and back proprioceptive processing by applying local muscle vibration during functional magnetic resonance imaging in 20 patients with NSLBP and 20 controls. Correlations between brain activity during proprioceptive processing and (Airaksinen et al., 2006) proprioceptive use during postural control, evaluated ...


The Potential To Change Pacing And Performance During 4000-M Cycling Time Trials Using Hyperoxia And Inspired Gas-Content Deception [Accepted Manuscript], Michael J. Davies, Bradley Clark, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Marijke Welvaert, Christopher J. Gore, Kevin G. Thompson Jan 2019

The Potential To Change Pacing And Performance During 4000-M Cycling Time Trials Using Hyperoxia And Inspired Gas-Content Deception [Accepted Manuscript], Michael J. Davies, Bradley Clark, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Marijke Welvaert, Christopher J. Gore, Kevin G. Thompson

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Purpose: To determine if a series of trials with fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) content deception could improve 4000-m cycling time-trial (TT) performance. Methods: A total of 15 trained male cyclists (mean [SD] body mass 74.2 [8.0] kg, peak oxygen uptake 62 [6] mL·kg−1·min−1) completed six 4000-m cycling TTs in a semirandomized order. After a familiarization TT, cyclists were informed in 2 initial trials they were inspiring normoxic air (NORM, FiO2 0.21); however, in 1 trial (deception condition), they inspired hyperoxic air (NORM-DEC, FiO2 0.36). During 2 subsequent TTs, cyclists were informed ...


Dimensionality Reduction Of Diffusion Mri Measures For Improved Tractometry Of The Human Brain, Maxime Chamberland, Erika P. Raven, Sila Genc, Kate Duffy, Maxime Descoteaux, Greg D. Parker, Chantal M. W. Tax, Derek K. Jones Jan 2019

Dimensionality Reduction Of Diffusion Mri Measures For Improved Tractometry Of The Human Brain, Maxime Chamberland, Erika P. Raven, Sila Genc, Kate Duffy, Maxime Descoteaux, Greg D. Parker, Chantal M. W. Tax, Derek K. Jones

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Various diffusion MRI (dMRI) measures have been proposed for characterising tissue microstructure over the last 15 years. Despite the growing number of experiments using different dMRI measures in assessments of white matter, there has been limited work on: 1) examining their covariance along specific pathways; and on 2) combining these different measures to study tissue microstructure. Indeed, it quickly becomes intractable for existing analysis pipelines to process multiple measurements at each voxel and at each vertex forming a streamline, highlighting the need for new ways to visualise or analyse such high-dimensional data. In a sample of 36 typically developing children ...


Optimization Of Graph Construction Can Significantly Increase The Power Of Structural Brain Network Studies, Eirini Messaritaki, Stavros I. Dimitriadis, Derek K. Jones Jan 2019

Optimization Of Graph Construction Can Significantly Increase The Power Of Structural Brain Network Studies, Eirini Messaritaki, Stavros I. Dimitriadis, Derek K. Jones

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Structural brain networks derived from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging data have been used extensively to describe the human brain, and graph theory has allowed quantification of their network properties. Schemes used to construct the graphs that represent the structural brain networks differ in the metrics they use as edge weights and the algorithms they use to define the network topologies. In this work, twenty graph construction schemes were considered. The schemes use the number of streamlines, the fractional anisotropy, the mean diffusivity or other attributes of the tracts to define the edge weights, and either an absolute threshold or a ...


