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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Little Brown Bird, Peyton C. Morss-Walton May 2020

Little Brown Bird, Peyton C. Morss-Walton

Streams of Consciousness

A personal essay reflecting on patient care and loss in medical school.

Berlin Prize 2020 First Place Winning Submission


Mijo, Cesar Rodriguez May 2020

Mijo, Cesar Rodriguez

Streams of Consciousness

A reflective writing piece from a memorable experience during the first year of medical school.

Berlin Prize 2020 Second Place Winning Submission


Untitled, Naideline Raymond May 2020

Untitled, Naideline Raymond

Streams of Consciousness

The poem ‘Untitled’ was inspired by the loss I fear. I wrote this poem to convince myself not to be afraid of loss but to welcome it and be okay with it when it comes. I wrote "Untitled" to remember that love transcends all.

A boy loses his father at a young age. Later, loses his mother and through it all he never feels alone.

Berlin Prize 2020 Honorable Mention Winning Submission


Lugar Sagrado: A Sacred Place, Bennett E. Vogt May 2020

Lugar Sagrado: A Sacred Place, Bennett E. Vogt

Streams of Consciousness

The intent of publishing is to share my work of fiction about a young boy facing both his own and his mother’s mortality in the context of a chronic illness. The piece was originally created for a creative writing course, but was never published, and has been edited since into its current form.

Berlin Prize 2020 Third Place Winning Submission


Heroism, Elham Ahmadi May 2020

Heroism, Elham Ahmadi

Streams of Consciousness

Berlin Prize 2020 Honorable Mention Winning Submission


Birthday Wish, Amber Sarkar Md May 2020

Birthday Wish, Amber Sarkar Md

Streams of Consciousness

A family doctor reflects on the deaths of mothers in her practice who have died during the past year, as she approaches the age of their death.


Senior Scholars Day Slide Presentation, May 2020, Judith A. Savageau May 2020

Senior Scholars Day Slide Presentation, May 2020, Judith A. Savageau

Senior Scholars Program

The fundamental goal of the Senior Scholars Program at the University of Massachusetts Medical School is to increase the medical student’s understanding of scientific methods that can be applied directly to problem-solving skills development and critical thinking. Specific goals of the program include:

1) providing a structured research experience;

2) developing students’ hypothesis-generating skills;

3) providing an opportunity for students considering academic careers; and

4) fostering student-mentor relationships.

The 23 students highlighted on the following slides represent those who completed their project in Academic Year (AY) 2019-2020. For 6 of these students, this work also completes their participation in ...


A Video Intervention Targeting Opioid Disposal After General Surgery: A Feasibility Study, Joanne Lewis May 2020

A Video Intervention Targeting Opioid Disposal After General Surgery: A Feasibility Study, Joanne Lewis

Graduate School of Nursing Dissertations

PURPOSE: The purpose of this feasibility study was to explore the use of an online video intervention to prepare surgical patients to properly dispose of unused opioids.

SPECIFIC AIMS:

  1. Describe the feasibility of recruiting, enrolling, randomizing and retaining participants who recently had a general surgery into the study.
  2. Describe the differences in opioid disposal by age, sex, education, and type of surgery for the entire sample and by treatment assignment.
  3. Describe the preliminary change in knowledge, behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs and disposal of opioids from baseline to post-intervention by group.
  4. Describe the relationship between social desirability and behavioral beliefs, normative ...


Composite Quantitative Knee Structure Metrics Predict The Development Of Accelerated Knee Osteoarthritis: Data From The Osteoarthritis Initiative, Matthew S. Harkey, Julie E. Davis, Lori Lyn. Price, Robert J. Ward, James W. Mackay, Charles B. Eaton, Grace H. Lo, Mary F. Barbe, Ming Zhang, Jincheng Pang, Alina C. Stout, Bing Lu, Timothy E. Mcalindon, Jeffrey B. Driban May 2020

Composite Quantitative Knee Structure Metrics Predict The Development Of Accelerated Knee Osteoarthritis: Data From The Osteoarthritis Initiative, Matthew S. Harkey, Julie E. Davis, Lori Lyn. Price, Robert J. Ward, James W. Mackay, Charles B. Eaton, Grace H. Lo, Mary F. Barbe, Ming Zhang, Jincheng Pang, Alina C. Stout, Bing Lu, Timothy E. Mcalindon, Jeffrey B. Driban

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Supported Publications

BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine if composite structural measures of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) progression on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can predict the radiographic onset of accelerated knee osteoarthritis.

