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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Attitudes And Barriers Towards Conducting Research Amongst Primary Care Physicians In Bahrain: A Cross-Sectional Study., Abeer J. Khalaf, Aysha I. Aljowder, Meead J. Buhamaid, Mona F. Alansari, Ghufran A. Jassim Jan 2019

Attitudes And Barriers Towards Conducting Research Amongst Primary Care Physicians In Bahrain: A Cross-Sectional Study., Abeer J. Khalaf, Aysha I. Aljowder, Meead J. Buhamaid, Mona F. Alansari, Ghufran A. Jassim

Family and Community Medicine MUB Articles

BACKGROUND: Research in primary care is essential for disease diagnosis, management and prevention in relation to the individuals, families and the community. This research aims to study the attitude of primary care physicians towards conducting research in Bahrain and to identify the main barriers encountered during research.

METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst 200 randomly selected primary care physicians registered in Ministry of Health affiliated primary healthcare centers in Bahrain. A self-administered validated questionnaire was adopted and used for data collection. Research data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23.

RESULTS: Primary care physicians ...


Risk Of Depression And Anxiety In Adults With Cerebral Palsy., Kimberley J. Smith, Mark D. Peterson, Neil E. O'Connell, Christina Victor, Silvia Liverani, Nana Anokye, Jennifer M. Ryan Dec 2018

Risk Of Depression And Anxiety In Adults With Cerebral Palsy., Kimberley J. Smith, Mark D. Peterson, Neil E. O'Connell, Christina Victor, Silvia Liverani, Nana Anokye, Jennifer M. Ryan

Epidemiology and Public Health Medicine Articles

Importance: Cerebral palsy (CP) is considered a pediatric condition despite most individuals with CP living into adulthood. Thus, there is a lack of evidence in adults with CP, which includes a paucity of research examining mental health in this population.

Objectives: To determine the risk of depression and anxiety in adults with CP compared with an age-, sex-, and practice-matched reference group of adults without CP, using primary care data.

Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective longitudinal cohort study set in UK primary care. Data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression analyses adjusted for chronic conditions and visits to their ...


Analytical Validation Of A Prognostic Prostate Cancer Gene Expression Assay Using Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded Tissue., Paul W. Medlow, Christopher J. Steele, Andrena M. Mccavigan, Wesley Reardon, Christopher M. Brown, Shauna M. Lambe, Felipe Aa Ishiy, Steven M. Walker, Gemma E. Logan, Olaide Y. Raji, Viktor Berge, Betina Katz, Elaine W. Kay, Katherine M. Sheehan, Ronald W. Watson, Denis P. Harkin, Richard D. Kennedy, Laura A. Knight Dec 2018

Analytical Validation Of A Prognostic Prostate Cancer Gene Expression Assay Using Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded Tissue., Paul W. Medlow, Christopher J. Steele, Andrena M. Mccavigan, Wesley Reardon, Christopher M. Brown, Shauna M. Lambe, Felipe Aa Ishiy, Steven M. Walker, Gemma E. Logan, Olaide Y. Raji, Viktor Berge, Betina Katz, Elaine W. Kay, Katherine M. Sheehan, Ronald W. Watson, Denis P. Harkin, Richard D. Kennedy, Laura A. Knight

Pathology Articles

BACKGROUND: There is a clear need for assays that can predict the risk of metastatic prostate cancer following curative procedures. Importantly these assays must be analytically robust in order to provide quality data for important clinical decisions. DNA microarray based gene expression assays measure several analytes simultaneously and can present specific challenges to analytical validation. This study describes the analytical validation of one such assay designed to predict metastatic recurrence in prostate cancer using primary formalin fixed paraffin embedded tumour material.

METHODS: Accuracy was evaluated with a method comparison study between the assay development platform (Prostate Disease Specific Array) and ...