Outcomes And Effect Of Treatment According To Etiology In Hfref: An Analysis Of Paradigm-Hf, Craig Balmforth, Joanne Simpson, Li Shen, Pardeep S. Jhund, Martin P. Lefkowitz, Adel R. Rizkala, Jean L. Rouleau, Victor C. Shi, Scott D. Solomon, Karl Swedberg, Michael R. Zile, Milton Packer, John J. V. Mcmurray Jan 2019

Outcomes And Effect Of Treatment According To Etiology In Hfref: An Analysis Of Paradigm-Hf, Craig Balmforth, Joanne Simpson, Li Shen, Pardeep S. Jhund, Martin P. Lefkowitz, Adel R. Rizkala, Jean L. Rouleau, Victor C. Shi, Scott D. Solomon, Karl Swedberg, Michael R. Zile, Milton Packer, John J. V. Mcmurray

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes (and the effect of sacubitril/valsartan) according to etiology in the PARADIGM-HF (Prospective comparison of angiotensin-receptor-neprilysin inhibitor [ARNI] with angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor [ACEI] to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and morbidity in Heart Failure) trial. Background Etiology of heart failure (HF) has changed over time in more developed countries and is also evolving in non-Western societies. Outcomes may vary according to etiology, as may the effects of therapy. Methods We examined outcomes and the effect of sacubtril/valsartan according to investigator-reported etiology in PARADIGM-HF. The outcomes analyzed were the primary composite ...


A Novel Device To Assess Hip Strength: Concurrent Validity And Normative Values In Male Athletes [Accepted Manuscript], Michael O'Brien, Matthew N. Bourne, Joshua Heerey, Ryan Gregory Timmins, Tania Pizzari Jan 2019

A Novel Device To Assess Hip Strength: Concurrent Validity And Normative Values In Male Athletes [Accepted Manuscript], Michael O'Brien, Matthew N. Bourne, Joshua Heerey, Ryan Gregory Timmins, Tania Pizzari

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objectives

To assess concurrent validity of the new, novel externally-fixed dynamometer (GroinBar) with hand-held dynamometry (HHD); to provide normative GroinBar scores for elite Australian rules football (AFL) and football (Soccer) players; and to evaluate preliminary predictive validity of the GroinBar and HHD in this population by comparing strength results with patient-reported outcome scores.

Design

Cross-sectional and reliability study

Participants

Total of 67 athletes, 36 AFL players and 31 football (Soccer) players

Setting

Elite AFL and football (Soccer) teams

Main Outcome Measures The GroinBar system, HHD, The Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS) Questionnaire.

Results

Moderate to good correlations were ...


A Trial To Evaluate The Effect Of The Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter 2 Inhibitor Dapagliflozin On Morbidity And Mortality In Patients With Heart Failure And Reduced Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction (Dapa-Hf), John J. V. Mcmurray, David L. Demets, Silvio E. Inzucchini, Lars Køber, Mikhail N. Kosiborod, Anna M. Langkilde, Felipe A. Martinez, Olof Bengtsson, Piotr P. Ponikowski, Marc S. Sabatine, Mikaela Sjöstrand, Scott D. Solomon Jan 2019

A Trial To Evaluate The Effect Of The Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter 2 Inhibitor Dapagliflozin On Morbidity And Mortality In Patients With Heart Failure And Reduced Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction (Dapa-Hf), John J. V. Mcmurray, David L. Demets, Silvio E. Inzucchini, Lars Køber, Mikhail N. Kosiborod, Anna M. Langkilde, Felipe A. Martinez, Olof Bengtsson, Piotr P. Ponikowski, Marc S. Sabatine, Mikaela Sjöstrand, Scott D. Solomon

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background Sodium–glucose co‐transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been shown to reduce the risk of incident heart failure hospitalization in individuals with type 2 diabetes who have, or are at high risk of, cardiovascular disease. Most patients in these trials did not have heart failure at baseline and the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors on outcomes in individuals with established heart failure (with or without diabetes) is unknown. Design and methods The Dapagliflozin And Prevention of Adverse‐outcomes in Heart Failure trial (DAPA‐HF) is an international, multicentre, parallel group, randomized, double‐blind, study in patients with chronic heart failure ...


