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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Environmental, Health, Wellbeing, Social And Equity Effects Of Urban Green Space Interventions: A Meta-Narrative Evidence Synthesis, Ruth F. Hunter, C. Cleland, A. Cleary, Mariël Droomers, Benedict W. Wheeler, D. Sinnett, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, M. Braubach Jan 2019

Environmental, Health, Wellbeing, Social And Equity Effects Of Urban Green Space Interventions: A Meta-Narrative Evidence Synthesis, Ruth F. Hunter, C. Cleland, A. Cleary, Mariël Droomers, Benedict W. Wheeler, D. Sinnett, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, M. Braubach

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background As populations become increasingly urbanised, the preservation of urban green space (UGS) becomes paramount. UGS is not just dedicated recreational space such as public parks, but other types of informal green space are important, for example, street trees and roof gardens. Despite the potential from cross-sectional evidence, we know little about how to design new, or improve or promote existing UGS for health, wellbeing, social and environmental benefits, or known influencing factors such as physical activity. Objectives To perform a meta-narrative review of the evidence regarding the health, wellbeing, social, environmental and equity effects, or known influencing factors of ...


Systematic Literature Review Of Health Impact Assessments In Low And Middle-Income Countries, Meelan Thondoo, David Rojas-Rueda, Joyeeta Gupta, Daniel H. De Vries, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen Jan 2019

Systematic Literature Review Of Health Impact Assessments In Low And Middle-Income Countries, Meelan Thondoo, David Rojas-Rueda, Joyeeta Gupta, Daniel H. De Vries, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Health Impact Assessments (HIAs) motivate effective measures for safeguarding public health. There is consensus that HIAs in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) are lacking, but no study systematically focuses on those that have been successfully conducted across all regions of the world, nor do they highlight factors that may enable or hinder their implementation. Our objectives are to (1) systematically review, geographically map, and characterize HIA activity in LMICs; and (2) apply a process evaluation method to identify factors which are important to improve HIA implementation in LMICs. A systematic review of peer-reviewed HIAs in 156 LMICs was performed in ...


Effectiveness Of Programs To Promote Cardiovascular Health Of Indigenous Australians: A Systematic Review, Vainess Mbuzi, Paul Fulbrook, Melanie Jessup Jan 2018

Effectiveness Of Programs To Promote Cardiovascular Health Of Indigenous Australians: A Systematic Review, Vainess Mbuzi, Paul Fulbrook, Melanie Jessup

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background Indigenous Australians carry a greater burden of cardiovascular disease than other Australians. A variety of programs has been implemented with the broad aim of improving Indigenous cardiovascular health, however, relatively few have been evaluated rigorously. In terms of effectiveness, understanding how to best manage cardiovascular disease among this population is an important priority. The review aimed to examine the evidence relating to the effectiveness of cardiovascular programs for Indigenous Australians. Methods PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Scopus and Web of Science databases were systematically searched for relevant studies, limited to those published in English between 2008 and 2017. All studies that ...


A Systematic Review Of Children's Alcohol-Related Knowledge, Attitudes And Expectancies, Sandra C. Jones, Chloe S. Gordon Jan 2017

A Systematic Review Of Children's Alcohol-Related Knowledge, Attitudes And Expectancies, Sandra C. Jones, Chloe S. Gordon

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Understanding the nature of, and transitions in, young children's alcohol-related knowledge and attitudes is important to determining the age at which we should start educating children about alcohol and informing our understanding of the focus of such education. This paper aimed to explore current literature on the alcohol-related knowledge, beliefs, attitudes and expectancies of children aged 12 years and under. Electronic databases were searched for papers published from January 2000–August 2016. Further papers were identified by a manual review of reference lists, and contacting corresponding authors of included papers. Papers that reported on children's knowledge or beliefs ...


A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis Of The Effectiveness Of Antiseptics For Meatal Cleaning In The Prevention Of Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infections [Accepted Manuscript], Oyebola Fasugba, Jane Koerner, Brett G. Mitchell, Anne Gardner Jan 2017

A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis Of The Effectiveness Of Antiseptics For Meatal Cleaning In The Prevention Of Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infections [Accepted Manuscript], Oyebola Fasugba, Jane Koerner, Brett G. Mitchell, Anne Gardner

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are among the most common healthcare-associated infections. Antiseptic cleaning of the meatal area before and during catheter use may reduce the risk of CAUTIs.

Aim To undertake a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis of studies investigating the effectiveness of antiseptic cleaning before urinary catheter insertion and during catheter use for prevention of CAUTIs.

Methods Electronic databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and compared across intervention and control groups using DerSimonian–Laird random-effects model. Subgroup analyses were performed. Heterogeneity was ...


