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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Effects Of Sacubitril/Valsartan Versus Irbesartan In Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease: A Randomised Double-Blind Trial [Accepted Manuscript], Richard Hayes, Parminder K. Judge, Natalie Staplin, William G. Herrington, Benjamin C. Storey, Angelyn M. Bethel, Louise Bowman, Nigel Brunskill, Paul Cockwell, Michael Hill, Philip A. Kalra, John J. V. Mcmurray, Maarten Taal, David C. Wheeler, Martin J. Landray, Colin Baigent Oct 2018

Effects Of Sacubitril/Valsartan Versus Irbesartan In Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease: A Randomised Double-Blind Trial [Accepted Manuscript], Richard Hayes, Parminder K. Judge, Natalie Staplin, William G. Herrington, Benjamin C. Storey, Angelyn M. Bethel, Louise Bowman, Nigel Brunskill, Paul Cockwell, Michael Hill, Philip A. Kalra, John J. V. Mcmurray, Maarten Taal, David C. Wheeler, Martin J. Landray, Colin Baigent

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

BACKGROUND: Sacubitril/valsartan reduces the risk of cardiovascular mortality among patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, but its effects on kidney function and cardiac biomarkers in people with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease are unknown. METHODS: The UK HARP-III trial (United Kingdom Heart and Renal Protection-III), a randomized double-blind trial, included 414 participants with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) 20 to 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 who were randomly assigned to sacubitril/valsartan 97/103 mg twice daily versus irbesartan 300 mg once daily. The primary outcome was measured GFR at 12 months using ANCOVA ...


Changes In Waist Circumference Independent Of Weight: Implications For Population Level Monitoring Of Obesity [Accepted Manuscript], Emma Gearon, Stephanie K. Tanamas, Christopher Stevenson, Venurs Hui Yee Loh, Anna Peters Jun 2018

Changes In Waist Circumference Independent Of Weight: Implications For Population Level Monitoring Of Obesity [Accepted Manuscript], Emma Gearon, Stephanie K. Tanamas, Christopher Stevenson, Venurs Hui Yee Loh, Anna Peters

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

ing of obesity is most commonly conducted using body mass index (BMI). We test the hypothesis that because of increases in waist circumference (WC) independent of increases in weight, BMI alone detects an increasingly smaller proportion of the population with obesity. Methods: Australian adults with measured height, weight, and WC were selected from three nationally representative cross-sectional surveys (1989, 1999–2000, 2011–12; n = 8313, 5903 & 3904). Participants were defined as having obesity using classifications for an obese BMI (≥ 30 kg·m− 2) and substantially-increased-risk WC (≥ 88 cm [women], ≥ 102 cm [men]). Age-standardised prevalence of obesity according to BMI and ...


The Prevalence And Impact Of Low Back Pain In Pre-Professional And Professional Dancers: A Prospective Study [Accepted Manuscript], Christopher T. Swain, Elizabeth Bradshaw, Douglas G. Whyte, Christina L. Ekegren Mar 2018

The Prevalence And Impact Of Low Back Pain In Pre-Professional And Professional Dancers: A Prospective Study [Accepted Manuscript], Christopher T. Swain, Elizabeth Bradshaw, Douglas G. Whyte, Christina L. Ekegren

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objectives To determine the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) in pre-professional and professional dancers and its impact on dance participation, care-seeking and medication use. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting One pre-professional ballet school, two pre-professional university dance programs, and a professional ballet company. Participants Male and female classical ballet and contemporary dancers. Main outcome measures An initial questionnaire collected demographic and LBP history data. The monthly prevalence of LBP (all episodes, activity limiting episodes and chronic LBP) and impact (activity limitation, care-seeking, and medication use) was collected over a nine-month period. Results 119 dancers participated, which represented 54% of ...


Self-Compassion Moderates The Link Between Perfectionism And Depression Link In Both Adolescence And Adulthood, Madeleine Ferrari, Keong Yap, Nicole Scott, Danielle A. Einstein, Joseph Ciarrochi Feb 2018

Self-Compassion Moderates The Link Between Perfectionism And Depression Link In Both Adolescence And Adulthood, Madeleine Ferrari, Keong Yap, Nicole Scott, Danielle A. Einstein, Joseph Ciarrochi

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background

Psychological practitioners often seek to directly change the form or frequency of clients' maladaptive perfectionist thoughts, because such thoughts predict future depression. Indirect strategies, such as self-compassion interventions, that seek to change clients' relationships to difficult thoughts, rather than trying to change the thoughts directly could be just as effective. This study aimed to investigate whether self-compassion moderated, or weakened, the relationship between high perfectionism and high depression symptoms in both adolescence and adulthood.

Methods

The present study utilised anonymous self-report questionnaires to assess maladaptive perfectionism, depression, and self-compassion across two samples covering much of the lifespan. Questionnaires were ...