Knowledge Of Health Professional Students On Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking: Curricula Implications., Randah R. Hamadeh, Jamil Ahmed, Ghufran A. Jassim, Sayed M. Alqallaf, Khaldoon Al-Roomi Dec 2018

Knowledge Of Health Professional Students On Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking: Curricula Implications., Randah R. Hamadeh, Jamil Ahmed, Ghufran A. Jassim, Sayed M. Alqallaf, Khaldoon Al-Roomi

Family and Community Medicine MUB Articles

BACKGROUND: Tobacco prevention research traditionally focuses upon cigarette smoking, but there is also a need to implement and evaluate the usefulness of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) interventions since it is considered less harmful than cigarettes. This study aimed to assess the impact of an educational intervention on WTS knowledge of health professional students in three academic health institutions in Bahrain.

METHODS: A quasi-experimental design was used to include medical students from the Arabian Gulf University, medical and nursing students from the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland-Bahrain and nursing students from the University of Bahrain. Two hundred fifty students participated ...


A Cross-Sectional Study Of Antibiotic Prescribing For Childhood Upper Respiratory Tract Infections In Irish General Practice, Fiachra Maguire, Mark E. Murphy, M Rourke, F Morgan, G Brady, E Byrne, Michael E. O’Callaghan Dec 2018

A Cross-Sectional Study Of Antibiotic Prescribing For Childhood Upper Respiratory Tract Infections In Irish General Practice, Fiachra Maguire, Mark E. Murphy, M Rourke, F Morgan, G Brady, E Byrne, Michael E. O’Callaghan

General Practice Articles

Introduction This study aimed to analyse antibiotic prescribing in cases of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in children under 6 years attending Irish daytime and out-of-hours General Practice (GP) services. There have been large scale changes in entitlements for free GP care for this group in recent years. Methods A cross-sectional study of children under 6 years with URTI presentations was performed, over a two-week period for three years from 2015 to 2017. Factors associated with antibiotic prescription and preferred antibiotic compliance were examined using multivariate logistic regression. Results 1,007 Under-6 patients presented with an URTI in our sample ...


A Meta-Analytic Perspective On The Valid Use Of Subjective Human Judgement To Make Medical School Admission Decisions., Clare Kreiter, Marie O'Shea, Catherine Bruen, Paul J. Murphy, Teresa Pawlikowska Dec 2018

A Meta-Analytic Perspective On The Valid Use Of Subjective Human Judgement To Make Medical School Admission Decisions., Clare Kreiter, Marie O'Shea, Catherine Bruen, Paul J. Murphy, Teresa Pawlikowska

Medical Education/Health Professions Education Articles

While medical educators appear to believe that admission to the medical school should be governed, at least in part, by human judgement, there has been no systematic presentation of evidence suggesting it improves selection. From a fair testing perspective, legal, ethical, and psychometric considerations, all dictate that the scientific evidence regarding human judgement in selection should be given consideration. To investigate the validity of using human judgements in admissions, multi-disciplinary meta-analytic research evidence from the wider literature is combined with studies from within medical education to provide evidence regarding the fairness and validity of using interviews and holistic review in ...


The Use Of Milrinone In Neonates With Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension Of The Newborn - A Randomised Controlled Trial Pilot Study (Mint 1): Study Protocol And Review Of Literature., Afif F. El-Khuffash, Patrick J. Mcnamara, Colm Breatnach, Neidin Bussmann, Aisling Smith, Oliver Feeney, Elizabeth Tully, Joanna Griffin, Willem P. De Boode, Brian Cleary, Orla Franklin, Eugene Dempsey Dec 2018

The Use Of Milrinone In Neonates With Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension Of The Newborn - A Randomised Controlled Trial Pilot Study (Mint 1): Study Protocol And Review Of Literature., Afif F. El-Khuffash, Patrick J. Mcnamara, Colm Breatnach, Neidin Bussmann, Aisling Smith, Oliver Feeney, Elizabeth Tully, Joanna Griffin, Willem P. De Boode, Brian Cleary, Orla Franklin, Eugene Dempsey

Department of Paediatrics Articles

Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is a relatively common condition which results in a mortality of up to 33%. Up to 40% of infants treated with nitric oxide (iNO) either have a transient response or fail to demonstrate an improvement in oxygenation. Milrinone, a selective phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3) inhibitor with inotropic and lusitropic properties may have potential benefit in PPHN. This pilot study was developed to assess the impact of milrinone administration on time spent on iNO in infants with PPHN. This is a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, two arm pilot study, with a balanced (1:1) allocation of ...


