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Articles 1 - 30 of 1559

Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Aging, Disability And Disease In India, Veena S. Kulkarni, Vani S. Kulkarni, Raghav Gaiha Oct 2018

Aging, Disability And Disease In India, Veena S. Kulkarni, Vani S. Kulkarni, Raghav Gaiha

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

Obtaining detailed evidence on disabilities and their covariates is important as India’s elderly population (60 years or more) is growing three times faster than the population as a whole. This study is the first of its kind to provide an analysis of disability and its covariates among the elderly in 2012, based on the India Human Development Survey 2015, a nationally representative panel survey. Our analysis throws light on factors associated with (reported) disabilities in 2012.Given better reporting of disabilities in 2012, we examine the role of their covariates in 2005. Variations in both disabilities by count and ...


Growing Burden Of Non-Communicable Diseases In India, Pratima Yadav, Vani S. Kulkarni, Raghav Gaiha Aug 2018

Growing Burden Of Non-Communicable Diseases In India, Pratima Yadav, Vani S. Kulkarni, Raghav Gaiha

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

The present study provides detailed evidence on NCDs and their covariates. This is particularly relevant in the present Indian context, as the elderly population ≥ 60 years is growing three times faster than the population as a whole. It is projected that the percentage of elderly people will more than double between 2010-2050. Alongside, old age morbidity (NCDs and their multi-morbidities) has risen significantly during 2004-2014. Using National Sample Survey data for 2004 and 2014, and ordered probit models, the underlying covariates are uncovered. There is a marked shift of NCDs and multi-morbidities from the younger to the old population. Some ...


Positive Altruism: Helping That Benefits Both The Recipient And Giver, Anna S. Irani Aug 2018

Positive Altruism: Helping That Benefits Both The Recipient And Giver, Anna S. Irani

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Positive psychology is the scientific study and practice of what enables individuals and groups to thrive. Positive psychologists emphasize the significant impact social relationships have on our well-being. This paper explores altruism, which is behavior motivated by the unselfish goal of helping others. Positive altruism occurs when altruistic behavior increases the welfare of both the benefactor and beneficiary. Research suggests that the source of altruism is empathy, which is an other-focused emotional response that is elicited by and congruent with the perceived welfare of another person. While empathy can lead us to help unselfishly, it can also create bias in ...


Monasteries Of The Future, Miles G. Bukiet Aug 2018

Monasteries Of The Future, Miles G. Bukiet

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

For millennia, monasteries have been at the forefront of training virtues such as compassion, transcendence, service, gratitude, forgiveness, and grit, as well as foundational psychological capacities such as self-regulation, sustained, voluntary attention, emotional intelligence, and meta-cognitive awareness. Monasteries of the Future are modern institutions, both secular and religious, designed to provide the requisite financial, social, intellectual, and instructional support necessary to train a new generation of contemplative adepts. Forming a network of centers which collaborate and compete, Monasteries of the Future will establish and uphold the highest standards in the contemplative field. By partnering with modern science, most notably positive ...


Effect Of Dental Scaling And Root Planing On Serum Inflammatory Markers In Patients With Coronary Heart Disease: A Systematic Review, Dalal Alomar Jul 2018

Effect Of Dental Scaling And Root Planing On Serum Inflammatory Markers In Patients With Coronary Heart Disease: A Systematic Review, Dalal Alomar

Dental Theses

Background: Coronary heart disease is a common manifestation of atherosclerosis. Various inflammatory markers including C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and fibrinogen play role in the development of atherosclerosis. Periodontitis is the inflammation of teeth supporting structures initiated by bacteria of the oral biofilm. Several studies have shown that periodontitis is associated with increased levels of serum inflammatory markers involved in atherosclerosis. Recently, there is an increasing number of trials investigating the effect of scaling and root planing on reducing level of systemic inflammation between periodontal maintenance visits in patients with coronary heart disease to decrease the inflammatory burden in ...