Associations Of Neighborhood Walkability With Sedentary Time In Nigerian Older Adults, Adewale L. Oyeyemi, Sanda M. Kolo, Adamu A. Rufai, Adetoyeje Y. Oyeyemi, Babatunji A. Omotara, James F. Sallis Jan 2019

Associations Of Neighborhood Walkability With Sedentary Time In Nigerian Older Adults, Adewale L. Oyeyemi, Sanda M. Kolo, Adamu A. Rufai, Adetoyeje Y. Oyeyemi, Babatunji A. Omotara, James F. Sallis

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Previous studies have investigated the potential role of neighborhood walkability in reducing sedentary behavior. However, the majority of this research has been conducted in adults and Western developed countries. The purpose of the present study was to examine associations of neighborhood environmental attributes with sedentary time among older adults in Nigeria. Data from 353 randomly-selected community-dwelling older adults (60 years and above) in Maiduguri, Nigeria were analyzed. Perceived attributes of neighborhood environments and self-reported sedentary time were assessed using Nigerian-validated and reliable measures. Outcomes were weekly minutes of total sedentary time, minutes of sitting on a typical weekday, and minutes ...


Differential Patterns Of Disease And Injury In Mozambique: New Perspectives From A Pragmatic, Multicenter, Surveillance Study Of 7809 Emergency Presentations, Ana O. Mocumbi, Bonifácio Cebola, Artur Muloliwa, Federico Sebastião, Samuel J. Sitefane, Naisa Manafe, Igor Dobe, Norberto Lumbandali, Kimberley Keates, Nerolie Stickland, Yih-Kai Chan, Simon Stewart Jan 2019

Differential Patterns Of Disease And Injury In Mozambique: New Perspectives From A Pragmatic, Multicenter, Surveillance Study Of 7809 Emergency Presentations, Ana O. Mocumbi, Bonifácio Cebola, Artur Muloliwa, Federico Sebastião, Samuel J. Sitefane, Naisa Manafe, Igor Dobe, Norberto Lumbandali, Kimberley Keates, Nerolie Stickland, Yih-Kai Chan, Simon Stewart

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background There is a paucity of primary data to understand the overall pattern of disease and injuries as well as related health-service utilization in resource-poor countries in Africa. Objective To generate reliable and robust data describing the pattern of emergency presentations attributable to communicable disease (CD), non-communicable disease (NCD) and injuries in three different regions of Mozambique. Methods We undertook a pragmatic, prospective, multicentre surveillance study of individuals (all ages) presenting to the emergency departments of three hospitals in Southern (Maputo), Central (Beira) and Northern (Nampula) Mozambique. During 24-hour surveillance in the seasonally distinct months of April and October 2016 ...


Environmental Burden Of Childhood Disease In Europe, David Rojas-Rueda, Martine Vrijheid, Oliver Robinson, Aasvang Gunn Marit, Regina Gražulevičienė, Remy Slama, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen Jan 2019

Environmental Burden Of Childhood Disease In Europe, David Rojas-Rueda, Martine Vrijheid, Oliver Robinson, Aasvang Gunn Marit, Regina Gražulevičienė, Remy Slama, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Environmental factors determine children’s health. Quantifying the health impacts related to environmental hazards for children is essential to prioritize interventions to improve health in Europe. Objective: This study aimed to assess the burden of childhood disease due to environmental risks across the European Union. Methods: We conducted an environmental burden of childhood disease assessment in the 28 countries of the EU (EU28) for seven environmental risk factors (particulate matter less than 10 micrometer of diameter (PM10) and less than 2.5 micrometer of diameter (PM2.5), ozone, secondhand smoke, dampness, lead, and formaldehyde). The primary outcome was disability-adjusted ...