A Systematic Review Of Evidence For Fitness-To-Drive Among People With The Mental Health Conditions Of Schizophrenia, Stress/Anxiety Disorder, Depression, Personality Disorder And Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Carolyn A. Unsworth, Anne M. Baker, Man H. So, Priscilla Harries, Desmond O'Neill Jan 2017

A Systematic Review Of Evidence For Fitness-To-Drive Among People With The Mental Health Conditions Of Schizophrenia, Stress/Anxiety Disorder, Depression, Personality Disorder And Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Carolyn A. Unsworth, Anne M. Baker, Man H. So, Priscilla Harries, Desmond O'Neill

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Limited evidence exists regarding fitness-to-drive for people with the mental health conditions of schizophrenia, stress/anxiety disorder, depression, personality disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder (herein simply referred to as ‘mental health conditions’). The aim of this paper was to systematically search and classify all published studies regarding driving for this population, and then critically appraise papers addressing assessment of fitness-to-drive where the focus was not on the impact of medication on driving. Methods: A systematic search of three databases (CINAHL, PSYCHINFO, EMBASE) was completed from inception to May 2016 to identify all articles on driving and mental health conditions ...


Quality Of Life Outcomes Of Bariatric Surgery: A Systematic Review [Accepted Manuscript], Aleeya Hachem, Leah Brennan Feb 2016

Quality Of Life Outcomes Of Bariatric Surgery: A Systematic Review [Accepted Manuscript], Aleeya Hachem, Leah Brennan

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Bariatric surgery is often pursued to improve quality of life (QOL). This paper systematically reviews the literature examining QOL following bariatric surgery. Fifteen controlled trials examined changes in QOL in obese (BMI > 30) adults (18–65 years) following bariatric surgery; seven compared bariatric surgery to non-surgical interventions and six compared different types of bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery resulted in greater improvements in QOL than other obesity treatments. Significant differences in QOL improvements were found between different types of bariatric surgery. QOL improvements were more likely to occur within the first 2 years following surgery, with greater improvements in physical QOL ...


A Systematic Review And Narrative Summary Of Family-Based Smoking Cessation Interventions To Help Adults Quit Smoking, Gill Hubbard, Trish Gorley, Gozde Ozakinci, Rob Polson, Liz Forbat Jan 2016

A Systematic Review And Narrative Summary Of Family-Based Smoking Cessation Interventions To Help Adults Quit Smoking, Gill Hubbard, Trish Gorley, Gozde Ozakinci, Rob Polson, Liz Forbat

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Smoking is the most significant preventable cause of morbidity and early mortality in the world. The family is an influential context in which smoking behaviour occurs. Methods: A systematic review and narrative summary of family-based interventions to help adults quit smoking was conducted. Results: Eight controlled trials were included. Risk of bias was high. The smoking-related outcome of the intervention was self-reported smoking status/abstinence, validated by objective measures (including saliva thiocynate or breath carbon monoxide). Follow-up ranged from 6 weeks to 5 years. The main target groups were: pregnant women (1), pregnant women who smoked (2), men at ...


Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding (Lagb) Aftercare Attendance And Attrition [Accepted Manuscript], Lisa S. Hochberg, Kylie D. Murphy, Paul E. O'Brien, Leah Brennan Jan 2016

Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding (Lagb) Aftercare Attendance And Attrition [Accepted Manuscript], Lisa S. Hochberg, Kylie D. Murphy, Paul E. O'Brien, Leah Brennan

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Regular aftercare attendance following laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) is associated with greater weight loss and fewer post-surgical complications. Despite high reported rates of attrition from LAGB aftercare, the reasons for non-attendance have not been previously explored. The present study aimed to explore patient-reported barriers to LAGB aftercare attendance, and the perceived helpfulness of potential attrition-reducing strategies, in both regular attendees and non-attendees of aftercare. Methods: One hundred and seventy-nine participants (107 regular attendees and 72 non-attendees) completed a semi-structured questionnaire, assessing barriers to attrition (101 items) and usefulness of attrition prevention strategies (14 items). Results: Findings indicate that ...


Behavioural Tasks Sensitive To Acute Abstinence And Predictive Of Smoking Cessation Success: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Meryem Grabski, H. Valerie Curran, David J. Nutt, Stephen M. Husbands, Tom P. Freeman, Meg Fluharty, Marcus R. Munafò Jan 2016

Behavioural Tasks Sensitive To Acute Abstinence And Predictive Of Smoking Cessation Success: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Meryem Grabski, H. Valerie Curran, David J. Nutt, Stephen M. Husbands, Tom P. Freeman, Meg Fluharty, Marcus R. Munafò

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background and aims: Performance on cognitive tasks may be sensitive to acute smoking abstinence and may also predict whether quit attempts fail. Our aim was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify cognitive tasks sensitive to acute abstinence and predictive of smoking cessation success. Methods: Embase, Medline, PsycInfo and Web of Science were searched up to March 2016. Studies were included if they enrolled adults and assessed smoking using a quantitative measure. Studies were combined in a random effects meta-analysis. Results: We included 42 acute abstinence studies and 13 cessation studies. There was evidence for an effect of ...