Aging, Depression, Non-Communicable Diseases And Disabilities In South Africa, Manoj K. Pandey, Vani S. Kulkarni, Raghav Gaiha Jul 2018

Aging, Depression, Non-Communicable Diseases And Disabilities In South Africa, Manoj K. Pandey, Vani S. Kulkarni, Raghav Gaiha

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

This is the first study that offers a comprehensive analysis of depression among the old (60+ years) in South Africa. This study uses four waves of a panel survey of the South Africa National Income Dynamics Study (SA-NIDS) during 2008-2014. A state-of-art econometric methodology has been used to unravel the factors underlying depression among the old over the period 2008-2014. Depending on whether the dependent variable is binary (self-reported depression for ≥ 3 days in a week) or continuous (as in measures of overall depression and severe depression), we use random effects probit with Mundlak adjustment or simply random effects with ...


Effect Of Expansive Force On Mesenchymal Stem Cells Isolated From The Mid-Palatal Suture Of Mice, Samaneh Mojarrad Jul 2018

Effect Of Expansive Force On Mesenchymal Stem Cells Isolated From The Mid-Palatal Suture Of Mice, Samaneh Mojarrad

Dental Theses

Understanding the mechanisms by which craniofacial sutures respond to mechanical force is essential for improving orthodontic treatment strategies. However, the innate ability to regenerate bone from calvarial stem cells is still unknown. Therefore, we have initiated a study to isolate cells from the mid-palatal suture of mice. The aim of our study is to evaluate mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) characteristics of cells isolated from the mid-palatal suture and their ability for osteogenic differentiation when subjected to cyclic tensile force in vitro. A total of 10, 6-week old male C57BL/6 mice were used to obtain mid-palatal suture cells. Cultured cells ...


Computer Aided Clinical Trials For Implantable Cardiac Devices, Kuk Jin Jang, James Weimer, Houssam Abbas, Zhihao Jiang, Jackson Liang, Sanjay Dixit, Rahul Mangharam Jul 2018

Computer Aided Clinical Trials For Implantable Cardiac Devices, Kuk Jin Jang, James Weimer, Houssam Abbas, Zhihao Jiang, Jackson Liang, Sanjay Dixit, Rahul Mangharam

Real-Time and Embedded Systems Lab (mLAB)

In this paper we aim to answer the question, ``How can modeling and simulation of physiological systems be used to evaluate life-critical implantable medical devices?'' Clinical trials for medical devices are becoming increasingly inefficient as they take several years to conduct, at very high cost and suffer from high rates of failure. For example, the Rhythm ID Goes Head-to-head Trial (RIGHT) sought to evaluate the performance of two arrhythmia discriminator algorithms for implantable cardioverter defibrillators, Vitality 2 vs. Medtronic, in terms of time-to-first inappropriate therapy, but concluded with results contrary to the initial hypothesis - after 5 years, 2,000+ patients ...


Exploring The Clinical Utility Of Mobile Applications For Promoting Affect Regulation Among Clients With Behavioral Health Problems, Caroline Fenkel Jun 2018

Exploring The Clinical Utility Of Mobile Applications For Promoting Affect Regulation Among Clients With Behavioral Health Problems, Caroline Fenkel

Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations

Nearly 25 percent of adults in the United States are diagnosed with a behavioral health condition, most commonly depression, anxiety disorders and substance use disorders. Each of these diagnoses is associated with significant disruptions in affect regulation which encompasses the capacity to up and down regulate emotions. Best practice treatment for these conditions includes psychotropic medications combined with individual or group-based psychotherapeutic modalities which regardless of the therapist’s theoretical orientation attempt to promote affect regulation through skill transfer and strategies for observing one’s ability to regulate emotions. Similarly, attention to regulatory capacity is central to many emerging self-help ...