Environmental, Health, Wellbeing, Social And Equity Effects Of Urban Green Space Interventions: A Meta-Narrative Evidence Synthesis, Ruth F. Hunter, C. Cleland, A. Cleary, Mariël Droomers, Benedict W. Wheeler, D. Sinnett, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, M. Braubach Jan 2019

Environmental, Health, Wellbeing, Social And Equity Effects Of Urban Green Space Interventions: A Meta-Narrative Evidence Synthesis, Ruth F. Hunter, C. Cleland, A. Cleary, Mariël Droomers, Benedict W. Wheeler, D. Sinnett, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, M. Braubach

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background As populations become increasingly urbanised, the preservation of urban green space (UGS) becomes paramount. UGS is not just dedicated recreational space such as public parks, but other types of informal green space are important, for example, street trees and roof gardens. Despite the potential from cross-sectional evidence, we know little about how to design new, or improve or promote existing UGS for health, wellbeing, social and environmental benefits, or known influencing factors such as physical activity. Objectives To perform a meta-narrative review of the evidence regarding the health, wellbeing, social, environmental and equity effects, or known influencing factors of ...


Evaluation Of Different Recruitment Methods: Longitudinal, Web-Based, Pan-European Physical Activity Through Sustainable Transport Approaches (Pasta) Project, Mailin Gaupp-Berghausen, Elisabeth Raser, Esther Anaya-Boig, Ione Avila-Palencia, Audrey De Nazelle, Evi Dons, Helen Franzen, Regine Gerike, Thomas Götschi, Francesco Iacorossi, Reinhard Hössinger, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, David Rojas-Rueda, Julian Sanchez, Emilia Smeds, Manja Deforth, Arnout Standaert, Erik Stigell, Tom Cole-Hunter, Luc Int Panis Jan 2019

Evaluation Of Different Recruitment Methods: Longitudinal, Web-Based, Pan-European Physical Activity Through Sustainable Transport Approaches (Pasta) Project, Mailin Gaupp-Berghausen, Elisabeth Raser, Esther Anaya-Boig, Ione Avila-Palencia, Audrey De Nazelle, Evi Dons, Helen Franzen, Regine Gerike, Thomas Götschi, Francesco Iacorossi, Reinhard Hössinger, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, David Rojas-Rueda, Julian Sanchez, Emilia Smeds, Manja Deforth, Arnout Standaert, Erik Stigell, Tom Cole-Hunter, Luc Int Panis

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Sufficient sample size and minimal sample bias are core requirements for empirical data analyses. Combining opportunistic recruitment with a Web-based survey and data-collection platform yields new benefits over traditional recruitment approaches. Objective: This paper aims to report the success of different recruitment methods and obtain data on participants’ characteristics, participation behavior, recruitment rates, and representativeness of the sample. Methods: A longitudinal, Web-based survey was implemented as part of the European PASTA (Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches) project, between November 2014 and December 2016. During this period, participants were recruited from 7 European cities on a rolling basis. A ...


Expanding The Map Of Intrinsic And Extrinsic Aspirations Using Network Analysis And Multidimensional Scaling: Examining Four New Aspirations, Frank Martela, Emma L. Bradshaw, Richard M. Ryan Jan 2019

Expanding The Map Of Intrinsic And Extrinsic Aspirations Using Network Analysis And Multidimensional Scaling: Examining Four New Aspirations, Frank Martela, Emma L. Bradshaw, Richard M. Ryan

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Life goals or aspirations can be distinguished as intrinsic or extrinsic, with different implications for well-being. In this study we used network analysis to reexamine this intrinsic-extrinsic distinction, illustrating how novel candidate aspirations can be mapped along this dimension using innovative methods. We identify four previously unexamined life aspirations, predicting that aspiring for power and social adherence would group with extrinsic goals, whereas aspiring for self-expression and mastery would group with intrinsic goals. In two samples (n = 196; n = 346) we analyze both the original life-goal variables and these novel aspirations using factor analysis, multidimensional scaling, circumplex modeling, and a ...