More A Marathon Than A Hurdle: Towards Children’S Informed Consent In A Study On Safety [Accepted Manuscript], Tim Moore, Morag Mcarthur Dr, Debbie Noble-Carr Feb 2018

More A Marathon Than A Hurdle: Towards Children’S Informed Consent In A Study On Safety [Accepted Manuscript], Tim Moore, Morag Mcarthur Dr, Debbie Noble-Carr

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Informed consent is critical in research with children. Although much has been written about the need to see consent as an ongoing process, less has considered how to do it in practice. This article reflects on the authors’ experiences of conducting a piece of research focusing on children’s experiences of safety from abuse within institutional contexts. It draws on feedback provided by participants and the guidance of three Children’s Reference Groups. The importance of presenting information in accessible and appropriate ways, of providing opportunities for participants to negotiate their participation and for in-the-moment challenges be dealt with collaboratively ...


Perceptual-Motor Regulation In Locomotor Pointing While Approaching A Curb [Accepted Manuscript], Steven Van Andel, Michael H. Cole, Gert-Jan Pepping Feb 2018

Perceptual-Motor Regulation In Locomotor Pointing While Approaching A Curb [Accepted Manuscript], Steven Van Andel, Michael H. Cole, Gert-Jan Pepping

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Locomotor pointing is a task that has been the focus of research in the context of sport (e.g. long jumping and cricket) as well as normal walking. Collectively, these studies have produced abroad understanding of locomotor pointing, but generalizability has been limited to laboratory type tasks and/or tasks with high spatial demands. The current study aimed to generalize previous findings in locomotor pointing to the common daily task of approaching and stepping on to a curb. Sixteen people completed 33 repetitions of a task that required them to walk up to and step onto a curb. Information about ...


Higher Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels Are Associated With Decreased Mortality In Patients With Intracerebral Hemorrhage [Accepted Manuscript], Jason J. Chang, Aristeidis Katsanos, Yasser Khorchid, Kira Dillard, Ali Kerro, Lucia Goodwin Burgess, Nitin Goyal, Anne W. Alexandrov, Andrei V. Alexandrov, Georgios Tsivgoulis Feb 2018

Higher Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels Are Associated With Decreased Mortality In Patients With Intracerebral Hemorrhage [Accepted Manuscript], Jason J. Chang, Aristeidis Katsanos, Yasser Khorchid, Kira Dillard, Ali Kerro, Lucia Goodwin Burgess, Nitin Goyal, Anne W. Alexandrov, Andrei V. Alexandrov, Georgios Tsivgoulis

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background and aims: The relationship between lipoprotein levels, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and clinical outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remains controversial. We sought to evaluate the association of lipoprotein cholesterol levels and statin dosage with clinical and neuroimaging outcomes in patients with ICH. Methods: Data on consecutive patients hospitalized with spontaneous acute ICH was prospectively collected over a 5-year period and retrospectively analyzed. Demographic characteristics, clinical severity documented by NIHSS-score and ICH-score, neuroimaging parameters, pre-hospital statin use and doses, and LDL-C and HDL-C levels were recorded. Outcome events characterized were hematoma volume, hematoma expansion, in-hospital functional ...


Social Cognition And African American Men: The Roles Of Perceived Discrimination And Experimenter Race On Task Performance [Accepted Manuscript], Arundati Nagendra, Benjamin L. Twery, Enrique W. Neblett, Hasan Mustafic, Tevin S. Jones, D'Angelo Gatewood, David L. Penn Jan 2018

Social Cognition And African American Men: The Roles Of Perceived Discrimination And Experimenter Race On Task Performance [Accepted Manuscript], Arundati Nagendra, Benjamin L. Twery, Enrique W. Neblett, Hasan Mustafic, Tevin S. Jones, D'Angelo Gatewood, David L. Penn

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

The Social Cognition Psychometric Evaluation (SCOPE) study consists of a battery of eight tasks selected to measure social-cognitive deficits in individuals with schizophrenia. The battery is currently in a multisite validation process. While the SCOPE study collects basic demographic data, more nuanced race-related factors might artificially inflate cross-cultural differences in social cognition. As an initial step, we investigated whether race, independent of mental illness status, affects performance on the SCOPE battery. Thus, we examined the effects of perceived discrimination and experimenter race on the performance of 51 non-clinical African American men on the SCOPE battery. Results revealed that these factors ...