Using The Rat Grimace Scale To Detect Orofacial Pain In Mechanically-Induced Temporomandibular Joint Pain In Rats, Ya-Hsin Yu, Megan M. Sperry, Beth A. Winkelstein, Eric J. Granquist Jun 2018

Using The Rat Grimace Scale To Detect Orofacial Pain In Mechanically-Induced Temporomandibular Joint Pain In Rats, Ya-Hsin Yu, Megan M. Sperry, Beth A. Winkelstein, Eric J. Granquist

Dental Theses

Introduction: Orofacial pain in animal models of TMJ disorders is typically evaluated by measuring evoked reflexive responses. Since the rat grimace scale (RGS) was adopted recently to assess spontaneous pain in other pathologies, this study evaluated its effectiveness for TMJ pain in the rat. RGS was evaluated using a well-defined pain model of TMJ loading.

Material and Methods: Female Holtzman rats were assigned to separate groups: loading (n=10); sham (n=4); loading with naproxen (n=4) or vehicle (n=3) on days 4 and 5 after pain developed. Jaw loading was imposed for 7 consecutive days under anesthesia by ...


Socioeconomic Status And The Brain: Prospects For Neuroscience-Informed Policy, Martha J. Farah Jun 2018

Socioeconomic Status And The Brain: Prospects For Neuroscience-Informed Policy, Martha J. Farah

Neuroethics Publications

Socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with health (physical and mental) and cognitive ability. Understanding and ameliorating the problems of low SES have long been goals of economics and sociology; in recent years, these have also become goals of neuroscience. However, opinion varies widely on the relevance of neuroscience to SES-related policy. The present article addresses the question of whether and how neuroscience can contribute to the development of social policy concerning poverty and the social and ethical risks inherent in trying. I argue that the neuroscience approach to SES-related policy has been both prematurely celebrated and peremptorily dismissed and that ...


Nod1/Nod2 Upregulation In Fusobacterium Nucleatum Induced Netosis, Hanadi Alyami May 2018

Nod1/Nod2 Upregulation In Fusobacterium Nucleatum Induced Netosis, Hanadi Alyami

Dental Theses

Subgingival plaque contains a variety of pathogenic bacteria that infect the periodontal tissues. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) utilize a number of antimicrobial strategies including phagocytosis and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) to defend this microbial challenge. The signaling pathways and specific molecular mechanisms involved in NET formation are still unresolved. Our preliminary data demonstrate that F. nucleatum as a model organism for in vitro experiments in activating neutrophils and inducing NETosis via the upregulation of neutrophil’s Nucleotide oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) and NOD2 receptors. However, the pathway by which NOD1 and NOD2 affect NETosis has not been addressed. Our goal was ...


Therapeutic Clientship Of Diabetes Clubs: Engagement In Chronic Disease Management Programs In Guatemala’S Western Highlands, Arnav Shah May 2018

Therapeutic Clientship Of Diabetes Clubs: Engagement In Chronic Disease Management Programs In Guatemala’S Western Highlands, Arnav Shah

Anthropology Senior Theses

The increasing global mortality and morbidity of chronic disease signals that a major epidemiological shift is underway in more-economically developed and less-economically developed countries. This epidemiological transition is especially salient in the Western Highlands of Guatemala as the prevalence of type 2 diabetes has risen steeply and poses great challenges for health practitioners and the public health system. This thesis is based from ten weeks of ethnographic fieldwork that I conducted in region surrounding Lake Atitlán. Collected through participant observation and semi-structured interviews, the data this thesis analyses attempts to examine the nature of and motivations for engagement in a ...


Ms. Codex 238: The Foundling: A Tragedy, Martin Earl Smith May 2018

Ms. Codex 238: The Foundling: A Tragedy, Martin Earl Smith

Transcription Collection

The Foundling: A Tragedy. Both a raw and a critical transcription (edited for performance) of a play, composed c 1803-1810 by a Scottish teenager, discussing the issues of bastard children, abortion, honor, and the Scottish nobility.


A Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (Fnirs) Replication Of The Sunscreen Persuasion Paradigm, Shannon M. Burns, Lianne N. Barnes, Perri L. Katzman, Daniel L. Ames, Emily B. Falk, Matthew D. Lieberman May 2018

A Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (Fnirs) Replication Of The Sunscreen Persuasion Paradigm, Shannon M. Burns, Lianne N. Barnes, Perri L. Katzman, Daniel L. Ames, Emily B. Falk, Matthew D. Lieberman

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Activity in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during persuasive messages predicts future message-consistent behavior change, but there are significant limitations to the types of persuasion processes that can be invoked inside an MRI scanner. For instance, real world persuasion often involves multiple people in conversation. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) allows us to move out of the scanner and into more ecologically valid contexts. As a first step, the current study used fNIRS to replicate an existing fMRI persuasion paradigm (i.e. the sunscreen paradigm) to determine if mPFC shows similar predictive value with this technology. Consistent with prior fMRI work ...


A Novel Programming Language To Reduce Energy Consumption By Arrhythmia Monitoring Algorithms In Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators, Houssam Abbas, Konstantinos Mamouras, Alena Rodionova, Alur Rajeev, Jackson Liang, Sanjay Dixit, Rahul Mangharam May 2018

A Novel Programming Language To Reduce Energy Consumption By Arrhythmia Monitoring Algorithms In Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators, Houssam Abbas, Konstantinos Mamouras, Alena Rodionova, Alur Rajeev, Jackson Liang, Sanjay Dixit, Rahul Mangharam

Real-Time and Embedded Systems Lab (mLAB)

No abstract provided.


Time-Evolving Dynamics In Brain Networks Forecast Responses To Health Messaging, Nicole Cooper, Javier O. Garcia, Steven Tompson, Matthew B. O'Donnell, Emily B. Falk, Jean M. Vettel May 2018

Time-Evolving Dynamics In Brain Networks Forecast Responses To Health Messaging, Nicole Cooper, Javier O. Garcia, Steven Tompson, Matthew B. O'Donnell, Emily B. Falk, Jean M. Vettel

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Neuroimaging measures have been used to forecast complex behaviors, including how individuals change decisions about their health in response to persuasive communications, but have rarely incorporated metrics of brain network dynamics. How do functional dynamics within and between brain networks relate to the processes of persuasion and behavior change? To address this question, we scanned forty-five adult smokers using functional magnetic resonance imaging while they viewed antismoking images. Participants reported their smoking behavior and intentions to quit smoking before the scan and one month later. We focused on regions within four atlas-defined networks and examined whether they formed consistent network ...


Knowledge Based Planning For Retrospective Quality Study Of Rtog 0822 Radiotherapy Plans, Evan G. Meekins Apr 2018

Knowledge Based Planning For Retrospective Quality Study Of Rtog 0822 Radiotherapy Plans, Evan G. Meekins

Master of Medical Physics Capstone Projects

Purpose: To create a clinically viable dose-volume histogram (DVH) estimation model using the Varian RapidPlan (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto USA) knowledge based planning (KBP) platform. This model aims to evaluate locally advanced rectal cancer with 6X IMRT, and was developed on a plan database taken from the RTOG 0822 national clinical trial. This is the first multi-institutional 6X IMRT dose estimation model designed using RapidPlan. The effectiveness of the model as a dosimetry quality assurance (QA) tool was evaluated.

Methods: Treatment plans submitted to the RTOG 0822 clinical trial were dosimetrically evaluated for plan quality. Plans whose DVH statistics ...


The Cuba Paradox: An Assessment Of Primary And Maternal Healthcare In Cuba Today, Ivana T. Kohut, Ivana Kohut Apr 2018

The Cuba Paradox: An Assessment Of Primary And Maternal Healthcare In Cuba Today, Ivana T. Kohut, Ivana Kohut

Anthropology Senior Theses

Cuba’s healthcare system is lauded on the Global Health stage as renowned. Low mother/infant mortality rates paired with low infectious disease transmission rates have garnered Cuba’s maternal and primary healthcare systems significant fame. In addition to these healthcare feats, Cuban women experience challenges in finding access to basic forms of over-the-counter care. The Cuba Paradox emerges in which a Cuban woman’s healthcare experience in places such as Mayajigua, Cuba (407 km southeast of Havana) is characterized by access to acute care (expensive treatments such as IVF) and lacks of access to active care (over-the-counter products such ...