Fat From Dairy Foods And 'Meat' Consumed Within Recommended Levels Is Associated With Favourable Serum Cholesterol Levels In Institutionalised Older Adults, Yusi Liu, Shirley Poon, Ego Seeman, David L. Hare, Minh Q. Bui, Sandra Iuliano Jan 2019

Fat From Dairy Foods And 'Meat' Consumed Within Recommended Levels Is Associated With Favourable Serum Cholesterol Levels In Institutionalised Older Adults, Yusi Liu, Shirley Poon, Ego Seeman, David L. Hare, Minh Q. Bui, Sandra Iuliano

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

CVD is common in older adults. Consumption of ‘meat’ (beef, pork, lamb, game, poultry, seafood, eggs) and dairy foods (milk, cheese, yoghurt) is encouraged in older adults as these foods provide protein and nutrients such as essential fatty acids, Ca, Fe, Zn and vitamins A, D and B12 required for healthy ageing. However, these foods also contain saturated fats considered detrimental to cardiovascular health. To determine the effect of their consumption on CVD risk we assessed associations between fat intake from ‘meat’ and dairy foods and serum cholesterol levels in 226 aged-care residents (mean age 85·5 years, 70 % female ...


Import Of Extracellular Atp In Yeast And Man Modulates Ampk And Torc1 Signalling, Gabriella M. Forte, Elizabeth Davie, Shervi Lie, Mirita Franz-Wachtel, Ashley J. Ovens, Tingting Wang, Jonathan S. Oakhill, Boris MačEk, Iain M. Hagan, Janni Petersen Jan 2019

Import Of Extracellular Atp In Yeast And Man Modulates Ampk And Torc1 Signalling, Gabriella M. Forte, Elizabeth Davie, Shervi Lie, Mirita Franz-Wachtel, Ashley J. Ovens, Tingting Wang, Jonathan S. Oakhill, Boris MačEk, Iain M. Hagan, Janni Petersen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and target of rapamycin (TOR) signalling coordinate cell growth, proliferation, metabolism and cell survival with the nutrient environment of cells. The poor vasculature and nutritional stress experienced by cells in solid tumours raises the question: how do they assimilate sufficient nutrients to survive? Here, we show that human and fission yeast cells import ATP and AMP from their external environment to regulate AMPK and TOR signalling. Exposure of fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and human cells to external AMP impeded cell growth; however, in yeast this restraining impact required AMPK. In contrast, external ATP rescued the growth defect ...


Income Inequality And Outcomes In Heart Failure, Pooja Dewan, Rasmus Rørth, Pardeep S. Jhund, Joao Pedro Ferreira, Faiez Zannad, Li Shen, Lars Køber, William T. Abraham, Akshay S. Desai, Kenneth Dickstein, Milton Packer, Jean L. Rouleau, Scott D. Solomon, Karl Swedberg, Michael R. Zile, John J. V. Mcmurray Jan 2019

Income Inequality And Outcomes In Heart Failure, Pooja Dewan, Rasmus Rørth, Pardeep S. Jhund, Joao Pedro Ferreira, Faiez Zannad, Li Shen, Lars Køber, William T. Abraham, Akshay S. Desai, Kenneth Dickstein, Milton Packer, Jean L. Rouleau, Scott D. Solomon, Karl Swedberg, Michael R. Zile, John J. V. Mcmurray

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objectives This study examined the relationship between income inequality and heart failure outcomes. Background The income inequality hypothesis postulates that population health is influenced by income distribution within a society, with greater inequality associated with worse outcomes. Methods This study analyzed heart failure outcomes in 2 large trials conducted in 54 countries. Countries were divided by tertiles of Gini coefficients (where 0% represented absolute income equality and 100% represented absolute income inequality), and heart failure outcomes were adjusted for standard prognostic variables, country per capita income, education index, hospital bed density, and health worker density. Results Of the 15,126 ...


