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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

How Do Neighbourhood Definitions Influence The Associations Between Built Environment And Physical Activity?, Suzanne Mavoa, Nasser Bagheri, Mohammad Javad Koohsari, Andrew T. Kaczynski, Karen Elaine Lamb, Koichiro Oka, David O'Sullivan, Karen Witten Jan 2019

How Do Neighbourhood Definitions Influence The Associations Between Built Environment And Physical Activity?, Suzanne Mavoa, Nasser Bagheri, Mohammad Javad Koohsari, Andrew T. Kaczynski, Karen Elaine Lamb, Koichiro Oka, David O'Sullivan, Karen Witten

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Researchers investigating relationships between the neighbourhood environment and health first need to decide on the spatial extent of the neighbourhood they are interested in. This decision is an important and ongoing methodological challenge since different methods of defining and delineating neighbourhood boundaries can produce different results. This paper explores this issue in the context of a New Zealand-based study of the relationship between the built environment and multiple measures of physical activity. Geographic information systems were used to measure three built environment attributes—dwelling density, street connectivity, and neighbourhood destination accessibility—using seven different neighbourhood definitions (three administrative unit boundaries ...


Gait Characteristics And Falls In Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis [Accepted Manuscript], Mark W. Creaby, Michael H. Cole Dec 2018

Gait Characteristics And Falls In Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis [Accepted Manuscript], Mark W. Creaby, Michael H. Cole

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Introduction: Given the high rate of falls during walking in people with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD), identifying at risk individuals and developing targeted interventions to reduce falls incidence is paramount. Numerous studies have investigated gait-related risk factors for falls in PD, however findings are inconsistent across studies, and thus a synthesis of the current evidence is needed to guide clinical practice and the development of interventions to reduce falls risk. The objective of this study was to systematically review the literature regarding the association between walking biomechanics and falls in people with PD, and where possible, perform meta-analyses. Methods ...


The Association Between Dog Walking, Physical Activity And Owners' Perceptions Of Safety: Cross-Sectional Evidence From The Us And Australia, Hayley Christian, Lisa Wood, Andrea Nathan, Ichiro Kawachi, Stephen Houghton, Karen Martin, Sandra Mccune Jan 2016

The Association Between Dog Walking, Physical Activity And Owners' Perceptions Of Safety: Cross-Sectional Evidence From The Us And Australia, Hayley Christian, Lisa Wood, Andrea Nathan, Ichiro Kawachi, Stephen Houghton, Karen Martin, Sandra Mccune

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background We examined the relationship between dog walking and physical activity within and between four US cities and Australia and investigated if dog walking is associated with higher perceived safety in US and Australian cities. Methods Dog owners (n = 1113) in the Pet Connections Study completed a cross-sectional survey. Data were collected across four study sites; three in the US (San Diego, Nashville, Portland) and a fourth in Australia (Perth). Physical activity, local walking, dog walking, and individual and community perceptions of safety were analysed for dog walkers and non-dog walkers for each study site. Between-city comparisons were examined for ...


Gender And Age Differences In Walking For Transport And Recreation: Are The Relationships The Same In All Neighborhoods?, Fatima Ghani Gonzalo, Jerome Nikolaos Rachele, Simon Washington, Gavin Turrell Jan 2016

Gender And Age Differences In Walking For Transport And Recreation: Are The Relationships The Same In All Neighborhoods?, Fatima Ghani Gonzalo, Jerome Nikolaos Rachele, Simon Washington, Gavin Turrell

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Walking as regular physical activity (PA) is central to healthy aging, and environments influence walking. Multilevel neighborhood-based studies that only report average (fixed-effect) walking differences for gender and age implicitly assume that neighborhood environments influence the walking behavior of men and women, and younger and older persons, similarly. This study tests this assumption by examining whether gender and age differences in walking for transport (WfT) and walking for recreation (WfR) are similar or different across neighborhoods.