The Experience Of Managing Type Ii Diabetes Among Indigenous Maya In The Western Highlands Of Guatemala, Nubia Ortega Apr 2018

The Experience Of Managing Type Ii Diabetes Among Indigenous Maya In The Western Highlands Of Guatemala, Nubia Ortega

Anthropology Senior Theses

As part of the Guatemala Health Initiative program, I spent ten weeks in the Western Highlands of Guatemala in one of the towns surrounding the lake region: Santiago Atitlan. My research question was among indigenous Maya who have been diagnosed with type II diabetes in the Western highlands of Guatemala, what is their experience with diagnosis, treatment, and management of type II diabetes?

With assistance from the Hospitalito Atitlan, the primary referral hospital in the region, I conducted semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 41 people with diabetes. Patients were recruited from diabetes clubs at different health centers and ...


Intergenerational Effects Of Maternal Exposure To Drought In Utero On Newborn Size: Evidence From A Retrospective Cohort Study In Malawi, Thokozani Hanjahanja-Phiri Apr 2018

Intergenerational Effects Of Maternal Exposure To Drought In Utero On Newborn Size: Evidence From A Retrospective Cohort Study In Malawi, Thokozani Hanjahanja-Phiri

Grand Challenges Canada Economic Returns to Mitigating Early Life Risks Project Working Paper Series

Aims: First, the study first assessed the impact of maternal exposure to drought in utero on newborn size. Second, the study assessed the effect of prenatal supplementation in offsetting the negative intergenerational effects of maternal exposure to drought in utero on newborn size. Methods: The present study took advantage of a natural experiment from three droughts (1981/82, 1987/88, and 1992/93) of varying severity in rural Malawi to derive maternal exposure to drought in utero based on maternal date of birth. Other data for outcomes and control variables were sourced from the iLiNS-DYAD-M randomized clinical trial. Results: Among ...


Nia-Aa Research Framework: Toward A Biological Definition Of Alzheimer's Disease, Clifford R. Jack, David A. Bennett, Kaj Blennow, Maria C. Carrillo, Billy Dunn, Samantha Budd Haeberlein, David M. Holtzman, William Jagust, Frank Jessen, Jason Karlawish, Enchi Liu, Jose Luis Molineuvo, Thomas Montine, Creighton Phelps, Katherine P. Rankin, Christopher C. Rowe, Philip Scheltens, Eric Seimers, Heather M. Snyder, Reisa Sperling Apr 2018

Nia-Aa Research Framework: Toward A Biological Definition Of Alzheimer's Disease, Clifford R. Jack, David A. Bennett, Kaj Blennow, Maria C. Carrillo, Billy Dunn, Samantha Budd Haeberlein, David M. Holtzman, William Jagust, Frank Jessen, Jason Karlawish, Enchi Liu, Jose Luis Molineuvo, Thomas Montine, Creighton Phelps, Katherine P. Rankin, Christopher C. Rowe, Philip Scheltens, Eric Seimers, Heather M. Snyder, Reisa Sperling

Neuroethics Publications

In 2011, the National Institute on Aging and Alzheimer's Association created separate diagnostic recommendations for the preclinical, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia stages of Alzheimer's disease. Scientific progress in the interim led to an initiative by the National Institute on Aging and Alzheimer's Association to update and unify the 2011 guidelines. This unifying update is labeled a “research framework” because its intended use is for observational and interventional research, not routine clinical care. In the National Institute on Aging and Alzheimer's Association Research Framework, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is defined by its underlying pathologic processes that ...