Cleavage Of The Extracellular Domain Of Junctional Adhesion Molecule-A Is Associated With Resistance To Anti-Her2 Therapies In Breast Cancer Settings., Astrid O. Leech, Sri Harikrishna Vellanki, Emily J. Rutherford, Aoife Keogh, Hanne Jahns, Lance Hudson, Norma O'Donovan, Siham Sabri, Bassam Abdulkarim, Katherine M. Sheehan, Elaine W. Kay, Leonie S. Young, Arnold Dk Hill, Yvonne E. Smith, Ann M. Hopkins Nov 2018

Cleavage Of The Extracellular Domain Of Junctional Adhesion Molecule-A Is Associated With Resistance To Anti-Her2 Therapies In Breast Cancer Settings., Astrid O. Leech, Sri Harikrishna Vellanki, Emily J. Rutherford, Aoife Keogh, Hanne Jahns, Lance Hudson, Norma O'Donovan, Siham Sabri, Bassam Abdulkarim, Katherine M. Sheehan, Elaine W. Kay, Leonie S. Young, Arnold Dk Hill, Yvonne E. Smith, Ann M. Hopkins

Surgery Articles

BACKGROUND: Junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) is an adhesion molecule whose overexpression on breast tumor tissue has been associated with aggressive cancer phenotypes, including human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-positive disease. Since JAM-A has been described to regulate HER2 expression in breast cancer cells, we hypothesized that JAM-dependent stabilization of HER2 could participate in resistance to HER2-targeted therapies.

METHODS: Using breast cancer cell line models resistant to anti-HER2 drugs, we investigated JAM-A expression and the effect of JAM-A silencing on biochemical/functional parameters. We also tested whether altered JAM-A expression/processing underpinned differences between drug-sensitive and -resistant cells and acted ...


Prevalence Of Potentially Inappropriate Prescribing In Older People In Primary Care And Its Association With Hospital Admission: Longitudinal Study, Teresa Perez, Frank Moriarty, Emma Wallace, Ronald Mcdowell, Patrick Redmond Nov 2018

Prevalence Of Potentially Inappropriate Prescribing In Older People In Primary Care And Its Association With Hospital Admission: Longitudinal Study, Teresa Perez, Frank Moriarty, Emma Wallace, Ronald Mcdowell, Patrick Redmond

General Practice Articles

Objective To determine whether hospital admission is associated with potentially inappropriate prescribing among older primary care patients (aged ≥65 years) and whether such prescribing was more likely after hospital admission than before.

Design Longitudinal study of retrospectively extracted data from general practice records.

Setting 44 general practices in Ireland in 2012-15.

Participants Adults aged 65 years or over attending participating practices.

Exposure Admission to hospital (any hospital admission versus none, and post-admission versus pre-admission).

Main outcome measures Prevalence of potentially inappropriate prescribing assessed using 45 criteria from the Screening Tool for Older Persons’ Prescription (STOPP) version 2, analysed both as ...