A Systematic Review Of Real-World Diabetes Prevention Programs: Learnings From The Last 15 Years, Zahra Aziz, Pilvikki Absetz, John Oldroyd, Nicolaas P. Pronk, Brian Oldenburg Jan 2015

A Systematic Review Of Real-World Diabetes Prevention Programs: Learnings From The Last 15 Years, Zahra Aziz, Pilvikki Absetz, John Oldroyd, Nicolaas P. Pronk, Brian Oldenburg

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background The evidence base for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has progressed rapidly from efficacy trials to real-world translational studies and practical implementation trials over the last 15 years. However, evidence for the effective implementation and translation of diabetes programs and their population impact needs to be established in ways that are different from measuring program effectiveness. We report the findings of a systematic review that focuses on identifying the critical success factors for implementing diabetes prevention programs in real-world settings. Methods A systematic review of programs aimed at diabetes prevention was undertaken in order to evaluate ...


Breastfeeding And The Risk Of Dental Caries: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Rachel Tham, G. Bowatte, S. C. Dharmage, D. J. Tan, M. X.Z. Lau, Xiaochen Dai, K J. Allen, C. J. Lodge Jan 2015

Breastfeeding And The Risk Of Dental Caries: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Rachel Tham, G. Bowatte, S. C. Dharmage, D. J. Tan, M. X.Z. Lau, Xiaochen Dai, K J. Allen, C. J. Lodge

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Aim To synthesise the current evidence for the associations between breastfeeding and dental caries, with respect to specific windows of early childhood caries risk. Methods Systematic review, meta-analyses and narrative synthesis following searches of PubMed, CINAHL and EMBASE databases. Results Sixty-three papers included. Children exposed to longer versus shorter duration of breastfeeding up to age 12 months (more versus less breastfeeding), had a reduced risk of caries (OR 0.50; 95%CI 0.25, 0.99, I2 86.8%). Children breastfed > 12 months had an increased riskof caries when compared with children breastfed < 12 months (seven studies (OR 1.99; 1.35, 2.95, I2 69.3%). Amongst children breastfed > 12 months, those fed nocturnally or more ...


Breastfeeding And Asthma And Allergies: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Caroline J. Lodge, D. J. Tan, M. X. Z. Lau, Xiaochen Dai, Rachel Tham, Adrian J. Lowe, Gayan Bowatte, K. J. Allen, Shyamali Chandrika Dharmage Jan 2015

Breastfeeding And Asthma And Allergies: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Caroline J. Lodge, D. J. Tan, M. X. Z. Lau, Xiaochen Dai, Rachel Tham, Adrian J. Lowe, Gayan Bowatte, K. J. Allen, Shyamali Chandrika Dharmage

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Aim
To systematically review the association between breastfeeding and childhood allergic disease.
Methods
Predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria identified 89 articles from PubMed, CINAHL and EMBASE databases. Meta‐analyses performed for categories of breastfeeding and allergic outcomes. Meta‐regression explored heterogeneity.
Results
More vs. less breastfeeding (duration) was associated with reduced risk of asthma for children (5–18 years), particularly in medium‐/low‐income countries and with reduced risk of allergic rhinitis ≤5 years, but this estimate had high heterogeneity and low quality. Exclusive breastfeeding for 3–4 months was associated with reduced risk of eczema ≤2 years (estimate principally from ...


The Relationship Between Food Literacy And Dietary Intake In Adolescents: A Systematic Review, Rimante Vaitkeviciute, Lauren E. Ball, Neil Harris Jan 2015

The Relationship Between Food Literacy And Dietary Intake In Adolescents: A Systematic Review, Rimante Vaitkeviciute, Lauren E. Ball, Neil Harris

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objective
The aim of the present systematic review was to investigate the evidence on the association between food literacy and adolescents’ dietary intake.
Design
The review included searches of six databases with no restriction on the year of publication or language.
Setting
The studies eligible for review were from five countries/regions: USA (n 6), Europe (n 4), Australia (n 1), Middle East (n 1) and South Africa (n 1).
Subjects
Adolescents aged 10 to 19 years.
Results
Thirteen studies were eligible for inclusion. None of the studies investigated all aspects of food literacy. Eight studies reported a positive association ...


Risk Prediction In Patients With Heart Failure: A Systematic Review And Analysis, Kazem Rahimi, Derrick A. Bennett, Nathalie Conrad, Timothy M. Williams, Joyee Basu, Jeremy Dwight, Mark Woodward, Anushka Patel, John Mcmurray, Stephen Macmahon Jan 2014

Risk Prediction In Patients With Heart Failure: A Systematic Review And Analysis, Kazem Rahimi, Derrick A. Bennett, Nathalie Conrad, Timothy M. Williams, Joyee Basu, Jeremy Dwight, Mark Woodward, Anushka Patel, John Mcmurray, Stephen Macmahon

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objectives This study sought to review the literature for risk prediction models in patients with heart failure and to identify the most consistently reported independent predictors of risk across models. Background Risk assessment provides information about patient prognosis, guides decision making about the type and intensity of care, and enables better understanding of provider performance. Methods MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched from January 1995 to March 2013, followed by hand searches of the retrieved reference lists. Studies were eligible if they reported at least 1 multivariable model for risk prediction of death, hospitalization, or both in patients with heart failure ...