Non-Knee-Spanning Muscles Contribute To Tibiofemoral Shear As Well As Valgus And Rotational Joint Reaction Moments During Unanticipated Sidestep Cutting, Nirav Maniar, Anthony Schache, Prasanna Sritharan, David Opar Jan 2018

Non-Knee-Spanning Muscles Contribute To Tibiofemoral Shear As Well As Valgus And Rotational Joint Reaction Moments During Unanticipated Sidestep Cutting, Nirav Maniar, Anthony Schache, Prasanna Sritharan, David Opar

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are a burdensome condition due to potential surgical requirements and increased risk of long term debilitation. Previous studies indicate that muscle forces play an important role in the development of ligamentous loading, yet these studies have typically used cadaveric models considering only the knee-spanning quadriceps, hamstrings and gastrocnemius muscle groups. Using a musculoskeletal modelling approach, we investigated how lower-limb muscles produce and oppose key tibiofemoral reaction forces and moments during the weight acceptance phase of unanticipated sidestep cutting. Muscles capable of opposing (or controlling the magnitude of) the anterior shear force and the external valgus ...


Blood Pressure Target Achievement And Antihypertensive Medication Use In Women And Men After First-Ever Myocardial Infarction: The Tromso Study 1994-2016, Laila A. Hopstock, Anne E. Eggen, Maja-Lisa Loechen, Ellisiv B. Mathiesen, Amalie Nilsen, Inger Njolstad, Tom Wilsgaard Jan 2018

Blood Pressure Target Achievement And Antihypertensive Medication Use In Women And Men After First-Ever Myocardial Infarction: The Tromso Study 1994-2016, Laila A. Hopstock, Anne E. Eggen, Maja-Lisa Loechen, Ellisiv B. Mathiesen, Amalie Nilsen, Inger Njolstad, Tom Wilsgaard

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background Recurrent cardiovascular events after myocardial infarction (MI) are frequent, and gender differences in blood pressure treatment have been reported. Despite increased focus on secondary prevention, recent reports indicate that treatment targets are not achieved. There is a need for gender-specific analyses of post-MI blood pressure treatment target achievement and antihypertensive medication adherence. Design We investigated the change in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and antihypertensive drug use after first-ever MI over two time periods in a Norwegian population-based study. Methods We followed 10 089 participants (55% women) attending the Tromso Study in 1994-1995 (MI-cohort I) and 8412 participants (55 ...


The 2017 Dutch Physical Activity Guidelines, Rianne M. Weggemans, Frank J.G. Backx, Lars Borghouts, Mai J.M. Chinapaw, Maria T. Hopman, Annemarie Koster, Stef Kremers, Luc Van Loon, Anne M. May, Arend Mosterd, Hidde Van Der Ploeg, Tim Takken, Marjolein Visser, Wanda Wendel-Vos, Eco J.C. De Geus Jan 2018

The 2017 Dutch Physical Activity Guidelines, Rianne M. Weggemans, Frank J.G. Backx, Lars Borghouts, Mai J.M. Chinapaw, Maria T. Hopman, Annemarie Koster, Stef Kremers, Luc Van Loon, Anne M. May, Arend Mosterd, Hidde Van Der Ploeg, Tim Takken, Marjolein Visser, Wanda Wendel-Vos, Eco J.C. De Geus

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background The objective of this study was to derive evidence-based physical activity guidelines for the general Dutch population. Methods Two systematic reviews were conducted of English language meta-analyses in PubMed summarizing separately randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies on the relation between physical activity and sedentary behaviour on the one hand and the risk of all-cause mortality and incidence of 15 major chronic diseases and conditions on the other hand. Other outcome measures were risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, physical functioning, and fitness. On the basis of these reviews, an expert committee derived physical activity ...


Mild Cognitive Impairment Is Associated With Subclinical Diastolic Dysfunction In Patients With Chronic Heart Disease, Julian W. Sacre, Jocasta Ball, Chiew Wong, Kai Chan, Simon Stewart, Bronwyn A. Kingwell, Melinda Carrington Jan 2018

Mild Cognitive Impairment Is Associated With Subclinical Diastolic Dysfunction In Patients With Chronic Heart Disease, Julian W. Sacre, Jocasta Ball, Chiew Wong, Kai Chan, Simon Stewart, Bronwyn A. Kingwell, Melinda Carrington

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: To examine mild cognitive impairment and its associations with subclinical cardiac dysfunction in patients with chronic heart disease yet to develop the clinical syndrome of chronic heart failure (CHF). Methods and results: Patients from the Nurse-led Intervention for Less Chronic Heart Failure Study (n = 373 with chronic heart disease other than CHF; 64 ± 11 years, 69% men) were screened for mild cognitive impairment [Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) score < 26] and underwent echocardiographic/clinical profiling. We investigated associations of mild cognitive impairment and MoCA cognitive domain subscores with global cardiac status (‘normal’ vs. ‘diastolic dysfunction’ vs. ‘other cardiac abnormality’) and individual echocardiographic parameters. Patients with mild cognitive impairment (n = 161; 43%) demonstrated a higher age-adjusted prevalence of diastolic dysfunction (37% vs. 24%; P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression (adjusted for age, sex, and other relevant clinical factors) indicated that the odds of mild cognitive impairment were two-times higher with diastolic dysfunction (P = 0.030) and 1.7-times higher with ‘other cardiac abnormalities’ (P = 0.082) vs. normal cardiac status. In turn, mild cognitive impairment was predicted by left-ventricular (LV) filling pressure (based on the ratio of early diastolic filling and annular velocities; adjusted odds ratio 1.07 per unit increase, P = 0.022), but not LV structural parameters. Specific deficits in the cognitive domains of executive functioning and visuo-constructional abilities were also independently predicted by diastolic dysfunction (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Mild cognitive impairment is prevalent in patients with subclinical chronic heart disease at high-risk of CHF. Independent associations with LV diastolic dysfunction suggest a link between cardiac and cognitive functioning beyond shared risk factors.


