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Articles 31 - 60 of 1904

Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Stage 2 Registered Report: There Is No Appreciable Relationship Between Strength Of Hand Preference And Language Ability In 6-To 7-Year-Old Children, Verena E. Pritchard, Stephanie A. Malone, Kelly Burgoyne, Michelle Heron-Delaney, Dorothy V. M. Bishop, Charles Hulme Jan 2019

Stage 2 Registered Report: There Is No Appreciable Relationship Between Strength Of Hand Preference And Language Ability In 6-To 7-Year-Old Children, Verena E. Pritchard, Stephanie A. Malone, Kelly Burgoyne, Michelle Heron-Delaney, Dorothy V. M. Bishop, Charles Hulme

Faculty of Education and Arts Publications

Background: Weak or inconsistent hand preference has been postulated to be a risk factor for developmental language delay. Following on from our Registered Stage 1 report this study assessed the extent to which variations in language skills are associated with the strength of hand preference. Methods: Data are drawn from a large sample (N = 569) of 6- to 7-year-old children unselected for ability, assessed at two time points, 6 months apart. Hand preference was assessed using the Quantitative Hand Preference (QHP) task and five uni-manual motor tasks. Language skills (expressive and receptive vocabulary, receptive grammar, and morphological awareness) were assessed ...


Dyslexia And Developmental Language Disorder: Comorbid Disorders With Distinct Effects On Reading Comprehension, Margaret J. Snowling, Marianna E. Hayiou-Thomas, Hannah M. Nash, Charles Hulme Jan 2019

Dyslexia And Developmental Language Disorder: Comorbid Disorders With Distinct Effects On Reading Comprehension, Margaret J. Snowling, Marianna E. Hayiou-Thomas, Hannah M. Nash, Charles Hulme

Faculty of Education and Arts Publications

Background: Reading comprehension draws on both decoding and linguistic comprehension, and poor reading comprehension can be the consequence of a deficit in either of these skills. Methods: Using outcome data from the longitudinal Wellcome Language and Reading Project, we identified three groups of children at age 8 years: children with dyslexia (N = 21) who had deficits in decoding but not oral language, children with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD; N = 38) whose decoding skills were in the normal range, and children who met criteria for both dyslexia and DLD (N = 29). Results: All three groups had reading comprehension difficulties at the ...


The Muscle Protein Synthetic Response To Whey Protein Ingestion Is Greater In Middle-Aged Women When Compared With Men [Accepted Manuscript], Astrid M. H. Horstman, Imre W. K. Kouw, Jan-Willem Van Dijk, Henrike M. Hamer, Bart B. L. Groen, Janneau Van Kranenburg, Stefan H. M. Gorissen, Luc J. C. Van Loon Jan 2019

The Muscle Protein Synthetic Response To Whey Protein Ingestion Is Greater In Middle-Aged Women When Compared With Men [Accepted Manuscript], Astrid M. H. Horstman, Imre W. K. Kouw, Jan-Willem Van Dijk, Henrike M. Hamer, Bart B. L. Groen, Janneau Van Kranenburg, Stefan H. M. Gorissen, Luc J. C. Van Loon

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Rationale: Muscle mass maintenance is largely regulated by the postprandial rise in muscle protein synthesis rates. It remains unclear whether postprandial protein handling differs between women and men. Methods: Healthy men (43 ± 3 years; body mass index, 23.4 ± 0.4 kg/m2; n = 12) and women (46 ± 2 years; body mass index, 21.3 ± 0.5 kg/m2; n = 12) received primed continuous infusions of L-[ring-2H5]-phenylalanine and L-[ring-3,5-2H2]-tyrosine and ingested 25 g intrinsically L-[1-13C]-phenylalanine–labeled whey protein. Blood samples and muscle biopsies were collected to assess dietary protein digestion and amino acid ...


White Matter Organization In Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Pilot Study Exploring The Added Value Of Constrained Spherical Deconvolution, Christian Hyde, Ian Fuelscher, Peter G. Enticott, Derek K. Jones, Shawna Farquharson, Tim J. Silk, Jacqueline Williams, Karen Caeyenberghs Jan 2019

White Matter Organization In Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Pilot Study Exploring The Added Value Of Constrained Spherical Deconvolution, Christian Hyde, Ian Fuelscher, Peter G. Enticott, Derek K. Jones, Shawna Farquharson, Tim J. Silk, Jacqueline Williams, Karen Caeyenberghs

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Previous studies of white matter organization in sensorimotor tracts in developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have adopted diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a method unable to reconcile pathways with ‘crossing fibres’. In response to limitations of the commonly adopted DTI approach, the present study employed a framework that can reconcile the ‘crossing fibre’ problem (i.e., constrained spherical deconvolution- CSD) to characterize white matter tissue organization of sensorimotor tracts in young adults with DCD. Participants were 19 healthy adults aged 18–46: 7 met diagnostic criteria for DCD (4 females) and 12 were controls (3 females). All underwent high angular diffusion MRI ...