Supporting General Practitioner-Based Care For Poorly Controlled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (The Decide Study): Feasibility Study And Protocol For A Pilot Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial., Mark E. Murphy, Molly Byrne, Fiona Boland, Derek Corrigan, Paddy Gillespie, Tom Fahey, Susan M. Smith Oct 2018

Supporting General Practitioner-Based Care For Poorly Controlled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (The Decide Study): Feasibility Study And Protocol For A Pilot Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial., Mark E. Murphy, Molly Byrne, Fiona Boland, Derek Corrigan, Paddy Gillespie, Tom Fahey, Susan M. Smith

General Practice Articles

Background: Poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with significant morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. Control of T2DM can be challenging for healthcare professionals for a number of reasons, including poor concordance with medications, difficulties modifying lifestyle behaviour and also clinical inertia, which is defined as a reluctance among health professionals to intensify medications. A complex intervention, called ComputeriseD dECisIonal support for poorly controlleD typE 2 Diabetes mellitus in Irish General Practice (DECIDE), was developed, identifying T2DM patients with poor glycaemic and blood pressure control and aiming to target clinical inertia, by supporting therapeutic action, including GP-led medication ...


What Is The Most Efficacious Pharmacological Therapy For Patent Ductus Arteriosus Closure In Premature Infants?, N Bussman, Afif F. El-Khuffash Oct 2018

What Is The Most Efficacious Pharmacological Therapy For Patent Ductus Arteriosus Closure In Premature Infants?, N Bussman, Afif F. El-Khuffash

Department of Paediatrics Articles

We read with great interest the systematic review and meta-analysis by Mitra et-al published recently in JAMA. (1) This metanalysis attempts to identify the pharmacological intervention which results in the best closure rates of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in infants less than 37 weeks gestation. The group carried out a detailed review of 67 randomised controlled trials (RCTs), published between 1980 and 2017, including 4802 patients examining fourteen variations of indomethacin, ibuprofen, or acetaminophen (paracetamol) as treatment modalities for a PDA. The following primary outcomes were assessed: PDA closure within one week of administration of the first dose, need ...


Prevalence Of Smoking And Provision Of Smoking Cessation Advice During Hospitalization., Noor Najeeb, Muruj Halawani, Noel G. Mcelvaney, Frank Doyle Oct 2018

Prevalence Of Smoking And Provision Of Smoking Cessation Advice During Hospitalization., Noor Najeeb, Muruj Halawani, Noel G. Mcelvaney, Frank Doyle

Medicine Articles

Aim We aimed to determine the prevalence of smoking and smoking cessation advice received by inpatients in Beaumont Hospital and compared results to previous similar studies.

Method Cross-sectional survey where we interviewed eligible in-patients over a two-week period.

Results 14.8% (30/203) of participants were current smokers, which is lower than the smoking prevalence found by previous studies. The rate of cessation advice delivery was 53.3% (16/30). An increasing socioeconomic gap between smokers and non-smokers over time was found.

Discussion There remains limited provision of smoking cessation advice to inpatients.


Does Patient Self-Management Education Of Primary Care Professionals Improve Patient Outcomes: A Systematic Review., Andree Rochfort, Sinead Beirne, Gillian Doran, Patricia Patton, Jochen Gensichen, Ilkka Kunnamo, Susan M. Smith, Tina Eriksson, Claire Collins Sep 2018

Does Patient Self-Management Education Of Primary Care Professionals Improve Patient Outcomes: A Systematic Review., Andree Rochfort, Sinead Beirne, Gillian Doran, Patricia Patton, Jochen Gensichen, Ilkka Kunnamo, Susan M. Smith, Tina Eriksson, Claire Collins

General Practice Articles

BACKGROUND: Patient self-management support is recognised as a key component of chronic care. Education and training for health professionals has been shown in the literature to be associated with better uptake, implementation and effectiveness of self-management programs, however, there is no clear evidence regarding whether this training results in improved health outcomes for patients with chronic conditions.

METHODS: A systematic review was undertaken using the PRISMA guidelines using the Cochrane Library, PubMEd, ERIC, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web searches, Hand searches and Bibliographies. Articles published from inception to September 1st, 2013 were included. Systematic reviews, Meta-analysis, Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), Controlled ...