Associations Between Coherent Neural Activity, Nicole Cooper, Steven Tompson, Matthew B. O'Donnell, Jean M. Vettel, Danielle S. Bassett, Emily B. Falk Apr 2018

Associations Between Coherent Neural Activity, Nicole Cooper, Steven Tompson, Matthew B. O'Donnell, Jean M. Vettel, Danielle S. Bassett, Emily B. Falk

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Objective: Worldwide, tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death and illness. One common strategy for reducing the prevalence of cigarette smoking and other health risk behaviors is the use of graphic warning labels (GWLs). This has led to widespread interest from the perspective of health psychology in understanding the mechanisms of GWL effectiveness. Here we investigated differences in how the brain responds to negative, graphic warning label-inspired antismoking ads and neutral control ads, and we probed how this response related to future behavior.

Method: A group of smokers (N = 45) viewed GWL-inspired and control antismoking ads while undergoing ...


Best1 Gene Therapy Corrects A Diffuse Retina-Wide Microdetachment Modulated By Light Exposure, Karina E. Guziewicz, Artur V. Cideciyan, William A. Beltran, András M. Komáromy, Valerie L. Dufour, Malgorzata Swider, Simone Iwabe, Alexander Sumaroka, Brian T. Kendrick, Gordon Ruthel, Vince A. Chiodo, Elise Heon, William W. Hauswirth, Samuel G. Jacobson, Gustavo D. Aguirre Mar 2018

Best1 Gene Therapy Corrects A Diffuse Retina-Wide Microdetachment Modulated By Light Exposure, Karina E. Guziewicz, Artur V. Cideciyan, William A. Beltran, András M. Komáromy, Valerie L. Dufour, Malgorzata Swider, Simone Iwabe, Alexander Sumaroka, Brian T. Kendrick, Gordon Ruthel, Vince A. Chiodo, Elise Heon, William W. Hauswirth, Samuel G. Jacobson, Gustavo D. Aguirre

Departmental Papers (Vet)

Mutations in the BEST1 gene cause detachment of the retina and degeneration of photoreceptor (PR) cells due to a primary channelopathy in the neighboring retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. The pathophysiology of the interaction between RPE and PR cells preceding the formation of retinal detachment remains not well-understood. Our studies of molecular pathology in the canine BEST1 disease model revealed retina-wide abnormalities at the RPE-PR interface associated with defects in the RPE microvillar ensheathment and a cone PR-associated insoluble interphotoreceptor matrix. In vivo imaging demonstrated a retina-wide RPE-PR microdetachment, which contracted with dark adaptation and expanded upon exposure to a ...


Social Support Predicts Self-Care Confidence In Patients With Heart Failure, Hayley C. Fivecoat, Steven L. Sayers, Barbara Riegel Mar 2018

Social Support Predicts Self-Care Confidence In Patients With Heart Failure, Hayley C. Fivecoat, Steven L. Sayers, Barbara Riegel

School of Nursing Departmental Papers

Background:

Self-care for patients with heart failure includes engaging in behaviours that maintain medical stability and manage problematic symptoms, as well as the confidence in one’s ability to carry out such behaviours. Given the social context of self-care behaviours in heart failure, there has been increasing interest in social support as a predictor of self-care.

Aim:

The goal of the present study was to examine the role of social support in self-care across time for persons with heart failure.

Methods:

Using data from an observational study of patients with chronic heart failure (n = 280), we examined the role of ...


A Meta-Analysis Of The Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status And Executive Function Performance Among Children, Gwendolyn M. Lawson, Cayce J. Hook, Martha J. Farah Mar 2018

A Meta-Analysis Of The Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status And Executive Function Performance Among Children, Gwendolyn M. Lawson, Cayce J. Hook, Martha J. Farah

Neuroethics Publications

The relation between childhood socioeconomic status (SES) and executive function (EF) has recently attracted attention within psychology, following reports of substantial SES disparities in children’s EF. Adding to the importance of this relation, EF has been proposed as a mediator of socioeconomic disparities in lifelong achievement and health. However, evidence about the relationship between childhood SES and EF is mixed, and there has been no systematic attempt to evaluate this relationship across studies. This meta-analysis systematically reviewed the literature for studies in which samples of children varying in SES were evaluated on EF, including studies with and without primary ...