Envisioning Progress And Perils: Musings On The Future Of Motivation Research In A Rapidly Evolving World [Accepted Manuscript], Richard Ryan, Emma Bradshaw Jan 2019

Envisioning Progress And Perils: Musings On The Future Of Motivation Research In A Rapidly Evolving World [Accepted Manuscript], Richard Ryan, Emma Bradshaw

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

This final chapter reflects on the rich contributions within this Handbook of Human Motivation on diverse topics including self-regulation, biological mechanisms, awareness, defensiveness and oppression, and the facilitation of engagement, learning, and behavior change. These processes are examined within broad theoretical frameworks, as well as in specific domains such as close relationships, physical activity, work, education, and psychotherapy. Building on these contributions, the chapter projects forward in time to ask the question of whether future scientists and practitioners will think these authors from the early 21st century were asking the right questions. The chapter includes speculation on how developments in ...


Study Protocol: A Pilot Clinical Trial Of Topical Glyceryl Trinitrate For Chronic Venous Leg Ulcer Healing [Accepted Manuscript], Sandra Miles, Roger Lord, D. Williams, Paul Fulbrook Jan 2019

Study Protocol: A Pilot Clinical Trial Of Topical Glyceryl Trinitrate For Chronic Venous Leg Ulcer Healing [Accepted Manuscript], Sandra Miles, Roger Lord, D. Williams, Paul Fulbrook

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background Chronic venous leg ulcers (VLUs) are costly to the healthcare system and a burden to patients, significantly reducing quality of life. Nitric oxide (NO) is important to wound healing, with a small study demonstrating a NO donor, topical glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), was effective for VLU healing. The aim of this study is to examine the application of topical GTN in relation to VLU healing.
Methods A pilot double-blinded randomised controlled clinical trial will be undertaken. Participants in the control group (n=20) will receive a placebo ointment (ointment base) and participants in the treatment group (n=20) will receive ...


A Novel Method For Extracting Hierarchical Functional Subnetworks Based On A Multisubject Spectral Clustering Approach [Accepted Manuscript], Xiaoyun Liang, Chun-Hung Yeh, Alan Connelly, Fernando Calamante Jan 2019

A Novel Method For Extracting Hierarchical Functional Subnetworks Based On A Multisubject Spectral Clustering Approach [Accepted Manuscript], Xiaoyun Liang, Chun-Hung Yeh, Alan Connelly, Fernando Calamante

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Brain network modularity analysis has attracted increasing interest due to its capability in measuring the level of integration and segregation across subnetworks. Most studies have focused on extracting modules at a single level, although brain network modules are known to be organized in a hierarchical manner. A few techniques have been developed to extract hierarchical modularity in human functional brain networks using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data; however, the focus of those methods is binary networks produced by applying arbitrary thresholds of correlation coefficients to the connectivity matrices. In this study, we propose a new multisubject spectral clustering ...


Acute Effects Of Active Breaks During Prolonged Sitting On Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Gene Expression: An Ancillary Analysis Of A Randomised Controlled Trial, Megan S. Grace, Melissa F. Formosa, Kiymet Bozaoglu, Audrey Bergouignan, Marta Brozynska, Andrew L. Carey, Camilla Bertuzzo Veiga, Parneet Sethi, Francis Dillon, David A. Bertovic, Michael Inouye, Neville Owen, David W. Dunstan, Bronwyn A. Kingwell Jan 2019

Acute Effects Of Active Breaks During Prolonged Sitting On Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Gene Expression: An Ancillary Analysis Of A Randomised Controlled Trial, Megan S. Grace, Melissa F. Formosa, Kiymet Bozaoglu, Audrey Bergouignan, Marta Brozynska, Andrew L. Carey, Camilla Bertuzzo Veiga, Parneet Sethi, Francis Dillon, David A. Bertovic, Michael Inouye, Neville Owen, David W. Dunstan, Bronwyn A. Kingwell

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Active breaks in prolonged sitting has beneficial impacts on cardiometabolic risk biomarkers. The molecular mechanisms include regulation of skeletal muscle gene and protein expression controlling metabolic, inflammatory and cell development pathways. An active communication network exists between adipose and muscle tissue, but the effect of active breaks in prolonged sitting on adipose tissue have not been investigated. This study characterized the acute transcriptional events induced in adipose tissue by regular active breaks during prolonged sitting. We studied 8 overweight/obese adults participating in an acute randomized three-intervention crossover trial. Interventions were performed in the postprandial state and included: (i) prolonged ...


