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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Special Environments: Altitude And Heat, Philo U. Saunders, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Robert F. Chapman, Julien D. Périard Jan 2019

Special Environments: Altitude And Heat, Philo U. Saunders, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Robert F. Chapman, Julien D. Périard

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

High-level athletes are always looking at ways to maximize training adaptations for competition performance, and using altered environmental conditions to achieve this outcome has become increasingly popular by elite athletes. Furthermore, a series of potential nutrition and hydration interventions may also optimize the adaptation to altered environments. Altitude training was first used to prepare for competition at altitude, and it still is today; however, more often now, elite athletes embark on a series of altitude training camps to try to improve sea-level performance. Similarly, the use of heat acclimation/acclimatization to optimize performance in hot/humid environmental conditions is a ...


Effect Of Concentric And Eccentric Hamstring Training On Sprint Recovery, Strength And Muscle Architecture In Inexperienced Athletes [Accepted Manuscript], Steven J. Duhig, Matthew N. Bourne, Robert L. Buhmann, Morgan Williams, Geoffrey M. Minett, Llion A. Roberts, Ryan Gregory Timmins, Casey Sims, Anthony J. Shield Jan 2019

Effect Of Concentric And Eccentric Hamstring Training On Sprint Recovery, Strength And Muscle Architecture In Inexperienced Athletes [Accepted Manuscript], Steven J. Duhig, Matthew N. Bourne, Robert L. Buhmann, Morgan Williams, Geoffrey M. Minett, Llion A. Roberts, Ryan Gregory Timmins, Casey Sims, Anthony J. Shield

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objectives

To investigate whether five-weeks of concentric (CON) or eccentric (ECC) hamstring strength training have different effects on recovery from sprint running, eccentric strength and architecture of the biceps femoris long head (BFLH).

Design

Cohort study.

Methods

Thirty males (age, 22.8 ± 4.1 y; height, 180.1 ± 6.4 cm; weight, 85.2 ± 14.6 kg) were allocated into either a CON or ECC group, both performing nine sessions of resistance training. Prior to and immediately after the five-week intervention, each participant’s BFLH fascicle length (FL), pennation angle (PA), muscle thickness (MT), peak isometric KF torque ...


Training Quantification And Periodization During Live High Train High At 2100 M In Elite Runners: An Observational Cohort Case Study, Avish P. Sharma, Philo U. Saunders, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Julien E. Périard, Brad Clark, Christopher J. Gore, Benjamin P. Raysmith, Jamie Stanley, Eileen Y. Robertson, Kevin G. Thompson Jan 2018

Training Quantification And Periodization During Live High Train High At 2100 M In Elite Runners: An Observational Cohort Case Study, Avish P. Sharma, Philo U. Saunders, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Julien E. Périard, Brad Clark, Christopher J. Gore, Benjamin P. Raysmith, Jamie Stanley, Eileen Y. Robertson, Kevin G. Thompson

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

The questionable efficacy of Live High Train High altitude training (LHTH) is compounded by minimal training quantification in many studies. We sought to quantify the training load (TL) periodization in a cohort of elite runners completing LHTH immediately prior to competition. Eight elite runners (6 males, 2 females) with a V̇O2peak of 70 ± 4 mL·kg-1·min-1 were monitored during 4 weeks of sea-level training, then 3-4 weeks LHTH in preparation for sea-level races following descent to sea-level. TL was calculated using the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) method, whereby duration of each training session was multiplied by ...


Repeated-Sprint Performance And Plasma Responses Following Beetroot Juice Supplementation Do Not Differ Between Recreational, Competitive And Elite Sprint Athletes, Kristin L. Jonvik, Jean Nyakayiru, Jan Willem Van Dijk, K. Maase, S. B. Ballak, Joan M. Senden, Luc Van Loon, Lex B. Verdijk Jan 2018

Repeated-Sprint Performance And Plasma Responses Following Beetroot Juice Supplementation Do Not Differ Between Recreational, Competitive And Elite Sprint Athletes, Kristin L. Jonvik, Jean Nyakayiru, Jan Willem Van Dijk, K. Maase, S. B. Ballak, Joan M. Senden, Luc Van Loon, Lex B. Verdijk

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Purpose:
There is an ongoing debate whether highly trained athletes are less responsive to the ergogenic properties of nitrate. We assessed the effects of nitrate supplementation on plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and repeated-sprint performance in recreational, competitive and elite sprint athletes.
Methods:
In a randomized double-blinded cross-over design, recreational cyclists (n = 20), national talent speed-skaters (n = 22) and Olympic-level track cyclists (n = 10) underwent two 6-day supplementation periods; 140 mL/d nitrate-rich (BR; ∼800 mg/d) and nitrate-depleted (PLA; ∼0.5 mg/d) beetroot juice. Blood samples were collected and three 30-s Wingate tests were performed.
Results:
Plasma nitrate ...