National Survey Of The Aetiological Assessment Service Of Permanent Childhood Hearing Loss In Ireland., Joanne Balfe, Nick Van Der Spek, David Waldron Sep 2018

National Survey Of The Aetiological Assessment Service Of Permanent Childhood Hearing Loss In Ireland., Joanne Balfe, Nick Van Der Spek, David Waldron

Department of Paediatrics Articles

Aim The Universal Neonatal Hearing Screening Programme (UNHS) was implemented nationally in 2014. All infants identified with permanent childhood hearing loss (PCHL) should have a paediatric assessment performed. This survey aimed to assess available paediatric services and to inform service development. Methods All paediatricians involved in assessment of infants with PCHL were identified. A questionnaire was developed using the BAAP standards. Results were collated on excel. Results Thirty-three paediatricians assess children with PCHL, only 18% (6/33) had received specific training. Waiting time for assessment was beyond the recommended timeframe in the majority of cases (mean 14.4 weeks, range ...


Tentacles For Tinies: The Many Arms Of The Crocheted Octopus., Aisling Smith, S Tamgumus, S Lawless, P Penrose, Afif F. El-Khuffash, Michael A. Boyle Sep 2018

Tentacles For Tinies: The Many Arms Of The Crocheted Octopus., Aisling Smith, S Tamgumus, S Lawless, P Penrose, Afif F. El-Khuffash, Michael A. Boyle

Department of Paediatrics Articles

The use of crocheted octopus in neonatal units first began with the ‘Octo Project’ in Denmark in 2013 and has since spread internationally1. The tentacles of the crocheted octopus are designed to resemble the umbilical cord. Anecdotal reports suggest when premature babies hold the tentacles of the octopus they were calmer, less likely interfere with monitoring equipment and appear more comfortable overall, possibly as they were reminded of their time in the womb. However, to date,there is no published evidence on the potential benefits of octopus.


Molecular Characterization Of Nasal Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Isolates Showing Increasing Prevalence Of Mupirocin Resistance And Associated Multidrug Resistance Following Attempted Decolonization., Toney T. Poovelikunnel, Paulo E. Budri, Anna C. Shore, David C. Coleman, Hilary Humphreys, Deirdre Fitzgerald-Hughes Aug 2018

Molecular Characterization Of Nasal Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Isolates Showing Increasing Prevalence Of Mupirocin Resistance And Associated Multidrug Resistance Following Attempted Decolonization., Toney T. Poovelikunnel, Paulo E. Budri, Anna C. Shore, David C. Coleman, Hilary Humphreys, Deirdre Fitzgerald-Hughes

Clinical Microbiology Articles

Sequential methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from patients following attempted mupirocin nasal decolonization showed an increase in mupirocin resistance (MR) from 6.6% to 20%. MR isolates from patients who failed decolonization yielded indistinguishable spa types and carried multiple antimicrobial and antiseptic resistance genes, which may guide infection control and prevention.


Effects Of N-Acetylcysteine On Brain Glutamate Levels And Resting Perfusion In Schizophrenia., Grant Mcqueen, John Lally, Tracy Collier, Fernando Zelaya, David J. Lythgoe, Gareth J. Barker, James M. Stone, Philip Mcguire, James H. Maccabe, Alice Egerton Aug 2018

Effects Of N-Acetylcysteine On Brain Glutamate Levels And Resting Perfusion In Schizophrenia., Grant Mcqueen, John Lally, Tracy Collier, Fernando Zelaya, David J. Lythgoe, Gareth J. Barker, James M. Stone, Philip Mcguire, James H. Maccabe, Alice Egerton

Psychiatry Articles

RATIONALE: N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is currently under investigation as an adjunctive treatment for schizophrenia. The therapeutic potential of NAC may involve modulation of brain glutamate function, but its effects on brain glutamate levels in schizophrenia have not been evaluated.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine whether a single dose of NAC can alter brain glutamate levels. A secondary aim was to characterise its effects on regional brain perfusion.

METHODS: In a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study, 19 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia underwent two MRI scans, following oral administration of 2400 mg NAC or matching placebo. Proton magnetic ...