METHODS: We used data from a nested case-control study among participants from the Osteoarthritis Initiative without radiographic KOA at baseline. Participants were separated into three groups based on radiographic disease progression over 4 years: 1) accelerated (Kellgren-Lawrence grades [KL] 0/1 to 3/4), 2) typical (increase in KL, excluding accelerated osteoarthritis), or 3) no KOA (no change in KL). We assessed tibiofemoral cartilage damage (four regions: medial/lateral tibia/femur), bone ...


The Snakeskin-Mesh Complex Of Smooth Septate Junction Restricts Yorkie To Regulate Intestinal Homeostasis In Drosophila, Hsi-Ju Chen, Qi Li, Niraj K. Nirala, Y. Tony Ip May 2020

The Snakeskin-Mesh Complex Of Smooth Septate Junction Restricts Yorkie To Regulate Intestinal Homeostasis In Drosophila, Hsi-Ju Chen, Qi Li, Niraj K. Nirala, Y. Tony Ip

Open Access Articles

Tight junctions in mammals and septate junctions in insects are essential for epithelial integrity. We show here that, in the Drosophila intestine, smooth septate junction proteins provide barrier and signaling functions. During an RNAi screen for genes that regulate adult midgut tissue growth, we found that loss of two smooth septate junction components, Snakeskin and Mesh, caused a hyperproliferation phenotype. By examining epitope-tagged endogenous Snakeskin and Mesh, we demonstrate that the two proteins are present in the cytoplasm of differentiating enteroblasts and in cytoplasm and septate junctions of mature enterocytes. In both enteroblasts and enterocytes, loss of Snakeskin and Mesh ...


Frequency Of Complications Following Spinal Fusion In Children With Cerebral Palsy, Nili S. Amir May 2020

Frequency Of Complications Following Spinal Fusion In Children With Cerebral Palsy, Nili S. Amir

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Background:

Neuromuscular Scoliosis is a frequent complication of Cerebral Palsy that requires surgical management including spinal fusion. The objective of this observational study was to describe differences in the frequency of postoperative complications in children with Cerebral Palsy following spinal fusion surgery compared to children with Idiopathic Scoliosis.

Methods:

The 2016 Kids’ Inpatient Database was queried to identify pediatric patients (old) with concurrent diagnoses of Cerebral Palsy and Neuromuscular Scoliosis undergoing spinal fusion surgery. Cases were compared to children without Cerebral Palsy and with a diagnosis of Idiopathic Scoliosis undergoing the same procedure. Fitted Poisson regression analysis with robust variance ...


Situation Awareness In Lpns: A Pilot Study, Meghan C. Picone May 2020

Situation Awareness In Lpns: A Pilot Study, Meghan C. Picone

Graduate School of Nursing Dissertations

Purpose: The purpose of this pilot study was to describe situation awareness (SA) among licensed practical nurses (LPNs) working in direct patient care.

Specific Aims: The specific aims for this study are 1) to examine SA scores, as measured by the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT), in LPNs working in direct patient care and compare to published data on SA in registered nurses (RNs), 2) to examine the relationship between SA scores and years of LPN experience, 3) to examine differences in SA scores by type of workplace setting and 4) to describe the relationship between levels of ...