Associations Between The Neighbourhood Environment Characteristics And Physical Activity In Older Adults With Specific Types Of Chronic Conditions: The Alecs Cross-Sectional Study, Anthony Barnett, Ester Cerin, Casper J.P. Zhang, Cindy H.P. Sit, Janice M. Johnston, Martin C. Cheung, Ruby S.Y. Lee Jan 2016

Associations Between The Neighbourhood Environment Characteristics And Physical Activity In Older Adults With Specific Types Of Chronic Conditions: The Alecs Cross-Sectional Study, Anthony Barnett, Ester Cerin, Casper J.P. Zhang, Cindy H.P. Sit, Janice M. Johnston, Martin C. Cheung, Ruby S.Y. Lee

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Neighbourhood characteristics may influence physical activity (PA), which has positive effects on the health of older adults. Older adults with chronic conditions are less active and possibly more affected by environmental factors than their peers. Understanding neighbourhood characteristics associated with PA specific to older adults with chronic conditions is currently lacking. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the associations between the neighbourhood environment and various forms of PA in older adults with and without visual impairment, hearing impairment, musculoskeletal disease and/or genitourinary disease. Methods: Neighbourhood environment and PA data were collected in Hong Kong older adults (N = 909 ...


Walkability And Walking For Transport: Characterizing The Built Environment Using Space Syntax, Mohammad Javad Koohsari, Neville Owen, Ester Cerin, Billie Giles-Corti, Takemi Sugiyama Jan 2016

Walkability And Walking For Transport: Characterizing The Built Environment Using Space Syntax, Mohammad Javad Koohsari, Neville Owen, Ester Cerin, Billie Giles-Corti, Takemi Sugiyama

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Neighborhood walkability has been shown to be associated with walking behavior. However, the availability of geographical data necessary to construct it remains a limitation. Building on the concept of space syntax, we propose an alternative walkability index, space syntax walkability (SSW). This study examined associations of the full walkability index and SSW with walking for transport (WT). Methods: Data were collected in 2003–2004 from 2544 adults living in 154 Census Collection Districts (CCD) in Adelaide, Australia. Participants reported past week WT frequency. Full walkability (consisting of net residential density, intersection density, land use mix, and net retail area ...


Can Air Pollution Negate The Health Benefits Of Cycling And Walking?, Marko Tainio, Audrey J. De Nazelle, Thomas Götschi, Sonja Kahlmeier, David Rojas-Rueda, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Thiago Hérick De Sá, Paul Kelly, James Woodcock Jan 2016

Can Air Pollution Negate The Health Benefits Of Cycling And Walking?, Marko Tainio, Audrey J. De Nazelle, Thomas Götschi, Sonja Kahlmeier, David Rojas-Rueda, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Thiago Hérick De Sá, Paul Kelly, James Woodcock

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Active travel (cycling, walking) is beneficial for the health due to increased physical activity (PA). However, active travel may increase the intake of air pollution, leading to negative health consequences. We examined the risk–benefit balance between active travel related PA and exposure to air pollution across a range of air pollution and PA scenarios. The health effects of active travel and air pollution were estimated through changes in all-cause mortality for different levels of active travel and air pollution. Air pollution exposure was estimated through changes in background concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), ranging from 5 to ...


Compliance With Australian Stroke Guideline Recommendations For Outdoor Mobility And Transport Training By Post-Inpatient Rehabilitation Services: An Observational Cohort Study, Annie Mccluskey, Louise Ada, Patrick Kelly, Sandy Middleton, Stephen Goodall, Jeremy Grimshaw, Pip Logan, Mark Longworth, Aspasia Karageorge Jan 2015

Compliance With Australian Stroke Guideline Recommendations For Outdoor Mobility And Transport Training By Post-Inpatient Rehabilitation Services: An Observational Cohort Study, Annie Mccluskey, Louise Ada, Patrick Kelly, Sandy Middleton, Stephen Goodall, Jeremy Grimshaw, Pip Logan, Mark Longworth, Aspasia Karageorge

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background

Community participation is often restricted after stroke, due to reduced confidence and outdoor mobility. Australian clinical guidelines recommend that specific evidence-based interventions be delivered to target these restrictions, such as multiple escorted outdoor journeys. The aim of this study was to describe post-inpatient outdoor mobility and transport training delivered to stroke survivors in New South Wales, Australia and whether therapy differed according to type, sector or location of service provider.