Amp-Activated Protein Kinase Complexes Containing The Beta2 Regulatory Subunit Are Up-Regulated During And Contribute To Adipogenesis, Omar J. Katwan, Fatmah Alghamdi, Tarek A. Almabrouk, Sarah J. Mancini, Simon Kennedy, Jonathan S. Oakhill, John W. Scott, Ian P. Salt Jan 2019

Amp-Activated Protein Kinase Complexes Containing The Beta2 Regulatory Subunit Are Up-Regulated During And Contribute To Adipogenesis, Omar J. Katwan, Fatmah Alghamdi, Tarek A. Almabrouk, Sarah J. Mancini, Simon Kennedy, Jonathan S. Oakhill, John W. Scott, Ian P. Salt

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a heterotrimer of α-catalytic and β- and γ-regulatory subunits that acts to regulate cellular and whole-body nutrient metabolism. The key role of AMPK in sensing energy status has led to significant interest in AMPK as a therapeutic target for dysfunctional metabolism in type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and obesity. Despite the actions of AMPK in the liver and skeletal muscle being extensively studied, the role of AMPK in adipose tissue and adipocytes remains less well characterised. Small molecules that selectively influence AMPK heterotrimers containing specific AMPKβ subunit isoforms have been developed, including MT47-100, which selectively ...


Differential Patterns Of Disease And Injury In Mozambique: New Perspectives From A Pragmatic, Multicenter, Surveillance Study Of 7809 Emergency Presentations, Ana O. Mocumbi, Bonifácio Cebola, Artur Muloliwa, Federico Sebastião, Samuel J. Sitefane, Naisa Manafe, Igor Dobe, Norberto Lumbandali, Kimberley Keates, Nerolie Stickland, Yih-Kai Chan, Simon Stewart Jan 2019

Differential Patterns Of Disease And Injury In Mozambique: New Perspectives From A Pragmatic, Multicenter, Surveillance Study Of 7809 Emergency Presentations, Ana O. Mocumbi, Bonifácio Cebola, Artur Muloliwa, Federico Sebastião, Samuel J. Sitefane, Naisa Manafe, Igor Dobe, Norberto Lumbandali, Kimberley Keates, Nerolie Stickland, Yih-Kai Chan, Simon Stewart

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background There is a paucity of primary data to understand the overall pattern of disease and injuries as well as related health-service utilization in resource-poor countries in Africa. Objective To generate reliable and robust data describing the pattern of emergency presentations attributable to communicable disease (CD), non-communicable disease (NCD) and injuries in three different regions of Mozambique. Methods We undertook a pragmatic, prospective, multicentre surveillance study of individuals (all ages) presenting to the emergency departments of three hospitals in Southern (Maputo), Central (Beira) and Northern (Nampula) Mozambique. During 24-hour surveillance in the seasonally distinct months of April and October 2016 ...


Dimensionality Reduction Of Diffusion Mri Measures For Improved Tractometry Of The Human Brain, Maxime Chamberland, Erika P. Raven, Sila Genc, Kate Duffy, Maxime Descoteaux, Greg D. Parker, Chantal M. W. Tax, Derek K. Jones Jan 2019

Dimensionality Reduction Of Diffusion Mri Measures For Improved Tractometry Of The Human Brain, Maxime Chamberland, Erika P. Raven, Sila Genc, Kate Duffy, Maxime Descoteaux, Greg D. Parker, Chantal M. W. Tax, Derek K. Jones

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Various diffusion MRI (dMRI) measures have been proposed for characterising tissue microstructure over the last 15 years. Despite the growing number of experiments using different dMRI measures in assessments of white matter, there has been limited work on: 1) examining their covariance along specific pathways; and on 2) combining these different measures to study tissue microstructure. Indeed, it quickly becomes intractable for existing analysis pipelines to process multiple measurements at each voxel and at each vertex forming a streamline, highlighting the need for new ways to visualise or analyse such high-dimensional data. In a sample of 36 typically developing children ...


Effect Of Abaloparatide On Vertebral,Nonvertebral, Major Osteoporotic And Clinical Fractures In A Subset Of Postmenopausal Women At Increased Risk Of Fracture By Frax Probability, Eugene V. Mccloskey, Lorraine Fitzpatrick, M.-Y. Hu, G. Williams, John A. Kanis Jan 2019

Effect Of Abaloparatide On Vertebral,Nonvertebral, Major Osteoporotic And Clinical Fractures In A Subset Of Postmenopausal Women At Increased Risk Of Fracture By Frax Probability, Eugene V. Mccloskey, Lorraine Fitzpatrick, M.-Y. Hu, G. Williams, John A. Kanis

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Summary We evaluated the efficacy of abaloparatide in women who were at increased risk for fracture, based on CHMP recommended risk thresholds, at the Abaloparatide Comparator Trial In Vertebral Endpoints (ACTIVE) study baseline. Among patients at high risk based on FRAX probabilities, 18 months of abaloparatide significantly decreased risk for all fracture endpoints compared with placebo. Purpose Abaloparatide, a novel anabolic agent for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, significantly reduced the risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures in the ACTIVE study compared with placebo. In this post hoc analysis, we evaluated abaloparatide’s efficacy in a subset of women in ...