Association Of Childhood Psychosocial Environment With 30-Year Cardiovascular Disease Incidence And Mortality In Middle Age, Jacob B. Pierce, Kiarri N. Kershaw, Catarina I. Kiefe, David R. Jacobs Jr., Stephen Sidney, Sharon Stein. Merkin, Joe Feinglass May 2020

Association Of Childhood Psychosocial Environment With 30-Year Cardiovascular Disease Incidence And Mortality In Middle Age, Jacob B. Pierce, Kiarri N. Kershaw, Catarina I. Kiefe, David R. Jacobs Jr., Stephen Sidney, Sharon Stein. Merkin, Joe Feinglass

Open Access Articles

Background

Childhood adversity and trauma have been shown to be associated with poorer cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes in adulthood. However, longitudinal studies of this association are rare.

Methods and Results

Our study used the CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) Study, a longitudinal cohort that has followed participants from recruitment in 1985-1986 through 2018, to determine how childhood psychosocial environment relates to CVD incidence and all-cause mortality in middle age. Participants (n=3646) completed the Childhood Family Environment (CFE) questionnaire at the year 15 (2000-2001) CARDIA examination and were grouped by high, moderate, or low relative CFE adversity ...


Single Cell Rna Profiling Reveals Adipocyte To Macrophage Signaling Sufficient To Enhance Thermogenesis, Felipe Henriques, Alexander H. Bedard, Adilson L. Guilherme, Mark Kelly, Lawrence M. Lifshitz, Karl D. Bellve, Leslie Rowland, Batuhan Yenilmez, Shreya Kumar, Yetao Wang, Jeremy Luban, Michael P. Czech May 2020

Single Cell Rna Profiling Reveals Adipocyte To Macrophage Signaling Sufficient To Enhance Thermogenesis, Felipe Henriques, Alexander H. Bedard, Adilson L. Guilherme, Mark Kelly, Lawrence M. Lifshitz, Karl D. Bellve, Leslie Rowland, Batuhan Yenilmez, Shreya Kumar, Yetao Wang, Jeremy Luban, Michael P. Czech

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The “browning” of inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) through increased abundance of thermogenic beige/brite adipocytes is induced by cold exposure and many other perturbations in association with beneficial systemic metabolic effects. Adipose browning is reported to require activation of sympathetic nerve fibers (SNF), aided by alternately activated macrophages within iWAT. Here we demonstrate the first example of a non-cell autonomous pathway for iWAT browning that is fully independent of SNF activity. Thus, the strong induction of thermogenic adipocytes prompted by deletion of adipocyte fatty acid synthase (iAdFASNKO mice) was unaffected by denervation or the deletion of SNF modulator Neuregulin-4 ...


Evaluation Of A Tiered Opioid Prescribing Guideline For Inpatient Colorectal Operations, David C. Meyer Apr 2020

Evaluation Of A Tiered Opioid Prescribing Guideline For Inpatient Colorectal Operations, David C. Meyer

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Background:

In light of the opioid epidemic, reducing excess prescription quantities while tailoring to patient need is key. We previously created an opioid prescribing guideline using retrospective institutional data to satisfy the majority of patients’ opioid needs following inpatient colorectal surgery.

Objective:

This study sought to prospectively validate an institutional prescribing guideline based on previously-defined opioid consumption patterns following inpatient colorectal operations.

Methods:

We carried out a cohort study comparing opioid prescribing and consumption patterns before (7/18 – 1/19) and after (9/19 – 2/20) adoption of a tiered opioid prescribing guideline for inpatient elective colorectal operations (colectomies, proctectomies ...


Association Of Race/Ethnicity And Population Density With Disparities In Timeliness Of Rectal Cancer Therapy, Susanna S. Hill Apr 2020

Association Of Race/Ethnicity And Population Density With Disparities In Timeliness Of Rectal Cancer Therapy, Susanna S. Hill

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Objective:

Access to care is key to effective rectal cancer treatment. We hypothesized that ethnic/racial minorities living in high population density areas would have the greatest delays in cancer care compared to whites living in medium population density areas.

Methods:

Using 2004-2016 National Cancer DataBase data, we identified stage I-III patients with invasive rectal adenocarcinoma who underwent surgery. The data were analyzed by race/ethnicity (whites, blacks, or Hispanics) and population density (metropolitan or urban/rural). Multivariable ANCOVA was performed to evaluate the duration of time from diagnosis to surgery.

Results:

The study population consisted of 76,131 patients ...