Influence Of The Urban Exposome On Birth Weight, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Lydiane Agier, Xavier Basagaña, Jose Urquiza, Ibon Tamayo-Uria, Lise Giorgis-Allemand, Oliver Robinson, Valérie Siroux, Léa Maitre, Montserrat De Castro, Antonia Valentin, David Donaire, Payam Dadvand, Gunn Marit Aasvang, Norun Hjertager Krog, Per E. Schwarze, Leda Chatzi, Regina Grazuleviciene, Sandra Andrusaityte, Audrius Dedele, Rosie Mceachan, John Wright, Jane West, Jesús Ibarluzea, Ferran Ballester, Martine Vrijheid, Remy Slama Jan 2019

Influence Of The Urban Exposome On Birth Weight, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Lydiane Agier, Xavier Basagaña, Jose Urquiza, Ibon Tamayo-Uria, Lise Giorgis-Allemand, Oliver Robinson, Valérie Siroux, Léa Maitre, Montserrat De Castro, Antonia Valentin, David Donaire, Payam Dadvand, Gunn Marit Aasvang, Norun Hjertager Krog, Per E. Schwarze, Leda Chatzi, Regina Grazuleviciene, Sandra Andrusaityte, Audrius Dedele, Rosie Mceachan, John Wright, Jane West, Jesús Ibarluzea, Ferran Ballester, Martine Vrijheid, Remy Slama

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: The exposome is defined as the totality of environmental exposures from conception onwards. It calls for providing a holistic view of environmental exposures and their effects on human health by evaluating multiple environmental exposures simultaneously during critical periods of life. Objective: We evaluated the association of the urban exposome with birth weight. Methods: We estimated exposure to the urban exposome, including the built environment, air pollution, road traffic noise, meteorology, natural space, and road traffic (corresponding to 24 environmental indicators and 60 exposures) for nearly 32,000 pregnant women from six European birth cohorts. To evaluate associations with either ...


International Clinical Practice Recommendations On The Definition, Diagnosis, Assessment, Intervention And Psychosocial Aspects Of Developmental Coordination Disorder, Rainer Blank, Anna L. Barnett, John Cairney, Dido Green, Amanda Kirby, Helene Polatajko, Sara Rosenblum, Bouwein C. M. Smits-Engelsman, David Sugden, Peter Wilson, Sabine Vinçon Jan 2019

International Clinical Practice Recommendations On The Definition, Diagnosis, Assessment, Intervention And Psychosocial Aspects Of Developmental Coordination Disorder, Rainer Blank, Anna L. Barnett, John Cairney, Dido Green, Amanda Kirby, Helene Polatajko, Sara Rosenblum, Bouwein C. M. Smits-Engelsman, David Sugden, Peter Wilson, Sabine Vinçon

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Aim These international clinical practice recommendations (CPR) for developmental coordination disorder (DCD), initiated by the European Academy of Childhood Disability (EACD), aim to address key questions on the definition, diagnosis, assessment, intervention, and psychosocial aspects of DCD relevant for clinical practice. Method Key questions in five areas were considered through literature reviews and formal expert consensus. For recommendations based on evidence, literature searches on ‘mechanisms’, ‘assessment’, and ‘intervention’ were updated since the last recommendations in 2012. New searches were conducted for ‘psychosocial issues’ and ‘adolescents/adults’. Evidence was rated according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence‐Based Medicine (level of ...


Lipotoxicity Plays A Key Role In The Development Of Both Insulin Resistance And Muscle Atrophy In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes, Ruth C. R. Meex, Ellen E. Blaak, Luc J. C. Van Loon Jan 2019

Lipotoxicity Plays A Key Role In The Development Of Both Insulin Resistance And Muscle Atrophy In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes, Ruth C. R. Meex, Ellen E. Blaak, Luc J. C. Van Loon

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Insulin resistance and muscle mass loss often coincide in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Most patients with type 2 diabetes are overweight, and it is well established that obesity and derangements in lipid metabolism play an important role in the development of insulin resistance in these individuals. Specifically, increased adipose tissue mass and dysfunctional adipose tissue lead to systemic lipid overflow and to low‐grade inflammation via altered secretion of adipokines and cytokines. Furthermore, an increased flux of fatty acids from the adipose tissue may contribute to increased fat storage in the liver and in skeletal muscle, resulting in an ...