Long-Term Outcomes After Bariatric Surgery: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis Of Weight Loss At 10 Or More Years For All Bariatric Procedures And A Single-Centre Review Of 20-Year Outcomes After Adjustable Gastric Banding, Paul E. O'Brien, Annemarie Hindle, Leah Brennan, Stewart Skinner, Paul Burton, Andrew Smith, Gary Crosthwaite, Wendy A. Brown Jan 2019

Long-Term Outcomes After Bariatric Surgery: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis Of Weight Loss At 10 Or More Years For All Bariatric Procedures And A Single-Centre Review Of 20-Year Outcomes After Adjustable Gastric Banding, Paul E. O'Brien, Annemarie Hindle, Leah Brennan, Stewart Skinner, Paul Burton, Andrew Smith, Gary Crosthwaite, Wendy A. Brown

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Introduction: Durability is a key requirement for the broad acceptance of bariatric surgery. We report on durability at and beyond 10 years with a systematic review and meta-analysis of all reports providing data at 10 or more years and a single-centre study of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) with 20 years of follow-up. Methods: Systematic review with meta-analysis was performed on all eligble reports containing 10 or more years of follow-up data on weight loss after bariatric surgery. In addition, a prospective cohort study of LAGB patients measuring weight loss and reoperation at up to 20 years is presented. Results ...


Natural Movement: A Space Syntax Theory Linking Urban Form And Function With Walking For Transport, Mohammad Javad Koohsari, Koichiro Oka, Neville Owen, Takemi Sugiyama Jan 2019

Natural Movement: A Space Syntax Theory Linking Urban Form And Function With Walking For Transport, Mohammad Javad Koohsari, Koichiro Oka, Neville Owen, Takemi Sugiyama

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Walking to get to and from local destinations including shops, services, and transit stops is a major source of adults’ health-related physical activity. Research has been using space syntax measures in examining how urban form is related to such routine walking for transport. This paper proposes to apply a theory of space syntax, natural movement, which posits street layout as a primary factor influencing pedestrian movement. Discussing how this theory can link urban form (street layout) and function (land use) with walking for transport, we propose a research agenda to produce new insights and advance methods in active living research.


Personal Assessment Of The External Exposome During Pregnancy And Childhood In Europe [Accepted Manuscript], David Donaire Gonzalez, Ariadna Curto, Antònia Valentin, Sandra Andrusaityte, Xavier Basagaña, Maribel Casas, Leda Chatzi, Jeroen De Bont, Montserrat De Castro, Audrius Dedele, Berit Granum, Regina Grazuleviciene, Mariza Kampouri, Sarah Lyon-Caen, Cyntia B. Manzano-Salgado, Gunn Marit Aasvang, Rosemary R. C. Mceachan, Carin Helena Meinhard-Kjellstad, Eirini Michalaki, Pau Pañella, Inga Petraviciene, Per E. Schwarze, Rémy Slama, Oliver Robinson, Ibon Tamayo-Uria, Marina Vafeiadi, Dagmar Waiblinger, John Wright, Martine Vrijheid Jan 2019

Personal Assessment Of The External Exposome During Pregnancy And Childhood In Europe [Accepted Manuscript], David Donaire Gonzalez, Ariadna Curto, Antònia Valentin, Sandra Andrusaityte, Xavier Basagaña, Maribel Casas, Leda Chatzi, Jeroen De Bont, Montserrat De Castro, Audrius Dedele, Berit Granum, Regina Grazuleviciene, Mariza Kampouri, Sarah Lyon-Caen, Cyntia B. Manzano-Salgado, Gunn Marit Aasvang, Rosemary R. C. Mceachan, Carin Helena Meinhard-Kjellstad, Eirini Michalaki, Pau Pañella, Inga Petraviciene, Per E. Schwarze, Rémy Slama, Oliver Robinson, Ibon Tamayo-Uria, Marina Vafeiadi, Dagmar Waiblinger, John Wright, Martine Vrijheid

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

The human exposome affects child development and health later in life, but its personal external levels, variability, and correlations are largely unknown. We characterized the personal external exposome of pregnant women and children in eight European cities. Panel studies included 167 pregnant women and 183 children (aged 6–11 years). A personal exposure monitoring kit composed of smartphone, accelerometer, ultraviolet (UV) dosimeter, and two air pollution monitors were used to monitor physical activity (PA), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon, traffic-related noise, UV-B radiation, and natural outdoor environments (NOE). 77% of women performed the adult recommendation of ≥150 min ...