The Classification Of Body Dysmorphic Disorder Symptoms In Male And Female Adolescents [Accepted Manuscript], Sophie C. Schneider, Andrew J. Baillie, Jonathan Mond, Cynthia Michelle Turner, Jennifer L. Hudson Jan 2018

The Classification Of Body Dysmorphic Disorder Symptoms In Male And Female Adolescents [Accepted Manuscript], Sophie C. Schneider, Andrew J. Baillie, Jonathan Mond, Cynthia Michelle Turner, Jennifer L. Hudson

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) was categorised in DSM-5 within the newly created ‘obsessive-compulsive and related disorders’ chapter, however this classification remains subject to debate. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test competing models of the co-occurrence of symptoms of BDD, obsessive-compulsive disorder, unipolar depression, anxiety, and eating disorders in a community sample of adolescents, and to explore potential sex differences in these models. Methods: Self-report questionnaires assessing disorder symptoms were completed by 3149 Australian adolescents. The fit of correlated factor models was calculated separately in males and females, and measurement invariance testing compared parameters of the best-fitting model between ...


2017 Cardiovascular And Stroke Endpoint Definitions For Clinical Trials, Karen A. Hicks, Kenneth W. Mahaffey, Roxana Mehran, Steven E. Nissen, Stephen D. Wiviott, Billy Dunn, Scott Solomon, John R. Marler, John R. Teerlink, Andrew Farb, David A. Morrow, Shari L. Targum, Cathy A. Sila, Mary T.T. Hai, Michael R. Jaff, Hylton V. Joffe, Donal E. Cutlip, Akshay S. Desai, Eldrin F. Lewis, C. Michael Gibson, Martin J. Landray, A. M. Lincoff, Christopher White, Steven S. Brooks, Kenneth A. Rosenfield, Michael J. Domanski, Alexandra J. Lansky, John Mcmurray, James E. Tcheng, Steven R. Steinhubl, Paul R. Burton, Laura Mauri, Christopher M. O'Connor, Marc A. Pfeffer, James Hung, Norman L. Stockbridge, Bernard Chaitman, Robert J. Temple Jan 2018

2017 Cardiovascular And Stroke Endpoint Definitions For Clinical Trials, Karen A. Hicks, Kenneth W. Mahaffey, Roxana Mehran, Steven E. Nissen, Stephen D. Wiviott, Billy Dunn, Scott Solomon, John R. Marler, John R. Teerlink, Andrew Farb, David A. Morrow, Shari L. Targum, Cathy A. Sila, Mary T.T. Hai, Michael R. Jaff, Hylton V. Joffe, Donal E. Cutlip, Akshay S. Desai, Eldrin F. Lewis, C. Michael Gibson, Martin J. Landray, A. M. Lincoff, Christopher White, Steven S. Brooks, Kenneth A. Rosenfield, Michael J. Domanski, Alexandra J. Lansky, John Mcmurray, James E. Tcheng, Steven R. Steinhubl, Paul R. Burton, Laura Mauri, Christopher M. O'Connor, Marc A. Pfeffer, James Hung, Norman L. Stockbridge, Bernard Chaitman, Robert J. Temple

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

This publication describes uniform definitions for cardiovascular and stroke outcomes developed by the Standardized Data Collection for Cardiovascular Trials Initiative and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The FDA established the Standardized Data Collection for Cardiovascular Trials Initiative in 2009 to simplify the design and conduct of clinical trials intended to support marketing applications. The writing committee recognizes that these definitions may be used in other types of clinical trials and clinical care processes where appropriate. Use of these definitions at the FDA has enhanced the ability to aggregate data within and across medical product development programs, conduct meta-analyses ...