Ioc Consensus Statement: Dietary Supplements And The High-Performance Athlete0306, Ronald J. Maughan, Louise Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. E. Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc Van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard Budgett, Arne Ljunggvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis P. Pitsiladis, Torbjorn Soligard, Ugur Erdener, Lars Engebretsen Jan 2018

Ioc Consensus Statement: Dietary Supplements And The High-Performance Athlete0306, Ronald J. Maughan, Louise Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. E. Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc Van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard Budgett, Arne Ljunggvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis P. Pitsiladis, Torbjorn Soligard, Ugur Erdener, Lars Engebretsen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Nutrition usually makes a small but potentially valuable contribution to successful performance in elite athletes, and dietary supplements can make a minor contribution to this nutrition programme. Nonetheless, supplement use is widespread at all levels of sport. Products described as supplements target different issues, including (1) the management of micronutrient deficiencies, (2) supply of convenient forms of energy and macronutrients, and (3) provision of direct benefits to performance or (4) indirect benefits such as supporting intense training regimens. The appropriate use of some supplements can benefit the athlete, but others may harm the athlete's health, performance, and/or livelihood ...


Ketone Diester Ingestion Impairs Time-Trial Performance In Professional Cyclists, Jill J. Leckey, Megan L. Ross, Marc Quod, John A. Hawley, Louise M. Burke Jan 2017

Ketone Diester Ingestion Impairs Time-Trial Performance In Professional Cyclists, Jill J. Leckey, Megan L. Ross, Marc Quod, John A. Hawley, Louise M. Burke

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

We investigated the effect of pre- “race” ingestion of a 1,3-butanediol acetoacetate diester on blood ketone concentration, substrate metabolism and performance of a cycling time trial (TT) in professional cyclists. In a randomized cross-over design, 10 elite male cyclists completed a ~31 km laboratory-based TT on a cycling ergometer programmed to simulate the 2017 World Road Cycling Championships course. Cyclists consumed a standardized meal [2 g/kg body mass (BM) carbohydrate (CHO)] the evening prior to a trial day and a CHO breakfast (2 g/kg BM CHO) with 200 mg caffeine on the morning of a trial day ...


Social Networks And Expertise Development For Australian Breast Radiologists, Seyedamir T. Taba, Liaquat Hossain, Karen Willis, Sarah Lewis Jan 2017

Social Networks And Expertise Development For Australian Breast Radiologists, Seyedamir T. Taba, Liaquat Hossain, Karen Willis, Sarah Lewis

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: In this study, we explore the nexus between social networks and expertise development of Australian breast radiologists. Background literature has shown that a lack of appropriate social networks and interaction among certain professional group(s) may be an obstacle for knowledge acquisition, information flow and expertise sharing. To date there have not been any systematic studies investigating how social networks and expertise development are interconnected and whether this leads to improved performance for breast radiologists.


12-Year Television Viewing Time Trajectories And Physical Function In Older Adults [Accepted Manuscript], Natasha Reid, Genevieve N. Healy, Robin M. Daly, Peter Baker, Elizabeth G. Eakin, David Wayne Dunstan, Neville Owen, Paul A. Gardiner Jan 2017

12-Year Television Viewing Time Trajectories And Physical Function In Older Adults [Accepted Manuscript], Natasha Reid, Genevieve N. Healy, Robin M. Daly, Peter Baker, Elizabeth G. Eakin, David Wayne Dunstan, Neville Owen, Paul A. Gardiner

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to identify trajectories of older adults’ television viewing (TV) time over 12 years; and, to examine their associations with performance-based measures of physical function. Methods: Data on TV time (hours/week) and socio-demographic factors were collected at each assessment of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab) Study (1999/2000; 2004/2005; 2011/2012), with objective measures of physical function (2.44m timed-up-and-go [TUG, seconds] and knee extensor test [KES, kg]) collected at the final (2011/2012) assessment. Regression analyses examined predictors of trajectory membership and associations with TUG and KES in those ...