Prognostic Implications Of Changes In Amino-Terminal Pro–B-Type Natriuretic Peptide In Acute Decompensated Heart Failure: Insights From Ascend-Hf [Accepted Manuscript], Justin L. Grodin, Max J. Liebo, Javed Butler, Marco Metra, G. Michael Felker, Adrian F. Hernandez, Adriaan A. Voors, John J. V. Mcmurray, Paul W. Armstrong, Christopher M. O'Connor, Randall C. Starling, Richard W. Troughton, W. H. Wilson Tang Jan 2019

Prognostic Implications Of Changes In Amino-Terminal Pro–B-Type Natriuretic Peptide In Acute Decompensated Heart Failure: Insights From Ascend-Hf [Accepted Manuscript], Justin L. Grodin, Max J. Liebo, Javed Butler, Marco Metra, G. Michael Felker, Adrian F. Hernandez, Adriaan A. Voors, John J. V. Mcmurray, Paul W. Armstrong, Christopher M. O'Connor, Randall C. Starling, Richard W. Troughton, W. H. Wilson Tang

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Amino-terminal pro–B-type natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) is closely associated with prognosis in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). As a result, there has been great interest measuring it during the course of treatment. The prognostic implications in both short-term and follow-up changes in NTproBNP need further clarification. Methods: Baseline, 48–72 hour, and 30-day NTproBNP levels were measured in 795 subjects in the ASCEND-HF trial. Multivariable logistic and Cox-proportional hazards models were used to test the association between static, relative, and absolute changes in NTproBNP with outcomes during and after ADHF. Results: The median NTproBNP at baseline was 5773 (2981 ...


Tumour-Specific And Organ-Specific Protein Synthesis Rates In Patients With Pancreatic Cancer, David P.J. Van Dijk, Astrid M. H. Horstman, Joey S. J. Smeets, Marcel Den Dulk, Heike I. Grabsch, Cornelis H. C. Dejong, Sander S. Rensen, Steven W. M. Olde Damink, Luc J. C. Van Loon Jan 2019

Tumour-Specific And Organ-Specific Protein Synthesis Rates In Patients With Pancreatic Cancer, David P.J. Van Dijk, Astrid M. H. Horstman, Joey S. J. Smeets, Marcel Den Dulk, Heike I. Grabsch, Cornelis H. C. Dejong, Sander S. Rensen, Steven W. M. Olde Damink, Luc J. C. Van Loon

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Living tissues maintain a fine balance between protein synthesis and protein breakdown rates. Animal studies indicate that protein synthesis rates are higher in organs when compared with skeletal muscle tissue. As such, organ and tumour protein synthesis could have major effects on whole‐body protein metabolism in wasting disorders such as cancer cachexia. We aimed to assess protein synthesis rates in pancreatic tumour tissue and healthy pancreas, liver, and skeletal muscle tissue in vivo in humans. Methods: In eight patients with pancreatic cancer undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy, primed continuous infusions with L‐[ring‐13C6]phenylalanine and L‐[3,5‐2H2]tyrosine ...


Alteration To Hippocampal Volume And Shape Confined To Cannabis Dependence: A Multi-Site Study [Accepted Manuscript], Yann Chye, Valentina Lorenzetti, Chao Suo, Albert Batalla, Janna Cousijn, Anna E. Goudriaan, Mark Jenkinson, Rocio Martin-Santos, Sarah Whittle, Murat Yücel, Nadia Solowij Jan 2019

Alteration To Hippocampal Volume And Shape Confined To Cannabis Dependence: A Multi-Site Study [Accepted Manuscript], Yann Chye, Valentina Lorenzetti, Chao Suo, Albert Batalla, Janna Cousijn, Anna E. Goudriaan, Mark Jenkinson, Rocio Martin-Santos, Sarah Whittle, Murat Yücel, Nadia Solowij

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Cannabis use is highly prevalent and often considered to be relatively harmless. Nonetheless, a subset of regular cannabis users may develop dependence, experiencing poorer quality of life and greater mental health problems relative to non‐dependent users. The neuroanatomy characterizing cannabis use versus dependence is poorly understood. We aimed to delineate the contributing role of cannabis use and dependence on morphology of the hippocampus, one of the most consistently altered brain regions in cannabis users, in a large multi‐site dataset aggregated across four research sites. We compared hippocampal volume and vertex‐level hippocampal shape differences (1) between 121 non ...