Age-Associated Impairments In Mitochondrial Adp Sensitivity Contribute To Redox Stress In Senescent Human Skeletal Muscle, Graham P. Holloway, Andrew M. Holwerda, Paula M. Miotto, Marlou L. Dirks, Lex B. Verdijk, Luc Van Loon Jan 2018

Age-Associated Impairments In Mitochondrial Adp Sensitivity Contribute To Redox Stress In Senescent Human Skeletal Muscle, Graham P. Holloway, Andrew M. Holwerda, Paula M. Miotto, Marlou L. Dirks, Lex B. Verdijk, Luc Van Loon

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

It remains unknown if mitochondrial bioenergetics are altered with aging in humans. We established an in vitro method to simultaneously determine mitochondrial respiration and H2O2emission in skeletal muscle tissue across a range of biologically relevant ADP concentrations. Using this approach, we provide evidence that, although the capacity for mitochondrial H2O2emission is not increased with aging, mitochondrial ADP sensitivity is impaired. This resulted in an increase in mitochondrial H2O2and the fraction of electron leak to H2O2, in the presence of virtually all ADP concentrations examined. Moreover, although prolonged resistance training inolder individuals increased muscle mass, strength, and maximal mitochondrial respiration, exercise ...


Ampk Signaling To Acetyl-Coa Carboxylase Is Required For Fasting - And Cold-Induced Appetite But Not Thermogenesis, Sandra Galic, Kim Loh, Lisa Murray-Segal, Gregory R. Steinberg, Zane B. Andrews, Bruce Kemp Jan 2018

Ampk Signaling To Acetyl-Coa Carboxylase Is Required For Fasting - And Cold-Induced Appetite But Not Thermogenesis, Sandra Galic, Kim Loh, Lisa Murray-Segal, Gregory R. Steinberg, Zane B. Andrews, Bruce Kemp

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a known regulator of whole-body energy homeostasis, but the downstream AMPK substrates mediating these effects are not entirely clear. AMPK inhibits fatty acid synthesis and promotes fatty acid oxidation by phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) 1 at Ser79 and ACC2 at Ser212. Using mice with Ser79Ala/Ser212Ala knock-in mutations (ACC DKI) we find that inhibition of ACC phosphorylation leads to reduced appetite in response to fasting or cold exposure. At sub-thermoneutral temperatures, ACC DKI mice maintain normal energy expenditure and thermogenesis, but fail to increase appetite and lose weight. We demonstrate that the ACC DKI ...


The Role Of The Individual In The Coming Era Of Processed-Based Therapy [Accepted Manuscript], Steven C. Hayes, Stefan G. Hofmann, Corey E. Stanton, Joseph K. Carpenter, Brandon T. Sandford, Joshua E. Curtiss, Joseph Ciarrochi Jan 2018

The Role Of The Individual In The Coming Era Of Processed-Based Therapy [Accepted Manuscript], Steven C. Hayes, Stefan G. Hofmann, Corey E. Stanton, Joseph K. Carpenter, Brandon T. Sandford, Joshua E. Curtiss, Joseph Ciarrochi

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

For decades the development of evidence-based therapy has been based on experimental tests of protocols designed to impact psychiatric syndromes. As this paradigm weakens, a more process-based therapy approach is rising in its place, focused on how to best target and change core biopsychosocial processes in specific situations for given goals with given clients. This is an inherently more idiographic question than has normally been at issue in evidence-based therapy over the last few decades. In this article we explore methods of assessment and analysis that can integrate idiographic and nomothetic approaches in a process-based era.


"It's Like A Drink You'd Have Before You Go To A Party": Analysis Of A Vodka Cruiser Advertising Campaign [Accepted Manuscript], Sandra C. Jones, Kate Louise Francis, Chloe S. Gordon Jan 2018

"It's Like A Drink You'd Have Before You Go To A Party": Analysis Of A Vodka Cruiser Advertising Campaign [Accepted Manuscript], Sandra C. Jones, Kate Louise Francis, Chloe S. Gordon

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Introduction and Aims: The aim of the present study was to explore young women's understandings of, and interactions with, an advertising campaign for a pre-mixed alcohol product that appeared to be promoting pre-drinking. This campaign was the subject of complaints to the Alcohol Advertising Review Board, revealing an inconsistency between the way the company responded to such complaints (arguing that the campaign does not encourage pre-drinking) and the way it described the campaign in trade press (the pre-drink enjoyed by the ‘girls’ while getting ready …). Design and Methods: Twelve focus groups were conducted with 72 young women, aged 15 ...


Non-Knee-Spanning Muscles Contribute To Tibiofemoral Shear As Well As Valgus And Rotational Joint Reaction Moments During Unanticipated Sidestep Cutting, Nirav Maniar, Anthony G. Schache, Prasanna Sritharan, David Opar Jan 2018

Non-Knee-Spanning Muscles Contribute To Tibiofemoral Shear As Well As Valgus And Rotational Joint Reaction Moments During Unanticipated Sidestep Cutting, Nirav Maniar, Anthony G. Schache, Prasanna Sritharan, David Opar

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are a burdensome condition due to potential surgical requirements and increased risk of long term debilitation. Previous studies indicate that muscle forces play an important role in the development of ligamentous loading, yet these studies have typically used cadaveric models considering only the knee-spanning quadriceps, hamstrings and gastrocnemius muscle groups. Using a musculoskeletal modelling approach, we investigated how lower-limb muscles produce and oppose key tibiofemoral reaction forces and moments during the weight acceptance phase of unanticipated sidestep cutting. Muscles capable of opposing (or controlling the magnitude of) the anterior shear force and the external valgus ...


