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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Long-Term Impacts Of Prenatal And Infant Exposure To Fine Particulate Matter On Wheezing And Asthma, Jingyi Shao, Amanda J. Wheeler, Graeme R. Zosky, Fay H. Johnston Jan 2019

Long-Term Impacts Of Prenatal And Infant Exposure To Fine Particulate Matter On Wheezing And Asthma, Jingyi Shao, Amanda J. Wheeler, Graeme R. Zosky, Fay H. Johnston

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: This systematic review aimed to summarize epidemiologic evidence regarding long-term effects of prenatal and infant particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 [micro]m (PM2.5) exposure on wheezing and asthma. Methods: Epidemiologic data investigating the associations between ambient PM2.5 exposures during prenatal or the first 2 years of life and wheezing or asthma throughout life were extracted from five databases. All included studies were assessed according to the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme checklists. We performed meta-analyses if >=2 studies estimated the effects of continuous PM2.5. Results: Nine of 18 eligible studies were suitable ...


The Structural Connectome In Traumatic Brain Injury: A Meta-Analysis Of Graph Metrics [Accepted Manuscript], Phoebe Imms, Adam Clemente, Mark Cook, Wendyl D'Souza, Peter H. Wilson, Derek K. Jones, Karen Caeyenberghs Jan 2019

The Structural Connectome In Traumatic Brain Injury: A Meta-Analysis Of Graph Metrics [Accepted Manuscript], Phoebe Imms, Adam Clemente, Mark Cook, Wendyl D'Souza, Peter H. Wilson, Derek K. Jones, Karen Caeyenberghs

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Although recent structural connectivity studies of traumatic brain injury (TBI) have used graph theory to evaluate alterations in global integration and functional segregation, pooled analysis is needed to examine the robust patterns of change in graph metrics across studies. Following a systematic search, 15 studies met the inclusion criteria for review. Of these, ten studies were included in a random-effects meta-analysis of global graph metrics, and subgroup analyses examined the confounding effects of severity and time since injury. The meta-analysis revealed significantly higher values of normalised clustering coefficient (gö=ö1.445, CI=[0.512, 2.378], pö=ö0.002) and ...


Long-Term Outcomes After Bariatric Surgery: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis Of Weight Loss At 10 Or More Years For All Bariatric Procedures And A Single-Centre Review Of 20-Year Outcomes After Adjustable Gastric Banding, Paul E. O'Brien, Annemarie Hindle, Leah Brennan, Stewart Skinner, Paul Burton, Andrew Smith, Gary Crosthwaite, Wendy A. Brown Jan 2019

Long-Term Outcomes After Bariatric Surgery: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis Of Weight Loss At 10 Or More Years For All Bariatric Procedures And A Single-Centre Review Of 20-Year Outcomes After Adjustable Gastric Banding, Paul E. O'Brien, Annemarie Hindle, Leah Brennan, Stewart Skinner, Paul Burton, Andrew Smith, Gary Crosthwaite, Wendy A. Brown

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Introduction: Durability is a key requirement for the broad acceptance of bariatric surgery. We report on durability at and beyond 10 years with a systematic review and meta-analysis of all reports providing data at 10 or more years and a single-centre study of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) with 20 years of follow-up. Methods: Systematic review with meta-analysis was performed on all eligble reports containing 10 or more years of follow-up data on weight loss after bariatric surgery. In addition, a prospective cohort study of LAGB patients measuring weight loss and reoperation at up to 20 years is presented. Results ...


Psychotherapy For Bulimia Nervosa On Symptoms Of Depression: A Meta-Analysis Of Randomized Controlled Trials [Accepted Manuscript], Jake Linardon, Tracey Wade, Xochitl De La Piedad Garcia, Leah Brennan Oct 2017

Psychotherapy For Bulimia Nervosa On Symptoms Of Depression: A Meta-Analysis Of Randomized Controlled Trials [Accepted Manuscript], Jake Linardon, Tracey Wade, Xochitl De La Piedad Garcia, Leah Brennan

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objective: Depressive symptoms are an important risk factor and consequence of binge eating and purging behavior in bulimia nervosa (BN). Although psychotherapy is effective in reducing symptoms of BN in the short- and long-term, it is unclear whether psychotherapy for BN is also effective in reducing depressive symptoms. This meta-analysis examined the efficacy of psychotherapy for BN on depressive symptoms in the short- and long-term. Method: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on BN that assessed depressive symptoms as an outcome were identified. Twenty-six RCTs were included. Results: Psychotherapy was more efficacious at reducing symptoms of depression at post-treatment (g = 0.47 ...