Mathematic Modeling Of Covid-19 In The United States, Yuanji Tang, Shixia Wang Apr 2020

Mathematic Modeling Of Covid-19 In The United States, Yuanji Tang, Shixia Wang

Coronavirus COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

Since the early reports of COVID-19 cases in China in late January 2020 (1-2), the worst pandemic in 100 years has spread to the entire globe with approximately 2.4 million diagnosed cases and over 165,000 deaths up to April 20, 2020.

While scientists from various public and private groups use math and computer to simulate the course of this pandemic to try to predict how this outbreak might evolve (3), most of such analyses are either quite complicated or not publicly available.

Here a simple mathematic modeling approach is taken to track the outbreaks of COVID-19 in the ...


Global Fkrp Registry: Observations In More Than 300 Patients With Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy R9, Lindsay B. Murphy, John Herbert Stevenson, Volker Straub Apr 2020

Global Fkrp Registry: Observations In More Than 300 Patients With Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy R9, Lindsay B. Murphy, John Herbert Stevenson, Volker Straub

Open Access Articles

OBJECTIVE: The Global FKRP Registry is a database for individuals with conditions caused by mutations in the Fukutin-Related Protein (FKRP) gene: limb girdle muscular dystrophy R9 (LGMDR9, formerly LGMD2I) and congenital muscular dystrophies MDC1C, Muscle-Eye-Brain Disease and Walker-Warburg Syndrome. The registry seeks to further understand the natural history and prevalence of FKRP-related conditions; aid the rapid identification of eligible patients for clinical studies; and provide a source of information to clinical and academic communities.

METHODS: Registration is patient-initiated through a secure online portal. Data, reported by both patients and their clinicians, include: age of onset, presenting symptoms, family history, motor ...


Developmental Regression And Mitochondrial Function In Children With Autism, Kanwaljit Singh, Indrapal N. Singh, Eileen Diggins, Susan Connors, Mohammad A. Karim, David Lee, Andrew W. Zimmerman, Richard E. Frye Apr 2020

Developmental Regression And Mitochondrial Function In Children With Autism, Kanwaljit Singh, Indrapal N. Singh, Eileen Diggins, Susan Connors, Mohammad A. Karim, David Lee, Andrew W. Zimmerman, Richard E. Frye

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Developmental regression (DR) occurs in about one-third of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) yet it is poorly understood. Current evidence suggests that mitochondrial function in not normal in many children with ASD. However, the relationship between mitochondrial function and DR has not been well-studied in ASD.

METHODS: This cross-sectional study of 32 children, 2 to 8 years old with ASD, with (n = 11) and without (n = 12) DR, and non-ASD controls (n = 9) compared mitochondrial respiration and mtDNA damage and copy number between groups and their relation to standardized measures of ASD severity.

RESULTS: Individuals with ASD demonstrated ...


The Coordinate Actions Of Calcineurin And Hog1 Mediate The Stress Response Through Multiple Nodes Of The Cell Cycle Network, Cassandra M. Leech, Mackenzie J. Flynn, Heather E. Arsenault, Jianhong Ou, Haibo Liu, Lihua Julie Zhu, Jennifer A. Benanti Apr 2020

The Coordinate Actions Of Calcineurin And Hog1 Mediate The Stress Response Through Multiple Nodes Of The Cell Cycle Network, Cassandra M. Leech, Mackenzie J. Flynn, Heather E. Arsenault, Jianhong Ou, Haibo Liu, Lihua Julie Zhu, Jennifer A. Benanti

Open Access Articles

Upon exposure to environmental stressors, cells transiently arrest the cell cycle while they adapt and restore homeostasis. A challenge for all cells is to distinguish between stress signals and coordinate the appropriate adaptive response with cell cycle arrest. Here we investigate the role of the phosphatase calcineurin (CN) in the stress response and demonstrate that CN activates the Hog1/p38 pathway in both yeast and human cells. In yeast, the MAPK Hog1 is transiently activated in response to several well-studied osmostressors. We show that when a stressor simultaneously activates CN and Hog1, CN disrupts Hog1-stimulated negative feedback to prolong Hog1 ...