Controlled Ecological Evaluation Of An Implemented Exercise-Training Programme To Prevent Lower Limb Injuries In Sport: Population-Level Trends In Hospital-Treated Injuries, Caroline F. Finch, Shannon E. Gray, Muhammad Akram, Alex Donaldson, David G. Lloyd, Jill L. Cook Jan 2019

Controlled Ecological Evaluation Of An Implemented Exercise-Training Programme To Prevent Lower Limb Injuries In Sport: Population-Level Trends In Hospital-Treated Injuries, Caroline F. Finch, Shannon E. Gray, Muhammad Akram, Alex Donaldson, David G. Lloyd, Jill L. Cook

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objective: Exercise-training programmes have reduced lower limb injuries in trials, but their population-level effectiveness has not been reported in implementation trials. This study aimed to demonstrate that routinely collected hospital data can be used to evaluate population-level programme effectiveness. Method: A controlled ecological design was used to evaluate the effect of FootyFirst, an exercise-training programme, on the number of hospital-treated lower limb injuries sustained by males aged 16–50 years while participating in community-level Australian Football. FootyFirst was implemented with ‘support’ (FootyFirst+S) or ‘without support’ (FootyFirst+NS) in different geographic regions of Victoria, Australia: 22 clubs in region 1 ...


Dose-Response Association Between Physical Activity And Sedentary Time Categories On Ageing Biomarkers, Asier Mañas, Borja Del Pozo-Cruz, Irene Rodríguez-Gómez, Javier Leal-Martín, José Losa-Reyna, Leocadio Rodriguez Mañas, Francisco J. García-García, Ignacio Ara Jan 2019

Dose-Response Association Between Physical Activity And Sedentary Time Categories On Ageing Biomarkers, Asier Mañas, Borja Del Pozo-Cruz, Irene Rodríguez-Gómez, Javier Leal-Martín, José Losa-Reyna, Leocadio Rodriguez Mañas, Francisco J. García-García, Ignacio Ara

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Physical activity and sedentary behaviour have been suggested to independently affect a number of health outcomes. To what extent different combinations of physical activity and sedentary behaviour may influence physical function and frailty outcomes in older adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the combination of mutually exclusive categories of accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary time on physical function and frailty in older adults. Methods: 771 older adults (54% women; 76.8 ± 4.9 years) from the Toledo Study for Healthy Aging participated in this cross-sectional study. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured by ...


Pubertal Timing And Adult Fracture Risk In Men: A Population-Based Cohort Study, Liesbeth Vandenput, Jenny M. Kindblom, Maria Bygdell, Maria Nethander, Claes Ohlsson Jan 2019

Pubertal Timing And Adult Fracture Risk In Men: A Population-Based Cohort Study, Liesbeth Vandenput, Jenny M. Kindblom, Maria Bygdell, Maria Nethander, Claes Ohlsson

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Puberty is a critical period for bone mass accrual, and late puberty in boys is associated with reduced bone mass in adult men. The role of variations in pubertal timing within the normal range for adult fracture risk in men is, however, unknown. We, therefore, assessed the association between age at peak height velocity (PHV), an objective measure of pubertal timing, and fracture risk in adult men. Methods and findings: In the BMI Epidemiology Study Gothenburg, 31,971 Swedish men born between January 1, 1945, and December 31, 1961, with detailed growth data (height and weight) available from centrally ...


Energy Availability In Athletics: Health, Performance, And Physique, Anna K. Melin, Ida A. Heikura, Adam S. Tenforde, Margo Mountjoy Jan 2019

Energy Availability In Athletics: Health, Performance, And Physique, Anna K. Melin, Ida A. Heikura, Adam S. Tenforde, Margo Mountjoy

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

The reported prevalence of low energy availability (LEA) in female and male track and field athletes is between 18% and 58% with the highest prevalence among athletes in endurance and jump events. In male athletes, LEA may result in reduced testosterone levels and libido along with impaired training capacity. In female track and field athletes, functional hypothalamic amenorrhea as consequence of LEA has been reported among 60% of elite middle- and long-distance athletes and 23% among elite sprinters. Health concerns with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea include impaired bone health, elevated risk for bone stress injury, and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, LEA negatively ...


Environmental Burden Of Childhood Disease In Europe, David Rojas-Rueda, Martine Vrijheid, Oliver Robinson, Aasvang Gunn Marit, Regina Gražulevičienė, Remy Slama, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen Jan 2019

Environmental Burden Of Childhood Disease In Europe, David Rojas-Rueda, Martine Vrijheid, Oliver Robinson, Aasvang Gunn Marit, Regina Gražulevičienė, Remy Slama, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Environmental factors determine children’s health. Quantifying the health impacts related to environmental hazards for children is essential to prioritize interventions to improve health in Europe. Objective: This study aimed to assess the burden of childhood disease due to environmental risks across the European Union. Methods: We conducted an environmental burden of childhood disease assessment in the 28 countries of the EU (EU28) for seven environmental risk factors (particulate matter less than 10 micrometer of diameter (PM10) and less than 2.5 micrometer of diameter (PM2.5), ozone, secondhand smoke, dampness, lead, and formaldehyde). The primary outcome was disability-adjusted ...