Methods

Using an observational retrospective cohort study design, 24 rehabilitation service providers were audited. Provider types included outpatient (n = 8), day therapy (n = 9), home-based rehabilitation (n = 5) and ...


Instrumenting Gait Assessment Using The Kinect In People Living With Stroke : Reliability And Association With Balance Tests, Ross Clark, Stephanie Vernon, Benjamin Mentiplay, Kimberley Miller, Jennifer Mcginley, Yong Hao Pua, Kade Paterson, Kelly Bower Jan 2015

Instrumenting Gait Assessment Using The Kinect In People Living With Stroke : Reliability And Association With Balance Tests, Ross Clark, Stephanie Vernon, Benjamin Mentiplay, Kimberley Miller, Jennifer Mcginley, Yong Hao Pua, Kade Paterson, Kelly Bower

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: The Microsoft Kinect has been used previously to assess spatiotemporal aspects of gait; however the reliability of this system for the assessment of people following stroke has not been established. This study examined the reliability and additional information that the Kinect provides when instrumenting a gait assessment in people living with stroke. Methods: The spatiotemporal variables of step length, step length asymmetry, foot swing velocity, foot swing velocity asymmetry, peak and mean gait speed and the percentage difference between the peak and mean gait speed were assessed during gait trials in 30 outpatients more than three months post-stroke and ...


Physical Activity Through Sustainable Transport Approaches (Pasta): Protocol For A Multi-Centre, Longitudinal Study, Evi Dons, Thomas Götschi, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Audrey De Nazelle, Esther Anaya, Ione Avila-Palencia, Christian Brand, Tom Cole-Hunter, Mailin Gaupp-Berghausen, Sonja Kahlmeier, Michelle Laeremans, Natalie Mueller, Juan Pablo Orjuela, Elisabeth Raser, David Rojas-Rueda, Arnout Standaert, Erik Stigell, Tina Uhlmann, Regine Gerike, Luc Int Panis Jan 2015

Physical Activity Through Sustainable Transport Approaches (Pasta): Protocol For A Multi-Centre, Longitudinal Study, Evi Dons, Thomas Götschi, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Audrey De Nazelle, Esther Anaya, Ione Avila-Palencia, Christian Brand, Tom Cole-Hunter, Mailin Gaupp-Berghausen, Sonja Kahlmeier, Michelle Laeremans, Natalie Mueller, Juan Pablo Orjuela, Elisabeth Raser, David Rojas-Rueda, Arnout Standaert, Erik Stigell, Tina Uhlmann, Regine Gerike, Luc Int Panis

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Physical inactivity is one of the leading risk factors for non-communicable diseases, yet many are not sufficiently active. The Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches (PASTA) study aims to better understand active mobility (walking and cycling for transport solely or in combination with public transport) as an innovative approach to integrate physical activity into individuals’ everyday lives. The PASTA study will collect data of multiple cities in a longitudinal cohort design to study correlates of active mobility, its effect on overall physical activity, crash risk and exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Methods/Design: A set of online questionnaires incorporating ...