Comparison Of A Collective Intelligence Tailored Messaging System On Smoking Cessation Between African American And White People Who Smoke: Quasi-Experimental Design, Jamie Faro, Catherine S. Nagawa, Jeroan J. Allison, Stephenie C. Lemon, Kathleen M. Mazor, Thomas K. Houston, Rajani S. Sadasivam Apr 2020

Comparison Of A Collective Intelligence Tailored Messaging System On Smoking Cessation Between African American And White People Who Smoke: Quasi-Experimental Design, Jamie Faro, Catherine S. Nagawa, Jeroan J. Allison, Stephenie C. Lemon, Kathleen M. Mazor, Thomas K. Houston, Rajani S. Sadasivam

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: The Patient Experience Recommender System for Persuasive Communication Tailoring (PERSPeCT) is a machine learning recommender system with a database of messages to motivate smoking cessation. PERSPeCT uses the collective intelligence of users (ie, preferences and feedback) and demographic and smoking profiles to select motivating messages. PERSPeCT may be more beneficial for tailoring content to minority groups influenced by complex, personally relevant factors.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe and evaluate the use of PERSPeCT in African American people who smoke compared with white people who smoke.

METHODS: Using a quasi-experimental design, we compared African American people ...


Sars-Cov-2 Receptor Ace2 Is An Interferon-Stimulated Gene In Human Airway Epithelial Cells And Is Detected In Specific Cell Subsets Across Tissues, Carly G. K. Ziegler, Yuming Cao, Zhiru Guo, Jennifer P. Wang, Robert W. Finberg, Manuel Garber, Alex K. Shalek, Jose Ordovas-Montanes, Hca Lung Biological Network Apr 2020

Sars-Cov-2 Receptor Ace2 Is An Interferon-Stimulated Gene In Human Airway Epithelial Cells And Is Detected In Specific Cell Subsets Across Tissues, Carly G. K. Ziegler, Yuming Cao, Zhiru Guo, Jennifer P. Wang, Robert W. Finberg, Manuel Garber, Alex K. Shalek, Jose Ordovas-Montanes, Hca Lung Biological Network

Coronavirus COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

There is pressing urgency to understand the pathogenesis of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus clade 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes the disease COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein binds angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and in concert with host proteases, principally transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), promotes cellular entry. The cell subsets targeted by SARS-CoV-2 in host tissues and the factors that regulate ACE2 expression remain unknown. Here, we leverage human, non-human primate, and mouse single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) datasets across health and disease to uncover putative targets of SARS-CoV-2 among tissue-resident cell subsets. We identify ACE2 and TMPRSS2 co-expressing cells within lung ...


Transcriptomic Profiling Reveals Extraordinary Diversity Of Venom Peptides In Unexplored Predatory Gastropods Of The Genus Clavus, Aiping Lu, Maren Watkins, Qing Li, Samuel D. Robinson, Gisela P. Concepcion, Mark Yandell, Zhiping Weng, Baldomero M. Olivera, Helena Safavi-Hemami, Alexander E. Fedosov Apr 2020

Transcriptomic Profiling Reveals Extraordinary Diversity Of Venom Peptides In Unexplored Predatory Gastropods Of The Genus Clavus, Aiping Lu, Maren Watkins, Qing Li, Samuel D. Robinson, Gisela P. Concepcion, Mark Yandell, Zhiping Weng, Baldomero M. Olivera, Helena Safavi-Hemami, Alexander E. Fedosov

Open Access Articles

Predatory gastropods of the superfamily Conoidea number over 12,000 living species. The evolutionary success of this lineage can be explained by the ability of conoideans to produce complex venoms for hunting, defense and competitive interactions. Whereas venoms of cone snails (family Conidae) have become increasingly well studied, the venoms of most other conoidean lineages remain largely uncharacterized. In the present study we present the venom gland transcriptomes of two species of the genus Clavus that belong to the family Drilliidae. Venom gland transcriptomes of two specimens of Clavus canalicularis, and two specimens of Cv. davidgilmouri were analyzed, leading to ...