A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis Of The Effectiveness Of Antiseptics For Meatal Cleaning In The Prevention Of Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infections [Accepted Manuscript], Oyebola Fasugba, Jane Koerner, Brett G. Mitchell, Anne Gardner Jan 2017

A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis Of The Effectiveness Of Antiseptics For Meatal Cleaning In The Prevention Of Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infections [Accepted Manuscript], Oyebola Fasugba, Jane Koerner, Brett G. Mitchell, Anne Gardner

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are among the most common healthcare-associated infections. Antiseptic cleaning of the meatal area before and during catheter use may reduce the risk of CAUTIs.

Aim To undertake a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis of studies investigating the effectiveness of antiseptic cleaning before urinary catheter insertion and during catheter use for prevention of CAUTIs.

Methods Electronic databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and compared across intervention and control groups using DerSimonian–Laird random-effects model. Subgroup analyses were performed. Heterogeneity was ...


Prognostic Value Of Basal High-Sensitive Cardiac Troponin Levels On Mortality In The General Population, Noreen Van Der Linden, Lieke J. J. Klinkenberg, Otto Bekers, Luc Van Loon, Marja P. Van Dieijen-Visser, Maurice P. Zeegers, Steven J. R. Meex Jan 2016

Prognostic Value Of Basal High-Sensitive Cardiac Troponin Levels On Mortality In The General Population, Noreen Van Der Linden, Lieke J. J. Klinkenberg, Otto Bekers, Luc Van Loon, Marja P. Van Dieijen-Visser, Maurice P. Zeegers, Steven J. R. Meex

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Interest in the use of cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) has expanded from diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction to risk assessment for morbidity and mortality. Although cTnT and cTnI were shown to have equivalent diagnostic performance in the setting of suspected acute myocardial infarction, potential prognostic differences are largely unexplored. The aim of this study is to quantify and compare the relationship between cTnT and cTnI, and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in the general population. Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library (from inception through October 2016) were searched for prospective observational cohort studies reporting on the ...


Behavioural Tasks Sensitive To Acute Abstinence And Predictive Of Smoking Cessation Success: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Meryem Grabski, H. Valerie Curran, David J. Nutt, Stephen M. Husbands, Tom P. Freeman, Meg Fluharty, Marcus R. Munafò Jan 2016

Behavioural Tasks Sensitive To Acute Abstinence And Predictive Of Smoking Cessation Success: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Meryem Grabski, H. Valerie Curran, David J. Nutt, Stephen M. Husbands, Tom P. Freeman, Meg Fluharty, Marcus R. Munafò

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background and aims: Performance on cognitive tasks may be sensitive to acute smoking abstinence and may also predict whether quit attempts fail. Our aim was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify cognitive tasks sensitive to acute abstinence and predictive of smoking cessation success. Methods: Embase, Medline, PsycInfo and Web of Science were searched up to March 2016. Studies were included if they enrolled adults and assessed smoking using a quantitative measure. Studies were combined in a random effects meta-analysis. Results: We included 42 acute abstinence studies and 13 cessation studies. There was evidence for an effect of ...