Revisiting The Alerting Effect Of Light: A Systematic Review [Accepted Manuscript], Qunyan Xu, Cathryne Patrice Lang Jan 2018

Revisiting The Alerting Effect Of Light: A Systematic Review [Accepted Manuscript], Qunyan Xu, Cathryne Patrice Lang

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Light plays an essential role in maintaining alertness levels. Like other non-image-forming responses, the alerting effect of light is influenced by its spectral wavelength, duration and intensity. Alertness levels are also dependent on circadian rhythm (Process C) and homeostatic sleep pressure (Process S), consistent with the classic two-process model of sleep regulation. Over the last decade, there has been increasing recognition of an additional process (referred to as the third process) in sleep regulation. This third process seems to receive sensory inputs from body systems such as digestion, and is usually synchronised with Process C and Process S. Previous studies ...


Correction To: Geography Of Fracture Incidence In Postmenopausal Women With Osteoporosis Treated With Abaloparatide, Michael Mcclung, Gregory C. Williams, Gary Hattersley, Lorraine A. Fitzpatrick, Yamei Wang, Paul D. Miller Jan 2018

Correction To: Geography Of Fracture Incidence In Postmenopausal Women With Osteoporosis Treated With Abaloparatide, Michael Mcclung, Gregory C. Williams, Gary Hattersley, Lorraine A. Fitzpatrick, Yamei Wang, Paul D. Miller

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

The article Geography of Fracture Incidence in Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis Treated with Abaloparatide, written by Michael R. McClung, Gregory C. Williams, Gary Hattersley, Lorraine A. Fitzpatrick, Yamei Wang, Paul D. Miller, was originally published electronically on the publisher’s internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 28 December 2017 without open access.


Ioc Consensus Statement: Dietary Supplements And The High-Performance Athlete0306, Ronald J. Maughan, Louise Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. E. Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc Van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard Budgett, Arne Ljunggvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis P. Pitsiladis, Torbjorn Soligard, Ugur Erdener, Lars Engebretsen Jan 2018

Ioc Consensus Statement: Dietary Supplements And The High-Performance Athlete0306, Ronald J. Maughan, Louise Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. E. Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc Van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard Budgett, Arne Ljunggvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis P. Pitsiladis, Torbjorn Soligard, Ugur Erdener, Lars Engebretsen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Nutrition usually makes a small but potentially valuable contribution to successful performance in elite athletes, and dietary supplements can make a minor contribution to this nutrition programme. Nonetheless, supplement use is widespread at all levels of sport. Products described as supplements target different issues, including (1) the management of micronutrient deficiencies, (2) supply of convenient forms of energy and macronutrients, and (3) provision of direct benefits to performance or (4) indirect benefits such as supporting intense training regimens. The appropriate use of some supplements can benefit the athlete, but others may harm the athlete's health, performance, and/or livelihood ...


Neighborhood Variation Of Sustainable Urban Morphological Characteristics, Poh-Chin Lai, Si Chen, Chien-Tat Low, Ester Cerin, Robert Stimson, Paulina P. Wong Jan 2018

Neighborhood Variation Of Sustainable Urban Morphological Characteristics, Poh-Chin Lai, Si Chen, Chien-Tat Low, Ester Cerin, Robert Stimson, Paulina P. Wong

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Compact cities and their urban forms have implications on sustainable city development because of high density urban settlement, increased accessibility, and a balanced land use mix. This paper uses quantitative means of understanding urban morphological characteristics with reference to the differing qualities of the urban form (i.e., street patterns, building volumes, land uses and greenery). The results, based on 89 neighborhood communities of Hong Kong, show varying degrees of regional differences in the urban built form supported by numerical statistics and graphical illustrations. This paper offers empirical evidence on some morphological characteristics that can be estimated objectively using modern ...


Mild Cognitive Impairment Impacts Health Outcomes Of Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing A Disease Management Intervention, Jocasta Ball, Maja-Lisa Loechen, Melinda Carrington, Joshua Wiley, S. Stewart Jan 2018

Mild Cognitive Impairment Impacts Health Outcomes Of Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing A Disease Management Intervention, Jocasta Ball, Maja-Lisa Loechen, Melinda Carrington, Joshua Wiley, S. Stewart