Strategies And Resources For Maintaining Sobriety During Covid-19, Susan Halpin M.Ed., Scott Pelletier M-Ctts, Ladc11, Cma, John Monfredo Ma, Msw, Lcsw, Amy Nichols Carc, Cps, Michael Earielo, Joseph Tobin, Patricia Aussem, Athena Haddon Ladac/Cadac Apr 2020

Strategies And Resources For Maintaining Sobriety During Covid-19, Susan Halpin M.Ed., Scott Pelletier M-Ctts, Ladc11, Cma, John Monfredo Ma, Msw, Lcsw, Amy Nichols Carc, Cps, Michael Earielo, Joseph Tobin, Patricia Aussem, Athena Haddon Ladac/Cadac

National Network of Libraries of Medicine New England Region (NNLM NER) Repository

Did you know that the opposite of addiction is not sobriety, it is connection? Recovery is hard. It has become more challenging as we live with uncertainty, distancing, and other barriers to connection that have recently occurred because of COVID-19. The coronavirus epidemic and the stay-at-home safety measures we have been asked to implement create additional challenges that can have an effect on an individual’s ability to maintain sobriety. We invite you to a webinar presented by the National Network of Libraries of Medicine and several behavioral health and addiction support professionals from central Massachusetts as they share strategies ...


The Covid-19 Pandemic: A Comprehensive Review Of Taxonomy, Genetics, Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment, And Control, Yosra A. Helmy, Mohamed Fawzy, Ahmed Elaswad, Ahmed Sobieh, Scott P. Kenney, Awad A. Shehata Apr 2020

The Covid-19 Pandemic: A Comprehensive Review Of Taxonomy, Genetics, Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment, And Control, Yosra A. Helmy, Mohamed Fawzy, Ahmed Elaswad, Ahmed Sobieh, Scott P. Kenney, Awad A. Shehata

Coronavirus COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

A pneumonia outbreak with unknown etiology was reported in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, in December 2019, associated with the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market. The causative agent of the outbreak was identified by the WHO as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), producing the disease named coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). The virus is closely related (96.3%) to bat coronavirus RaTG13, based on phylogenetic analysis. Human-to-human transmission has been confirmed even from asymptomatic carriers. The virus has spread to at least 200 countries, and more than 1,700,000 confirmed cases and 111,600 deaths have been recorded, with massive global ...


Chemical Modifications Of Adenine Base Editor Mrna And Guide Rna Expand Its Application Scope, Tingting Jiang, Xiao-Ou Zhang, Yueying Cao, Zhiping Weng, Wen Xue Apr 2020

Chemical Modifications Of Adenine Base Editor Mrna And Guide Rna Expand Its Application Scope, Tingting Jiang, Xiao-Ou Zhang, Yueying Cao, Zhiping Weng, Wen Xue

Open Access Articles

CRISPR-Cas9-associated base editing is a promising tool to correct pathogenic single nucleotide mutations in research or therapeutic settings. Efficient base editing requires cellular exposure to levels of base editors that can be difficult to attain in hard-to-transfect cells or in vivo. Here we engineer a chemically modified mRNA-encoded adenine base editor that mediates robust editing at various cellular genomic sites together with moderately modified guide RNA, and show its therapeutic potential in correcting pathogenic single nucleotide mutations in cell and animal models of diseases. The optimized chemical modifications of adenine base editor mRNA and guide RNA expand the applicability of ...


Multimodal Photoplethysmography-Based Approaches For Improved Detection Of Hypertension, Kaylie Welykholowa, Richard Fletcher, Mohamed Elgendi Apr 2020

Multimodal Photoplethysmography-Based Approaches For Improved Detection Of Hypertension, Kaylie Welykholowa, Richard Fletcher, Mohamed Elgendi

Open Access Articles

Elevated blood pressure (BP) is a major cause of death, yet hypertension commonly goes undetected. Owing to its nature, it is typically asymptomatic until later in its progression when the vessel or organ structure has already been compromised. Therefore, noninvasive and continuous BP measurement methods are needed to ensure appropriate diagnosis and early management before hypertension leads to irreversible complications. Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a noninvasive technology with waveform morphologies similar to that of arterial BP waveforms, therefore attracting interest regarding its usability in BP estimation. In recent years, wearable devices incorporating PPG sensors have been proposed to improve the early ...