Traumatic Journeys; Understanding The Rhetoric Of Patients' Complaints., May Mccreaddie, Bethan Benwell, Alice Gritti Jul 2018

Traumatic Journeys; Understanding The Rhetoric Of Patients' Complaints., May Mccreaddie, Bethan Benwell, Alice Gritti

School of Nursing and Midwifery MUB Articles

BACKGROUND: Research on patients' complaints about healthcare has tended to focus on the typology of complaints and complainants to homogenise complaints and better understand safety implications. Nonetheless, complaints speak to a broader spectrum of harm and suffering that go beyond formal adverse events. Complaints about care episodes can take considerable time and effort, generate negative energy and may leave a dogged 'minority' embittered.

METHODS: This study provides an overview of the process and rhetoric of how patients formulate written complaints. We collated a data corpus comprising 60 letters of complaints and their responses over a period of one month. This ...


Patient Willingness To Be Seen By A Physician Associate In Ireland, Pauline Joyce, Richard Arnett, Arnold Dk Hill, Roderick S. Hooker Jul 2018

Patient Willingness To Be Seen By A Physician Associate In Ireland, Pauline Joyce, Richard Arnett, Arnold Dk Hill, Roderick S. Hooker

School of Medicine Articles

Background: The physician associate (PA) role was piloted in Dublin, Ireland between 2015 and 2017. However, the concept of a PA and the acceptance of their role in Ireland had not been previously explored.

Objective: To investigate the willingness of Irish citizens to be seen by a PA based on medical scenarios in a typical clinical setting.

Design: A mixed methods study was undertaken. A preference survey, with three medical scenarios, gave participants a choice to be treated by a PA or a doctor, with two time trade-off options offered. Responses were supported with qualitative text. Four hundred people were ...


Supporting Prescribing In Irish Primary Care: Protocol For A Non-Randomised Pilot Study Of A General Practice Pharmacist (Gpp) Intervention To Optimise Prescribing In Primary Care., Karen Caldwell, Barbara Clyne, Frank Moriarty, Eleanor Wallace, Tom Fahey, Fiona Boland, L Mccullagh, S Clarke, K Finnigan, M Daly, M Barry, S M. Smith, General Practice Pharmacist (Gpp) Study Group Jul 2018

Supporting Prescribing In Irish Primary Care: Protocol For A Non-Randomised Pilot Study Of A General Practice Pharmacist (Gpp) Intervention To Optimise Prescribing In Primary Care., Karen Caldwell, Barbara Clyne, Frank Moriarty, Eleanor Wallace, Tom Fahey, Fiona Boland, L Mccullagh, S Clarke, K Finnigan, M Daly, M Barry, S M. Smith, General Practice Pharmacist (Gpp) Study Group

General Practice Articles

Background: Prescribing for patients taking multiple medicines (i.e. polypharmacy) is challenging for general practitioners (GPs). Limited evidence suggests that the integration of pharmacists into the general practice team could improve the management of these patients. The aim of this study is to develop and test an intervention involving pharmacists, working within GP practices, to optimise prescribing in Ireland, which has a mixed public and private primary healthcare system.

Methods: This non-randomised pilot study will use a mixed-methods approach. Four general practices will be purposively sampled and recruited. A pharmacist will join the practice team for 6 months. They will ...


International Students Experience Of A Western Medical School. A Mixed Methods Study, Exploring The Impact Of The Clinical Years Of The Programme In The Context Of Adjustment To The Irish Health Care System., Deepak Karivelil Jul 2018

International Students Experience Of A Western Medical School. A Mixed Methods Study, Exploring The Impact Of The Clinical Years Of The Programme In The Context Of Adjustment To The Irish Health Care System., Deepak Karivelil

MSc by research theses

Due to improvements in technology, transportation, and ease of access, we live in an era of unprecedented globalization and ever-increasing diversity in tertiary institutions. Internationality and multiculturalism confer numerous benefits for students, institutions, and nations. Nevertheless, it is reported that international students face challenges when adjusting to a new culture. These acculturative challenges could drastically add to the numerous challenges that students in medical school already face. This study aims to address two questions:

  1. How do cultural backgrounds impact the challenges and coping mechanisms faced by sojourning medical students in their clinical years and how do these differ from that ...