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objective: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is prevalent in atrial fibrillation (AF) and has the potential to contribute to poor outcomes. We investigated the influence of MCI on survival and rehospitalisation in patients with chronic forms of AF undergoing a home-based, AF-specific disease management intervention (home-based intervention (HBI)) or standard management(SM). Methods The Montreal Cognitive Assessment tool was administered at baseline (a score of < 26/30 indicated MCI) in patients with AF randomised to HBI versus SM. Post hoc analyses of mortality and rehospitalisations during a minimum 24-month follow-up were conducted in the overall cohort and in each study group separately. Results Of 260 patients (mean age 72±11, 47% female), 65% demonstrated MCI on screening (34% in SM; 31% in HBI). Overall, the number of days spent alive and outof- hospital during follow-up (P=0.012) and all-cause rehospitalisation were influenced by MCI during follow-up (OR 3.16 (95% CI 1.46 to 6.84)) but MCI did not influence any outcomes in the SM group. However, survival was negatively influenced by MCI in the HBI group (P=0.036); those with MCI in this group were 5.6 times more likely to die during follow-up (OR 5.57 (95% CI 1.10 to 28.1)). Those with MCI in the HBI group also spent less days alive and out-of-hospital than those with no MCI (P=0.022). MCI was also identified as a significant independent correlate of shortest duration of event-free survival (OR 3.48 (95% CI 1.06 to 11.4)), allcause rehospitalisation (OR 3.30 (95% CI 1.25 to 8.69)) and cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related rehospitalisation (OR 2.35 (95% CI 1.12 to 4.91)) in this group. Conclusions The effectiveness of home-based, disease management for patients with chronic forms of AF is negatively affected by comorbid MCI. The benefit of adjunctive support for patients with MCI on CVD-related health outcomes requires further investigation.


Dietary And Physical Activity Interventions For Colorectal Cancer Survivors: A Randomized Controlled Trial, C. Lee, Judy W. C. Ho, Daniel Y. T. Fong, Duncan J. Macfarlane, Ester Cerin, Antoinette M. Lee, Sharron S. K. Leung, Wynnie Y. Y. Chan, Ivy P. F. Leung, Sharon H. S. Lam, Natural Chu, Aliki J. Taylor, Kar-Keung Cheng Jan 2018

Dietary And Physical Activity Interventions For Colorectal Cancer Survivors: A Randomized Controlled Trial, C. Lee, Judy W. C. Ho, Daniel Y. T. Fong, Duncan J. Macfarlane, Ester Cerin, Antoinette M. Lee, Sharron S. K. Leung, Wynnie Y. Y. Chan, Ivy P. F. Leung, Sharon H. S. Lam, Natural Chu, Aliki J. Taylor, Kar-Keung Cheng

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

There has been evidence on the protective effects of diets high in fiber and low in red and processed meat (RPM), and physical activity (PA) against colorectal cancer (CRC) development, but that against CRC recurrence has been limited. This study evaluated the efficacy of a behavioral program comprising dietary and PA interventions in improving Chinese CRC survivors' lifestyle. A 2 × 2 factorial randomized controlled trial of 223 CRC patients (82 females, mean age 65), randomly assigned to receive dietary, PA or both interventions, or usual care for 12 months, and assessed every 6 months for 24 months. Primary outcomes included ...


Mitochondrial Coq Deficiency Is A Common Driver Of Mitochondrial Oxidants And Insulin Resistance, Daniel J. Fazakerley, Rima Chaudhuri, Pengyi Yang, Ghassan J. Maghzal, Kristen C. Thomas, James R. Krycer, Sean J. Humphrey, Benjamin Parker, Kelsey H. Fisher-Wellman, Christopher C. Meoli, Nolan Hoffman, Ciana Diskin, James G. Burchfield, Mark J. Cowley, Warren Kaplan, Zora Modrusan, Ganesh Kolumam, Jean Y. H. Yang, Daniel L. Chen, Dorit Samocha-Bonet, Jerry R. Greenfield, Kyle L. Hoehn, Roland Stocker, David E. James Jan 2018

Mitochondrial Coq Deficiency Is A Common Driver Of Mitochondrial Oxidants And Insulin Resistance, Daniel J. Fazakerley, Rima Chaudhuri, Pengyi Yang, Ghassan J. Maghzal, Kristen C. Thomas, James R. Krycer, Sean J. Humphrey, Benjamin Parker, Kelsey H. Fisher-Wellman, Christopher C. Meoli, Nolan Hoffman, Ciana Diskin, James G. Burchfield, Mark J. Cowley, Warren Kaplan, Zora Modrusan, Ganesh Kolumam, Jean Y. H. Yang, Daniel L. Chen, Dorit Samocha-Bonet, Jerry R. Greenfield, Kyle L. Hoehn, Roland Stocker, David E. James

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Insulin resistance in muscle, adipocytes and liver is a gateway to a number of metabolic diseases. Here, we show a selective deficiency in mitochondrial coenzyme Q (CoQ) in insulin-resistant adipose and muscle tissue. This defect was observed in a range of in vitro insulin resistance models and adipose tissue from insulin-resistant humans and was concomitant with lower expression of mevalonate/CoQ biosynthesis pathway proteins in most models. Pharmacologic or genetic manipulations that decreased mitochondrial CoQ triggered mitochondrial oxidants and insulin resistance while CoQ supplementation in either insulin-resistant cell models or mice restored normal insulin sensitivity. Specifically, lowering of mitochondrial CoQ ...