Engineering Online And In-Person Social Networks To Sustain Physical Activity: Application Of A Conceptual Model, Liza S. Rovniak, James F. Sallis, Jennifer L. Kraschnewski, Christopher N. Sciamanna, Elizabeth J. Kiser, Chester A. Ray, Vernon M. Chinchilli, Ding Ding, Stephen A. Matthews, Melissa Bopp, Daniel R. George, Melbourne F. Hovell Jan 2013

Engineering Online And In-Person Social Networks To Sustain Physical Activity: Application Of A Conceptual Model, Liza S. Rovniak, James F. Sallis, Jennifer L. Kraschnewski, Christopher N. Sciamanna, Elizabeth J. Kiser, Chester A. Ray, Vernon M. Chinchilli, Ding Ding, Stephen A. Matthews, Melissa Bopp, Daniel R. George, Melbourne F. Hovell

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: High rates of physical inactivity compromise the health status of populations globally. Social networks have been shown to influence physical activity (PA), but little is known about how best to engineer social networks to sustain PA. To improve procedures for building networks that shape PA as a normative behavior, there is a need for more specific hypotheses about how social variables influence PA. There is also a need to integrate concepts from network science with ecological concepts that often guide the design of in-person and electronically-mediated interventions. Therefore, this paper: (1) proposes a conceptual model that integrates principles from ...


People Living In Hilly Residential Areas In Metropolitan Perth Have Less Diabetes: Spurious Association Or Important Environmental Determinant?, Karen Villanueva, Matthew Knuiman, Mohammad Javad Koohsari, Sharyn Hickey, Sarah Foster, Hannah Badland, Andrea Grace Nathan, Fiona Bull, Billie Giles-Corti Jan 2013

People Living In Hilly Residential Areas In Metropolitan Perth Have Less Diabetes: Spurious Association Or Important Environmental Determinant?, Karen Villanueva, Matthew Knuiman, Mohammad Javad Koohsari, Sharyn Hickey, Sarah Foster, Hannah Badland, Andrea Grace Nathan, Fiona Bull, Billie Giles-Corti

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Variations in ‘slope’ (how steep or flat the ground is) may be good for health. As walking up hills is a physiologically vigorous physical activity and can contribute to weight control, greater neighbourhood slopes may provide a protective barrier to weight gain, and help prevent Type 2 diabetes onset. We explored whether living in ‘hilly’ neighbourhoods was associated with diabetes prevalence among the Australian adult population.


Access To Commercial Destinations Within The Neighbourhood And Walking Among Australian Older Adults, Andrea Grace Nathan, Gavin Pereira, Sarah Foster, Paula Hooper, Dick Saarloos, Billie Giles-Corti Jan 2012

Access To Commercial Destinations Within The Neighbourhood And Walking Among Australian Older Adults, Andrea Grace Nathan, Gavin Pereira, Sarah Foster, Paula Hooper, Dick Saarloos, Billie Giles-Corti

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background Physical activity, particularly walking, is greatly beneficial to health; yet a sizeable proportion of older adults are insufficiently active. The importance of built environment attributes for walking is known, but few studies of older adults have examined neighbourhood destinations and none have investigated access to specific, objectively-measured commercial destinations and walking. Methods We undertook a secondary analysis of data from the Western Australian state government’s health surveillance survey for those aged 65–84 years and living in the Perth metropolitan region from 2003–2009 (n = 2,918). Individual-level road network service areas were generated at 400 m and ...


Perceived Crime And Traffic Safety Is Related To Physical Activity Among Adults In Nigeria, Adewale L. Oyeyemi, Babatunde O. Adegoke, James F. Sallis, Adetoyeje Y. Oyeyemi, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij Jan 2012

Perceived Crime And Traffic Safety Is Related To Physical Activity Among Adults In Nigeria, Adewale L. Oyeyemi, Babatunde O. Adegoke, James F. Sallis, Adetoyeje Y. Oyeyemi, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Neighborhood safety is inconsistently related to physical activity, but is seldom studied in developing countries. This study examined associations between perceived neighborhood safety and physical activity among Nigerian adults. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, accelerometer-based physical activity (MVPA), reported walking, perceived crime and traffic safety were measured in 219 Nigerian adults. Logistic regression analysis was conducted, and the odds ratio for meeting health guidelines for MVPA and walking was calculated in relation to four safety variables, after adjustment for potential confounders. Results: Sufficient MVPA was related to more perception of safety from traffic to walk (OR=2.28, CI ...