Fat From Dairy Foods And 'Meat' Consumed Within Recommended Levels Is Associated With Favourable Serum Cholesterol Levels In Institutionalised Older Adults, Yusi Liu, Shirley Poon, Ego Seeman, David L. Hare, Minh Q. Bui, Sandra Iuliano Jan 2019

Fat From Dairy Foods And 'Meat' Consumed Within Recommended Levels Is Associated With Favourable Serum Cholesterol Levels In Institutionalised Older Adults, Yusi Liu, Shirley Poon, Ego Seeman, David L. Hare, Minh Q. Bui, Sandra Iuliano

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

CVD is common in older adults. Consumption of ‘meat’ (beef, pork, lamb, game, poultry, seafood, eggs) and dairy foods (milk, cheese, yoghurt) is encouraged in older adults as these foods provide protein and nutrients such as essential fatty acids, Ca, Fe, Zn and vitamins A, D and B12 required for healthy ageing. However, these foods also contain saturated fats considered detrimental to cardiovascular health. To determine the effect of their consumption on CVD risk we assessed associations between fat intake from ‘meat’ and dairy foods and serum cholesterol levels in 226 aged-care residents (mean age 85·5 years, 70 % female ...


Fornix White Matter Glia Damage Causes Hippocampal Gray Matter Damage During Age-Dependent Limbic Decline, Claudia Metzler-Baddeley, Jilu P. Mole, Rebecca Sims, Fabrizio Fasano, John Evans, Derek K. Jones, John P. Aggleton, Roland J. Baddeley Jan 2019

Fornix White Matter Glia Damage Causes Hippocampal Gray Matter Damage During Age-Dependent Limbic Decline, Claudia Metzler-Baddeley, Jilu P. Mole, Rebecca Sims, Fabrizio Fasano, John Evans, Derek K. Jones, John P. Aggleton, Roland J. Baddeley

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Aging leads to gray and white matter decline but their causation remains unclear. We explored two classes of models of age and dementia risk related brain changes. The first class of models emphasises the importance of gray matter: age and risk-related processes cause neurodegeneration and this causes damage in associated white matter tracts. The second class of models reverses the direction of causation: aging and risk factors cause white matter damage and this leads to gray matter damage. We compared these models with linear mediation analysis and quantitative MRI indices (from diffusion, quantitative magnetization transfer and relaxometry imaging) of tissue ...


Health Benefits Of Physical Activity Related To An Urban Riverside Regeneration, Cristina Vert, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Mireia Gascon, James Grellier, Lora E. Fleming, Mathew P. White, David Rojas-Rueda Jan 2019

Health Benefits Of Physical Activity Related To An Urban Riverside Regeneration, Cristina Vert, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Mireia Gascon, James Grellier, Lora E. Fleming, Mathew P. White, David Rojas-Rueda

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

The promotion of physical activity through better urban design is one pathway by which health and well-being improvements can be achieved. This study aimed to quantify health and health-related economic impacts associated with physical activity in an urban riverside park regeneration project in Barcelona, Spain. We used data from Barcelona local authorities and meta-analysis assessing physical activity and health outcomes to develop and apply the “Blue Active Tool”. We estimated park user health impacts in terms of all-cause mortality, morbidity (ischemic heart disease; ischemic stroke; type 2 diabetes; cancers of the colon and breast; and dementia), disability-adjusted life years (DALYs ...


Health Care Professionals’ Perceptions Of Home Telemonitoring In Heart Failure Care: Cross-Sectional Survey, Ina Thon Aamodt, Edita Lycholip, Jelena Celutkiene, Anna Strömberg, Dan Atar, Ragnhild Sørum Falk, Thomas G. Von Lueder, Ragnhild Hellesø, Tiny Jaarsma, Irene Lie Jan 2019

Health Care Professionals’ Perceptions Of Home Telemonitoring In Heart Failure Care: Cross-Sectional Survey, Ina Thon Aamodt, Edita Lycholip, Jelena Celutkiene, Anna Strömberg, Dan Atar, Ragnhild Sørum Falk, Thomas G. Von Lueder, Ragnhild Hellesø, Tiny Jaarsma, Irene Lie

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Noninvasive telemonitoring (TM) can be used in heart failure (HF) patients to perform early detection of decompensation at home, prevent unnecessary health care utilization, and decrease health care costs. However, the evidence is not sufficient to be part of HF guidelines for follow-up care, and we have no knowledge of how TM is used in the Nordic Baltic region. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe health care professionals’ (HCPs) perception of and presumed experience with noninvasive TM in daily HF patient care, perspectives of the relevance of and reasons for applying noninvasive TM, and barriers to ...


Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction: Comparison Of Patient Characteristics And Clinical Outcomes Within Asia And Between Asia, Europe And The Americas, Pooja Dewan, Pardeep S. Jhund, Li Shen, Mark C. Petrie, William T. Abraham, M. Atif Ali, Chen-Huan Chen, Akshay S. Desai, Kenneth Dickstein, Jun Huang, Songsak Kiatchoosakun, Kee-Sik Kim, Lars Køber, Wen-Ter Lai, Yuhua Liao, Ulrik M. Mogensen, Byung-Hee Oh, Milton Packer, Jean L. Rouleau, Victor C. Shi, Antonio S. Sibulo, Scott D. Solomon, Piyamitr Sritara, Karl Swedberg, Hiroyuki Tsutsui, Michael R. Zile, John J. V. Mcmurray Jan 2019

Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction: Comparison Of Patient Characteristics And Clinical Outcomes Within Asia And Between Asia, Europe And The Americas, Pooja Dewan, Pardeep S. Jhund, Li Shen, Mark C. Petrie, William T. Abraham, M. Atif Ali, Chen-Huan Chen, Akshay S. Desai, Kenneth Dickstein, Jun Huang, Songsak Kiatchoosakun, Kee-Sik Kim, Lars Køber, Wen-Ter Lai, Yuhua Liao, Ulrik M. Mogensen, Byung-Hee Oh, Milton Packer, Jean L. Rouleau, Victor C. Shi, Antonio S. Sibulo, Scott D. Solomon, Piyamitr Sritara, Karl Swedberg, Hiroyuki Tsutsui, Michael R. Zile, John J. V. Mcmurray

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Aims Nearly 60% of the world's population lives in Asia but little is known about the characteristics and outcomes of Asian patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) compared to other areas of the world. Methods and results We pooled two, large, global trials, with similar design, in 13 174 patients with HFrEF (patient distribution: China 833, India 1390, Japan 209, Korea 223, Philippines 223, Taiwan 199 and Thailand 95, Western Europe 3521, Eastern Europe 4758, North America 613, and Latin America 1110). Asian patients were younger (55.0–63.9 years) than in Western Europe (67 ...


Income Inequality And Outcomes In Heart Failure, Pooja Dewan, Rasmus Rørth, Pardeep S. Jhund, Joao Pedro Ferreira, Faiez Zannad, Li Shen, Lars Køber, William T. Abraham, Akshay S. Desai, Kenneth Dickstein, Milton Packer, Jean L. Rouleau, Scott D. Solomon, Karl Swedberg, Michael R. Zile, John J. V. Mcmurray Jan 2019

Income Inequality And Outcomes In Heart Failure, Pooja Dewan, Rasmus Rørth, Pardeep S. Jhund, Joao Pedro Ferreira, Faiez Zannad, Li Shen, Lars Køber, William T. Abraham, Akshay S. Desai, Kenneth Dickstein, Milton Packer, Jean L. Rouleau, Scott D. Solomon, Karl Swedberg, Michael R. Zile, John J. V. Mcmurray

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objectives This study examined the relationship between income inequality and heart failure outcomes. Background The income inequality hypothesis postulates that population health is influenced by income distribution within a society, with greater inequality associated with worse outcomes. Methods This study analyzed heart failure outcomes in 2 large trials conducted in 54 countries. Countries were divided by tertiles of Gini coefficients (where 0% represented absolute income equality and 100% represented absolute income inequality), and heart failure outcomes were adjusted for standard prognostic variables, country per capita income, education index, hospital bed density, and health worker density. Results Of the 15,126 ...


Lipotoxicity Plays A Key Role In The Development Of Both Insulin Resistance And Muscle Atrophy In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes, Ruth C. R. Meex, Ellen E. Blaak, Luc J. C. Van Loon Jan 2019

Lipotoxicity Plays A Key Role In The Development Of Both Insulin Resistance And Muscle Atrophy In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes, Ruth C. R. Meex, Ellen E. Blaak, Luc J. C. Van Loon

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Insulin resistance and muscle mass loss often coincide in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Most patients with type 2 diabetes are overweight, and it is well established that obesity and derangements in lipid metabolism play an important role in the development of insulin resistance in these individuals. Specifically, increased adipose tissue mass and dysfunctional adipose tissue lead to systemic lipid overflow and to low‐grade inflammation via altered secretion of adipokines and cytokines. Furthermore, an increased flux of fatty acids from the adipose tissue may contribute to increased fat storage in the liver and in skeletal muscle, resulting in an ...