What Do Randomized Controlled Trials Say About Virtual Rehabilitation In Stroke? A Systematic Literature Review And Meta-Analysis Of Upper-Limb And Cognitive Outcomes, Anna Aminov, Jeff Rogers, Sandy Middleton, Karen Caeyenberghs, Peter Wilson Jan 2018

What Do Randomized Controlled Trials Say About Virtual Rehabilitation In Stroke? A Systematic Literature Review And Meta-Analysis Of Upper-Limb And Cognitive Outcomes, Anna Aminov, Jeff Rogers, Sandy Middleton, Karen Caeyenberghs, Peter Wilson

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Virtual-reality based rehabilitation (VR) shows potential as an engaging and effective way to improve upper-limb function and cognitive abilities following a stroke. However, an updated synthesis of the literature is needed to capture growth in recent research and address gaps in our understanding of factors that may optimize training parameters and treatment effects. Methods: Published randomized controlled trials comparing VR to conventional therapy were retrieved from seven electronic databases. Treatment effects (Hedge’s g) were estimated using a random effects model, with motor and functional outcomes between different protocols compared at the Body Structure/Function, Activity, and Participation levels ...


Mitochondrial Fission Protein Drp1 Inhibition Promotes Cardiac Mesodermal Differentiation Of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells, Ashfaqul Hoque, Priyadharshini Sivakumaran, Simon T. Bond, Naomi Ling, Anne M. Kong, John W. Scott, Nadeeka Bandara, Damian Hernandez, Guei-Sheung Liu, Raymond Wong, Michael T. Ryan, Derek Hausenloy, Bruce Kemp, Jonathan S. Oakhill, Brian Drew, Alice Pebay, Shiang Y. Lim Jan 2018

Mitochondrial Fission Protein Drp1 Inhibition Promotes Cardiac Mesodermal Differentiation Of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells, Ashfaqul Hoque, Priyadharshini Sivakumaran, Simon T. Bond, Naomi Ling, Anne M. Kong, John W. Scott, Nadeeka Bandara, Damian Hernandez, Guei-Sheung Liu, Raymond Wong, Michael T. Ryan, Derek Hausenloy, Bruce Kemp, Jonathan S. Oakhill, Brian Drew, Alice Pebay, Shiang Y. Lim

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a valuable tool for studying the cardiac developmental process in vitro, and cardiomyocytes derived from iPSCs are a putative cell source for personalized medicine. Changes in mitochondrial morphology have been shown to occur during cellular reprogramming and pluripotent stem cell differentiation. However, the relationships between mitochondrial dynamics and cardiac mesoderm commitment of iPSCs remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that changes in mitochondrial morphology from a small granular fragmented phenotype in pluripotent stem cells to a filamentous reticular elongated network in differentiated cardiomyocytes are required for cardiac mesodermal differentiation. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of ...


Peripartum Cardiomyopathy: An Update, Feriel Azibani, Karen Sliwa-Hahnle Jan 2018

Peripartum Cardiomyopathy: An Update, Feriel Azibani, Karen Sliwa-Hahnle

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Purpose of Review Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is an idiopathic disorder defined as heart failure occurring in women during the last month of pregnancy and up to 5 months postpartum. In this review, we outline recent reports about the disease pathogenesis and management and highlight the use of diagnosis and prognosis biomarkers. Recent Findings Novel data strengthen the implication of endothelial function in PPCM pathogenesis. The first international registry showed that patient presentations were similar globally, with heterogeneity in patient management and outcome. Summary Despite large improvement in patient management and treatment, there is still a sub-group of women who die ...


Application Of Frax To Determine The Risk Of Osteoporotic Fractures In The Ukrainian Population, V. V. Povoroznyuk, Nataliia V. Grygorieva, Eugene Mccloskey, Helena Johansson, John Kanis Jan 2018

Application Of Frax To Determine The Risk Of Osteoporotic Fractures In The Ukrainian Population, V. V. Povoroznyuk, Nataliia V. Grygorieva, Eugene Mccloskey, Helena Johansson, John Kanis

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Abstract: Background and Objective: FRAX is the most widely used tool for the assessment of the risk of osteoporotic fractures. The first country-specific FRAX model for Ukraine, calibrated to the total Ukrainian population, was developed in October, 2016. This study aimed to describe the output of the Ukrainian FRAX model and to illustrate its features compared to models for neighbouring countries. Materials and Methods: The development of the Ukrainian model of FRAX was based on two regional epidemiological studies in Ukraine [Vinnitsa city (1997-2002), STOP-study (Uzhgorod city and Vinnitsa area, 2011-2012)], which were performed to derive the incidence of hip ...