An Assessment Of The Nutritional Status Of Men And Women With, Or At Risk Of, A Diabetic Foot Ulcer (Dfu)., Aoife Ward Jul 2018

An Assessment Of The Nutritional Status Of Men And Women With, Or At Risk Of, A Diabetic Foot Ulcer (Dfu)., Aoife Ward

MSc by research theses

An Assessment of the Nutritional Status of Men and Women with, or at risk of, a Diabetic Foot Ulcer (DFU).

Aim: The study aimed to establish the nutritional status of adults with, or at risk of, a DFU, of any grade, and to determine if there were differences in nutritional status between men and women.

Method: A quantitative, non-experimental observational study design was employed. Participants were recruited from a vascular foot protection clinic through convenience sampling; ethical approval was sought and obtained. The following assessments were completed; Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST ...


Impact Of A Pharmacy-Led Screening Service For Group A Beta-Haemolytic Streptococci, On General Practitioner Visits And Antibiotic Consumption: A Non-Randomized Controlled Study, Claire O'Neill Jul 2018

Impact Of A Pharmacy-Led Screening Service For Group A Beta-Haemolytic Streptococci, On General Practitioner Visits And Antibiotic Consumption: A Non-Randomized Controlled Study, Claire O'Neill

MSc by research theses

Background

Up to 75% of cases of pharyngitis are inappropriately prescribed antibiotics. In those with a bacterial infection, one strain could be treated with antibiotics, Group A β-Haemolytic Streptococci (GABHS), to minimise complications. The Centor Criteria, a clinical prediction rule, is recommended by UK and Irish General Practitioner guidelines for use in primary care. The Infectious Diseases Society of America recommends the use of RADT in combination with the Centor Criteria, to improve antibiotic prescribing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a community pharmacy intervention, involving the Centor Criteria and Rapid Antigen Detection Testing (RADT ...


A Study To Design An Objective Scoring System For Basic Surgical Skills (Bss), Shazrinizam Shaharan Jul 2018

A Study To Design An Objective Scoring System For Basic Surgical Skills (Bss), Shazrinizam Shaharan

MD theses

Background

Simulation technology is rapidly evolving and becoming the focus of attention in surgical training. However, the development of this technology in assessing open surgical skills is far behind when compared to minimally invasive surgery (MIS) training and assessment.

Aim

The overall objective of this thesis is to investigate the assessment tools that are readily available for assessing basic open surgical skills and develop an automated system that could be used in the simulation setting.

Materials & Methods

We evaluated the observer-dependant assessment tool in assessing basic surgical skills including one-handed knot tying and simple interrupted suturing skills. We established a ...


Platelet Function In Normal Pregnancy, Naomi Burke Jul 2018

Platelet Function In Normal Pregnancy, Naomi Burke

MD theses

The concept for this thesis arose after a collaboration between the Platelet Biology Laboratory and the Department of Obstetrics and Gyanecology in the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. They discovered a significant difference in platelet aggregation in women with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss using a novel platelet assay. This posed the question as to whether or not this platelet assay would eludicate different platelet reactivity at different time points in a normal, heathy pregnancy. The objective was to critically evaluate platelet reactivity in normal pregnancy using this assay which assessed platelet aggregation to several agonists at multiple ...


Placental Pathology In Twin Pregnancies, Etaoin Kent Jul 2018

Placental Pathology In Twin Pregnancies, Etaoin Kent

MD theses

Twin pregnancies remain a challenge in perinatal medicine, with significantly higher rates of complications and increased perinatal morbidity and mortality when compared to singletons. Abnormal growth in twins is a significant independent contributory factor to this increased morbidity, and knowledge of the underlying pathological processes governing growth disorders in twins is vital to improving our antenatal surveillance and clinical management of these pregnancies.