Maternal Occupation During Pregnancy, Birth Weight, And Length Of Gestation: Combined Analysis Of 13 European Birth Cohorts, M. Casas, Sylvaine Cordier, David Martínez, Henrique Barros, Jens Peter Bonde, Alex Burdorf, Nathalie Costet, Ana Cristina Dos Santos, Asta Danileviciute, Merete Eggesbø, Mariana F. Fernandez, Joelle Fevotte, Ana M. García, Regina Gražulevičienė, Eva Hallner, Wojciech Hanke, Manolis Kogevinas, Inger Kull, Pernille Stemann Larsen, Vasiliki Melaki, Christine Monfort, Karl-Christian Nordby, Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen, Evridiki Patelarou, Kinga Polanska, Lorenzo Richiardi, Loreto Santa Marina, Claudia Snijder, Adonina Tardón, M. Van Eijsden, T. G. M. Vrijkotte, D. Zugna, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, M. Vrijheid Jan 2015

Maternal Occupation During Pregnancy, Birth Weight, And Length Of Gestation: Combined Analysis Of 13 European Birth Cohorts, M. Casas, Sylvaine Cordier, David Martínez, Henrique Barros, Jens Peter Bonde, Alex Burdorf, Nathalie Costet, Ana Cristina Dos Santos, Asta Danileviciute, Merete Eggesbø, Mariana F. Fernandez, Joelle Fevotte, Ana M. García, Regina Gražulevičienė, Eva Hallner, Wojciech Hanke, Manolis Kogevinas, Inger Kull, Pernille Stemann Larsen, Vasiliki Melaki, Christine Monfort, Karl-Christian Nordby, Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen, Evridiki Patelarou, Kinga Polanska, Lorenzo Richiardi, Loreto Santa Marina, Claudia Snijder, Adonina Tardón, M. Van Eijsden, T. G. M. Vrijkotte, D. Zugna, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, M. Vrijheid

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objectives: We assessed whether maternal employment during pregnancy – overall and in selected occupational sectors – is associated with birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA), term low birth weight (LBW), length of gestation, and preterm delivery in a population-based birth cohort design. Methods: We used data from > 200 000 mother-child pairs enrolled in 13 European birth cohorts and compared employed versus non-employed women. Among employees, we defined groups of occupations representing the main sectors of employment for women where potential reproductive hazards are considered to be present. The comparison group comprised all other employed women not included in the occupational sector ...


Breastfeeding And The Risk Of Dental Caries: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Rachel Tham, G. Bowatte, S. C. Dharmage, D. J. Tan, M. X.Z. Lau, Xiaochen Dai, K J. Allen, C. J. Lodge Jan 2015

Breastfeeding And The Risk Of Dental Caries: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Rachel Tham, G. Bowatte, S. C. Dharmage, D. J. Tan, M. X.Z. Lau, Xiaochen Dai, K J. Allen, C. J. Lodge

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Aim To synthesise the current evidence for the associations between breastfeeding and dental caries, with respect to specific windows of early childhood caries risk. Methods Systematic review, meta-analyses and narrative synthesis following searches of PubMed, CINAHL and EMBASE databases. Results Sixty-three papers included. Children exposed to longer versus shorter duration of breastfeeding up to age 12 months (more versus less breastfeeding), had a reduced risk of caries (OR 0.50; 95%CI 0.25, 0.99, I2 86.8%). Children breastfed > 12 months had an increased riskof caries when compared with children breastfed < 12 months (seven studies (OR 1.99; 1.35, 2.95, I2 69.3%). Amongst children breastfed > 12 months, those fed nocturnally or more ...


The Effect Of Statin Therapy On Heart Failure Events: A Collaborative Meta-Analysis Of Unpublished Data From Major Randomized Trials, David Preiss, Ross T. Campbell, Heather M. Murray, Ian Ford, Chris J. Packard, Naveed Sattar, Kazem Rahimi, Helen M. Colhoun, David D. Waters, John C. Larosa, Pierre Amarenco, Terje R. Pedersen, Matti J. Tikkanen, Michael J. Koren, Neil R. Poulter, Peter S. Sever, Paul M. Ridker, Jean G. Macfadyen, Scott D. Solomon, Barry R. Davis, Lara M. Simpson, Haruo Nakamura, Kyoichi Mizuno, Rosa M. Marfisi, Roberto Marchioli, Gianni Tognoni, Vasilios G. Athyros, Kausik K. Ray, Antonio M. Gotto, Michael B. Clearfield, John R. Downs, John J. V. Mcmurray Jan 2015