Rankl Deletion In Periodontal Ligament And Bone Lining Cells Blocks Orthodontic Tooth Movement, Chia-Ying Yang, Hyeran H. Jeon, Ahmed Alshabab, Yu Jin Lee, Chun-Hsi Chung Feb 2018

Rankl Deletion In Periodontal Ligament And Bone Lining Cells Blocks Orthodontic Tooth Movement, Chia-Ying Yang, Hyeran H. Jeon, Ahmed Alshabab, Yu Jin Lee, Chun-Hsi Chung

Departmental Papers (Dental)

The bone remodeling process in response to orthodontic forces requires the activity of osteoclasts to allow teeth to move in the direction of the force applied. Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) is essential for this process although its cellular source in response to orthodontic forces has not been determined. Orthodontic tooth movement is considered to be an aseptic inflammatory process that is stimulated by leukocytes inclduing T and B lymphocytes which are presumed to stimulate bone resorption. We determined whether periodontal ligament and bone lining cells were an essential source of RANKL by tamoxifen induced deletion of RANKL ...


Rhesus Macaques Form Preferences For Brand Logos Through Sex And Social Status Based Advertising, M. Yavus Acikalin, Karli K. Watson, Gavan J. Fitzsimons, Michael L Platt Feb 2018

Rhesus Macaques Form Preferences For Brand Logos Through Sex And Social Status Based Advertising, M. Yavus Acikalin, Karli K. Watson, Gavan J. Fitzsimons, Michael L Platt

Neuroethics Publications

Like humans, monkeys value information about sex and status, inviting the hypothesis that our susceptibility to these factors in advertising arises from shared, ancestral biological mechanisms that prioritize social information. To test this idea, we asked whether rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) show choice behavior that is similar to humans in response to sex and social status in advertising. Our results show that monkeys form preferences for brand logos repeatedly paired with images of macaque genitals and high status monkeys. Moreover, monkeys sustain preferences for these brand logos even though choosing them provided no tangible rewards, a finding that cannot be ...


Advances In Digital Health Research, Graceann Palmarella, Colleen Mcgrath, Sara Solomon, Roxanne Dupuis, Carolyn Cannuscio Feb 2018

Advances In Digital Health Research, Graceann Palmarella, Colleen Mcgrath, Sara Solomon, Roxanne Dupuis, Carolyn Cannuscio

CPHI Data Briefs

Social media and emerging mobile technologies have sparked radical shifts in human behavior, with people worldwide spending an average of 2 hours and 15 minutes daily on social networks. Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter have more than 2 billion users globally. Social networking site use has risen dramatically by all age groups, with the highest use among 18-29 year olds (see Figure below).

Every second, Twitter users send 6,000 tweets, amounting to 500 million tweets per day. Instagram users post approximately 95 million photos, generating 4.2 billion likes, each day. A newer platform, Snapchat, has 178 million daily users ...


Real-Time Decision Policies With Predictable Performance, Houssam Abbas, Rajeev Alur, Konstantinos Mamouras, Rahul Mangharam, Alena Rodionova Jan 2018

Real-Time Decision Policies With Predictable Performance, Houssam Abbas, Rajeev Alur, Konstantinos Mamouras, Rahul Mangharam, Alena Rodionova

Real-Time and Embedded Systems Lab (mLAB)

As methods and tools for Cyber-Physical Systems grow in capabilities and use, one-size-fits-all solutions start to show their limitations. In particular, tools and languages for programming an algorithm or modeling a CPS that are specific to the application domain are typically more usable, and yield better performance, than general-purpose languages and tools. In the domain of cardiac arrhythmia monitoring, a small, implantable medical device continuously monitors the patient's cardiac rhythm and delivers electrical therapy when needed. The algorithms executed by these devices are streaming algorithms, so they are best programmed in a streaming language that allows the programmer to ...