We performed a comprehensive study of the placental factors governing growth and development of twin pregnancies in a large, prospectively collected cohort of twins. Placental pathology was evaluated in terms of gross placental abnormalities and histopathological variants ...


Geographical Variation In Incidence Of First Episode Psychosis By Place At Birth Vs Place At Onset And Relationship To The Social Environment In The Cavan-Monaghan First Episode Psychosis Study (Camfeps), Sami Omer Jul 2018

Geographical Variation In Incidence Of First Episode Psychosis By Place At Birth Vs Place At Onset And Relationship To The Social Environment In The Cavan-Monaghan First Episode Psychosis Study (Camfeps), Sami Omer

MD theses

Little is known about associations between the social environment and risk for psychosis within rural settings. This study sought to investigate whether such associations exist within an essentially rural context using a prospective dataset of unusual epidemiological completeness. Using the Cavan-Monaghan First Episode Psychosis Study database of people aged 16 years and older, both ecological analyses and multilevel modelling were applied to investigate associations between incidence of psychosis by both place at onset and place at birth and socio-environmental risk factors of material deprivation, social fragmentation and urban-rural classification across electoral divisions. For place at onset, the primary finding was ...


Emergency Department Overcrowding And The Full Capacity Protocol Cross Over Study: What Patients Who Have Experienced Both Think About Being An Extra Patient In The Emergency Department Or On A Ward., Hugh Mcgowan, Krystal Gopeesingh, Patrick O'Kelly, Peadar Gilligan Jul 2018

Emergency Department Overcrowding And The Full Capacity Protocol Cross Over Study: What Patients Who Have Experienced Both Think About Being An Extra Patient In The Emergency Department Or On A Ward., Hugh Mcgowan, Krystal Gopeesingh, Patrick O'Kelly, Peadar Gilligan

Emergency Medicine Articles

Hospital overcrowding is evidenced by Emergency Department (ED) overcrowding. The Full Capacity Protocol (FCP) is activated to move patients to temporary extra beds placed in the inpatient wards. This research aims to establish patient preferences when waiting for a ward bed in an Irish Hospital. The FCP in Beaumont Hospital was updated in the context of national guidelines. Patients’ attitudes towards boarding in the ED as opposed to being in extra beds on the wards were assessed using a questionnaire based structured interview. Ninety nine patients took part in the study. Eighty three patients (83.83%) preferred being an additional ...


Development Of Novel Hydrogels For Application In Therapeutic Delivery, Robert D. Murphy Jul 2018

Development Of Novel Hydrogels For Application In Therapeutic Delivery, Robert D. Murphy

PhD theses

This chapter will detail the beginnings and current state of NCA derived synthetic polypeptides, the role of multifunctional initiators in the development of complex star shaped polypeptide architectures and their associated properties, the synthetic approaches undertaken for the design of hydrogelating materials from the NCA ring opening polymerisation; detailing the dependence on amino acid composition and architecture; followed by a brief introduction to 3D printing and its potential relevance in the fabrication of polypeptide hydrogels.


Adam22 As A Predictive Marker For Endocrine Resistant Metastatic Breast Cancer And An Lgi1 Mimetic As A Companion Therapeutic, Ben Doherty Jul 2018

Adam22 As A Predictive Marker For Endocrine Resistant Metastatic Breast Cancer And An Lgi1 Mimetic As A Companion Therapeutic, Ben Doherty

PhD theses

Approximately 70 % of breast cancer patients are classified as oestrogen receptor positive. While initial prognosis is favourable, the risk of recurrence remains long after diagnosis. Furthermore, the ability to treat recurrent tumours becomes harder over time as resistance to endocrine therapy develops. This resistant phenotype is caused in part by overexpression of the nuclear receptor co-activator SRC-1. Moreover, SRC-1 has been shown to promote metastatic development in several breast cancer models.

Previously, our lab identified the neuronal protein ADAM22 as an SRC-1 target gene involved in endocrine resistant breast cancer metastases. Here, this metastatic role was further characterised through knockdown ...