Broad Host Range Of Sars-Cov-2 Predicted By Comparative And Structural Analysis Of Ace2 In Vertebrates, Joana Damas, Elinor K. Karlsson, Harris A. Lewin Apr 2020

Broad Host Range Of Sars-Cov-2 Predicted By Comparative And Structural Analysis Of Ace2 In Vertebrates, Joana Damas, Elinor K. Karlsson, Harris A. Lewin

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is the cause of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19). The main receptor of SARS-CoV-2, angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), is now undergoing extensive scrutiny to understand the routes of transmission and sensitivity in different species. Here, we utilized a unique dataset of 410 vertebrates, including 252 mammals, to study cross-species conservation of ACE2 and its likelihood to function as a SARS-CoV-2 receptor. We designed a five-category ranking score based on the conservation properties of 25 amino acids important for the binding between receptor and virus, classifying all species from very high to very low. Only mammals fell ...


Single-Cell Analysis Of Upper Airway Cells Reveals Host-Viral Dynamics In Influenza Infected Adults, Yuming Cao, Zhiru Guo, Pranitha Vangala, Elisa Donnard, Ping Liu, Patrick Mcdonel, Jose Ordovas Montanes, Alex K. Shalek, Robert W. Finberg, Jennifer P. Wang, Manuel Garber Apr 2020

Single-Cell Analysis Of Upper Airway Cells Reveals Host-Viral Dynamics In Influenza Infected Adults, Yuming Cao, Zhiru Guo, Pranitha Vangala, Elisa Donnard, Ping Liu, Patrick Mcdonel, Jose Ordovas Montanes, Alex K. Shalek, Robert W. Finberg, Jennifer P. Wang, Manuel Garber

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Influenza virus infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality. Research using cultured cells, bulk tissue, and animal models cannot fully capture human disease dynamics. Many aspects of virus-host interactions in a natural setting remain unclear, including the specific cell types that are infected and how they and neighboring bystander cells contribute to the overall antiviral response. To address these questions, we performed single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-Seq) on cells from freshly collected nasal washes from healthy human donors and donors diagnosed with acute influenza during the 2017-18 season. We describe a previously uncharacterized goblet cell population, specific to infected individuals ...


Translating Research Into Practice: Protocol For A Community-Engaged, Stepped Wedge Randomized Trial To Reduce Disparities In Breast Cancer Treatment Through A Regional Patient Navigation Collaborative, Tracy A. Battaglia, Karen M. Freund, Jennifer S. Haas, Nicole Casanova, Sharon Bak, Howard Cabral, Rachel A. Freedman, Karen Burns. White, Stephenie C. Lemon Apr 2020

Translating Research Into Practice: Protocol For A Community-Engaged, Stepped Wedge Randomized Trial To Reduce Disparities In Breast Cancer Treatment Through A Regional Patient Navigation Collaborative, Tracy A. Battaglia, Karen M. Freund, Jennifer S. Haas, Nicole Casanova, Sharon Bak, Howard Cabral, Rachel A. Freedman, Karen Burns. White, Stephenie C. Lemon

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Racial and socioeconomic disparities in breast cancer mortality persist. In Boston, MA, Black, Non-Hispanic women and Medicaid-insured individuals are 2-3 times more likely to have delays in treatment compared to White or privately insured women. While evidence-based care coordination strategies for reducing delays exist, they are not systematically implemented across healthcare settings.

METHODS: Translating Research Into Practice (TRIP) utilizes community engaged research methods to address breast cancer care delivery disparities. Four Massachusetts Clinical and Translational Science Institute (CTSI) hubs collaborated with the Boston Breast Cancer Equity Coalition (The Coalition) to implement an evidence-based care coordination intervention for Boston residents ...