The Effect Of Statin Therapy On Heart Failure Events: A Collaborative Meta-Analysis Of Unpublished Data From Major Randomized Trials, David Preiss, Ross T. Campbell, Heather M. Murray, Ian Ford, Chris J. Packard, Naveed Sattar, Kazem Rahimi, Helen M. Colhoun, David D. Waters, John C. Larosa, Pierre Amarenco, Terje R. Pedersen, Matti J. Tikkanen, Michael J. Koren, Neil R. Poulter, Peter S. Sever, Paul M. Ridker, Jean G. Macfadyen, Scott D. Solomon, Barry R. Davis, Lara M. Simpson, Haruo Nakamura, Kyoichi Mizuno, Rosa M. Marfisi, Roberto Marchioli, Gianni Tognoni, Vasilios G. Athyros, Kausik K. Ray, Antonio M. Gotto, Michael B. Clearfield, John R. Downs, John J. V. Mcmurray

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Aims: The effect of statins on risk of heart failure (HF) hospitalization and HF death remains uncertain. We aimed to establish whether statins reduce major HF events. Methods and results: We searched Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomized controlled endpoint statin trials from 1994 to 2014. Collaborating trialists provided unpublished data from adverse event reports. We included primary- and secondary-prevention statin trials with > 1000 participants followed for > 1 year. Outcomes consisted of first non-fatal HF hospitalization, HF death and a composite of first non-fatal HF hospitalization or HF death. HF events occurring < 30 days after within-trial myocardial infarction (MI) were excluded. We calculated risk ratios (RR) with fixed-effects meta-analyses. In up to 17 trials with 132 538 participants conducted over 4.3 [weighted standard deviation (SD) 1.4] years, statin therapy reduced LDL-cholesterol by 0.97 mmol/L (weighted SD 0.38 mmol/L). Statins reduced the numbers of patients experiencing non-fatal HF hospitalization (1344/66 238 vs. 1498/66 330; RR 0.90, 95% confidence interval, CI 0.84–0.97) and the composite HF outcome (1234/57 734 vs. 1344/57 836; RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.85–0.99) but not HF death (213/57 734 vs. 220/57 836; RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.80–1.17). The effect of statins on first non-fatal HF hospitalization was similar whether this was preceded by MI (RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.68–1.11) or not (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.84–0.98). Conclusion: In primary- and secondary-prevention trials, statins modestly reduced the risks of non-fatal HF hospitalization and a composite of non-fatal HF hospitalization and HF death with no demonstrable difference in risk reduction between those who suffered an MI or not.


Associations Between Particulate Matter Elements And Early-Life Pneumonia In Seven Birth Cohorts: Results From The Escape And Transphorm Projects, Elaine Fuertes, Elaina A. Macintyre, Raymond M. Agius, Rob Beelen, Bert Brunekreef, Simone Bucci, Giulia Cesaroni, Marta Cirach, Josef Cyrys, Francesco Forastiere, Ulrike Gehring, Olena Gruzieva, Barbara Hoffmann, Aleksandra Jedynska, Menno Keuken, Claudia Klümper, Ingeborg M. Kooter, Michal Korek, Ursula Krämer, Anna Mölter, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Göran Pershagen, Daniela Porta, Dirkje S. Postma, Angela Simpson, Henriette A. Smit, Dorothea Sugiri, Jordi Sunyer, Meng Wang, Joachim Heinrich Jan 2014

Associations Between Particulate Matter Elements And Early-Life Pneumonia In Seven Birth Cohorts: Results From The Escape And Transphorm Projects, Elaine Fuertes, Elaina A. Macintyre, Raymond M. Agius, Rob Beelen, Bert Brunekreef, Simone Bucci, Giulia Cesaroni, Marta Cirach, Josef Cyrys, Francesco Forastiere, Ulrike Gehring, Olena Gruzieva, Barbara Hoffmann, Aleksandra Jedynska, Menno Keuken, Claudia Klümper, Ingeborg M. Kooter, Michal Korek, Ursula Krämer, Anna Mölter, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Göran Pershagen, Daniela Porta, Dirkje S. Postma, Angela Simpson, Henriette A. Smit, Dorothea Sugiri, Jordi Sunyer, Meng Wang, Joachim Heinrich