Mindfulness And Acceptance Approaches To Sporting Performance Enhancement: A Systematic Review [Accepted Manuscript], Michael Noetel, Joseph Ciarrochi, Brooke Van Zanden, Chris Lonsdale Jan 2017

Mindfulness And Acceptance Approaches To Sporting Performance Enhancement: A Systematic Review [Accepted Manuscript], Michael Noetel, Joseph Ciarrochi, Brooke Van Zanden, Chris Lonsdale

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background

Mindfulness and experiential acceptance approaches have been suggested as a method of promoting athletic performance by optimally managing the interplay among attention, cognition, and emotion. Our aim was to systematically review the evidence for these approaches in the sporting domain.

Methods

Studies of any design exploring mindfulness and acceptance in athletic populations were eligible for inclusion. We completed searches of PsycINFO, Scopus, MEDLINE, and SPORTDiscus in May, 2016. Two authors independently assessed risk of bias using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool, and we synthesised the evidence using the GRADE criteria.

Results

Sixty-six studies (n = 3,908) met inclusion ...


Influence Of Recovery Strategies Upon Performance And Perceptions Following Fatiguing Exercise: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Fiona Crowther, Rebecca Sealey, Melissa Crowe, Andrew Edwards, Shona Halson Jan 2017

Influence Of Recovery Strategies Upon Performance And Perceptions Following Fatiguing Exercise: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Fiona Crowther, Rebecca Sealey, Melissa Crowe, Andrew Edwards, Shona Halson

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Despite debate regarding their effectiveness, many different post-exercise recovery strategies are used by athletes. This study compared five post-exercise recovery strategies (cold water immersion, contrast water immersion, active recovery, a combined cold water immersion and active recovery and a control condition) to determine which is most effective for subsequent short-term performance and perceived recovery. Methods: Thirty-four recreationally active males undertook a simulated team-game fatiguing circuit followed by the above recovery strategies (randomized, 1 per week). Prior to the fatiguing exercise, and at 1, 24 and 48 h post-exercise, perceptual, flexibility and performance measures were assessed. Results: Contrast water immersion ...


Behavioural Tasks Sensitive To Acute Abstinence And Predictive Of Smoking Cessation Success: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Meryem Grabski, H. Valerie Curran, David J. Nutt, Stephen M. Husbands, Tom P. Freeman, Meg Fluharty, Marcus R. Munafò Jan 2016

Behavioural Tasks Sensitive To Acute Abstinence And Predictive Of Smoking Cessation Success: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Meryem Grabski, H. Valerie Curran, David J. Nutt, Stephen M. Husbands, Tom P. Freeman, Meg Fluharty, Marcus R. Munafò

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background and aims: Performance on cognitive tasks may be sensitive to acute smoking abstinence and may also predict whether quit attempts fail. Our aim was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify cognitive tasks sensitive to acute abstinence and predictive of smoking cessation success. Methods: Embase, Medline, PsycInfo and Web of Science were searched up to March 2016. Studies were included if they enrolled adults and assessed smoking using a quantitative measure. Studies were combined in a random effects meta-analysis. Results: We included 42 acute abstinence studies and 13 cessation studies. There was evidence for an effect of ...


Carbohydrate Dependence During Prolonged Simulated Cycling Time Trials [Accepted Manuscript], Samuel L. Torrens, José L. Areta, Evelyn B. Parr, John A. Hawley Jan 2016

Carbohydrate Dependence During Prolonged Simulated Cycling Time Trials [Accepted Manuscript], Samuel L. Torrens, José L. Areta, Evelyn B. Parr, John A. Hawley

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Purpose: We determined the effect of suppressing lipolysis via administration of Nicotinic acid (NA) and pre-exercise feeding on rates of whole-body substrate utilisation and cycling time trial (TT) performance.

Methods: In a randomised, single-blind, crossover design, eight trained male cyclists/triathletes completed two series of TTs in which they performed a predetermined amount of work calculated to last ~60, 90 and 120 min. TTs were undertaken after a standardised breakfast (2 g kg−1 BM of carbohydrate (CHO)) and ingestion of capsules containing either NA or placebo (PL).

Results: Plasma [free fatty acids] were suppressed with NA, but increased in ...