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Evidence for a role of long-term particulate matter exposure on acute respiratory infections is growing. However, which components of particulate matter may be causative remains largely unknown. We assessed associations between eight particulate matter elements and early-life pneumonia in seven birth cohort studies (Ntotal = 15,980): BAMSE (Sweden), GASPII (Italy), GINIplus and LISAplus (Germany), INMA (Spain), MAAS (United Kingdom) and PIAMA (The Netherlands). Annual average exposure to copper, iron, potassium, nickel, sulfur, silicon, vanadium and zinc, each respectively derived from particles with aerodynamic diameters ≤ 10 μm (PM10) and 2.5 μm (PM2.5), were estimated using standardized land use regression ...


Environmental Risk Factors Of Pregnancy Outcomes: A Summary Of Recent Meta-Analyses Of Epidemiological Studies., Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Payam Dadvand, James Grellier, David Martínez, Martine Vrijheid Jan 2013

Environmental Risk Factors Of Pregnancy Outcomes: A Summary Of Recent Meta-Analyses Of Epidemiological Studies., Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Payam Dadvand, James Grellier, David Martínez, Martine Vrijheid

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background Various epidemiological studies have suggested associations between environmental exposures and pregnancy outcomes. Some studies have tempted to combine information from various epidemiological studies using meta-analysis. We aimed to describe the methodologies used in these recent meta-analyses of environmental exposures and pregnancy outcomes. Furthermore, we aimed to report their main findings. Methods We conducted a bibliographic search with relevant search terms. We obtained and evaluated 16 recent meta-analyses. Results The number of studies included in each reported meta-analysis varied greatly, with the largest number of studies available for environmental tobacco smoke. Only a small number of the studies reported having ...


Maternal Exposure To Particulate Air Pollution And Term Birth Weight: A Multi-Country Evaluation Of Effect And Heterogeneity, Payam Dadvand, Jennifer Parker, Michelle L. Bell, Matteo Bonzini, Michael Brauer, Lyndsey A. Darrow, Ulrike Gehring, Svetlana V. Glinianaia, Nelson Gouveia, Eun-Hee Ha, Jong Han Leem, Edith H. Van Den Hooven, Bin Jalaludin, Bill M. Jesdale, Johanna Lepeule, Rachel Morello-Frosch, Geoffrey G. Morgan, Angela Cecilia Pesatori, Frank H. Pierik, Tanja Pless-Mulloli, David Q. Rich, Sheela Sathyanarayana, Juhee Seo, Rémy Slama, Matthew Strickland, Lillian Tamburic, Daniel Wartenberg, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Tracey J. Woodruff Jan 2013

Maternal Exposure To Particulate Air Pollution And Term Birth Weight: A Multi-Country Evaluation Of Effect And Heterogeneity, Payam Dadvand, Jennifer Parker, Michelle L. Bell, Matteo Bonzini, Michael Brauer, Lyndsey A. Darrow, Ulrike Gehring, Svetlana V. Glinianaia, Nelson Gouveia, Eun-Hee Ha, Jong Han Leem, Edith H. Van Den Hooven, Bin Jalaludin, Bill M. Jesdale, Johanna Lepeule, Rachel Morello-Frosch, Geoffrey G. Morgan, Angela Cecilia Pesatori, Frank H. Pierik, Tanja Pless-Mulloli, David Q. Rich, Sheela Sathyanarayana, Juhee Seo, Rémy Slama, Matthew Strickland, Lillian Tamburic, Daniel Wartenberg, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Tracey J. Woodruff

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: A growing body of evidence has associated maternal exposure to air pollution with adverse effects on fetal growth; however, the existing literature is inconsistent. Objectives: We aimed to quantify the association between maternal exposure to particulate air pollution and term birth weight and low birth weight (LBW) across 14 centers from 9 countries, and to explore the influence of site characteristics and exposure assessment methods on between-center heterogeneity in this association. Methods: Using a common analytical protocol, International Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes (ICAPPO) centers generated effect estimates for term LBW and continuous birth weight associated with ...